43532 Chapters
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Medium 9781626569072

17. Reframing Ownership As plural and common alongside public and private

Mintzberg, Henry Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

As plural and common alongside public and private

Society’s great debate for more than a century, about the influence of private sector markets versus public sector controls, is front and center in health care. Should it be left to Adam Smith’s invisible hand, whereby parties that negotiate at arm’s length supposedly serve the public by serving themselves, or should the visible hand of authorities intervene through regulations, cost controls, and performance measures? Health care certainly needs institutional controls and market forces, but it does not need domination by either.

As described earlier, while professionals coordinate largely through their standardized skills and knowledge, two other coordinating mechanisms are required for the necessary collaboration. These were labeled “mutual adjustment” and the “standardization of norms,” one to encourage informal communication, the other to bond people in common cause. While both can be found in private and public sector institutions, they thrive in the more egalitarian institutions of the plural sector, where ownership is often common—in a sense, the property of everyone in a community. This is why we find so many of the renowned hospitals in the plural sector. Once we understand this, we can appreciate how much more common common ownership should be in health care.

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Medium 9780253014429

5 American Foundations in Twentieth-Century China

Jennifer Ryan Indiana University Press ePub

Zi Zhongyun and Mary Brown Bullock

AMERICAN FOUNDATIONS HAVE played a frequently constructive role in China, maintaining cross-cultural engagement amid the political and social upheavals of China’s twentieth century and supporting the quest for modernization and reform. This engagement has significantly though by no means exclusively focused on philanthropy for health, with organizations such as the Rockefeller Foundation (RF) and the China Medical Board (CMB) meaningfully contributing to the spread of scientific medicine and the improvement of public health. As this paper will show, the history of American foundations’ work in China during the twentieth century holds lessons for the twenty-first: as China emerges as a world power, striving to make its ongoing development sustainable and to grow its own philanthropic institutions, American foundations’ successes and setbacks reveal the ability of philanthropic partnerships to transcend international differences and to make both China and the world a better, healthier place.

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Medium 9780253003263

12 Where to Cut: Boucherie and Delikatessen

John Llewelyn Indiana University Press ePub

Referring in The Animal That Therefore I Am to The Middle Voice of Ecological Conscience, Derrida says that he wishes to recommend the latter book especially because, sharing the author’s concern, he will perhaps proceed a little differently.1 My concern in that book and particularly in chapter 8 of this one is to raise consciousness. It is to raise consciousness, where it seems to me to need raising, to conscience, and to raise conscience, where it seems to me to need raising, to responsibility. By responsibility I mean ethical responsibility in a sense I take to be the sense proposed by Levinas, except that I wish to persuade my reader that such responsibility is a response not only to other human beings. It is called for also, I argue in that book and in chapters of the second part of this one, by beings that, in one common sense of the word, cannot call, beings that, perhaps in Heidegger’s sense of the phrase or in a sense he would like to have given it, do not have the word or are not possessed of or by it: nonhuman sentient beings, even nonsentient beings. My concern is to bring out for those who, like Levinas,2 are in any doubt, that such beings directly concern us ethically. Ils nous regardent. They are our concern ethically and directly, not, say, merely because concern for the welfare of animals is prudent in so far as they may be of benefit to humans, or for the reason given by Aquinas and Kant that an unthinking attitude toward animals is liable to induce an unthinking attitude toward human beings.

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Medium 9781945349584

Chapter 5

Watanabe-Crockett, Lee Solution Tree Press PDF

chapter

5

Information Fluency for

Research Skills

F

or students, it’s critical to understand how to conduct research in the digital age. Let’s begin this chapter with a little pop quiz. When was the last time you:

Visited a library? Used a card catalog? Bought and read a newspaper? Used microfiche?

Consulted an encyclopedia?

For much of the 20th century, before the internet ushered in the information age and changed everything, these tools were society’s primary modes of conducting research.

If you came of age in that century, try to recall how life was before the World Wide

Web entered the public domain on April 30, 1993 (“World Wide Web,” n.d.). Think about how you used to search for information. How much has changed since that time? Even more important, how will things continue to change, and how will those changes continue to affect the skills modern students need to conduct research and keep themselves informed?

Our instantaneous mobile access to practically anything we wish to know has transformed the way we do business, the ways in which we communicate, and how we think about and use information. It has helped us unleash our personal creativity and self-expression with abandon. It has also completely changed our traditional notions of how learning can happen. What makes this kind of learning possible is the sheer volume of global information people produce and place online. The consequence of this is that modern learners must possess a whole new set of research and analysis skills to succeed in the professional world.

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Medium 9780991374816

Part II: Instructing and Awakening the Learner

Scott, Darrell, Marzano, Robert J. Marzano Research ePub

The teacher who is indeed wise does not bid you to enter the house of his wisdom but rather leads you to the threshold of your mind.

—Khalil Gibran

In chapters 1–7, Darrell has provided a case for an approach to schooling that awakens the learner. It is a compelling case, as articulated by Darrell, with equal measures of heart and mind. Whether one looks at the historical evidence provided by Friedrich Froebel, Johann Pestalozzi, and Elizabeth Peabody, the current evidence provided by educators like Erin Gruwell, or the continuing evidence of fundamental changes in students, teachers, and administrators generated by Rachel’s Challenge, the conclusion is inevitable—schools have the potential and power to awaken the learner. In this chapter and those following, I will place the message of Darrell’s preceding chapters in the context of current research and theory in psychology, teaching, and schooling. Virtually all of Darrell’s recommendations are supported by that research and theory.

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Medium 9781628871906

8 FESTIVALS & NIGHTLIFE IN MONTRÉAL

Matthew Barber FrommerMedia ePub

8

Festivals & Nightlife in Montréal

From the esteemed annual summer jazz fest to the winter Fête des Neiges, Montréal’s festivals and nightlife pull locals and visitors out of their private spaces and into the streets, public squares, concert halls, nightclubs, and restaurant terraces of the city. Snow is no deterrent, with arctic temperatures merely a barometer for how many layers to wear. It’s a city where people come together to celebrate life and the seasons with gusto. The city boasts an outstanding symphony, dozens of French- and English-language theater companies, an events calendar with over 100 festivals, and the incomparable Cirque du Soleil.

Montréal is planning big celebrations in 2017 for its 375th birthday, so in addition to what’s listed in this chapter, visit www.375mtl.com for up-to-date information about one-time-events.

Montréal’s reputation for effervescent nightlife reaches back to the Roaring Twenties—specifically, to the 13-year period of Prohibition in the U.S. from 1920 to 1933. Americans streamed into Montréal for relief from alcohol deprivation (while Canadian distillers and brewers made fortunes). Montréal already enjoyed a sophisticated and slightly naughty reputation as the Paris of North America, which added to the allure.

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Medium 9781780642789

Rice (Oryza sativa Linn.)

Kumar, P.; Sharma, M.K. CAB International PDF

RICE (Oryza sativa Linn.)

NITROGEN (N) DEFICIENCY

Symptoms

Plate 64. Deficient pale green rice field (foreground) and a healthy dark field (background).

(Photo by Dr Prakash Kumar.)

1. Deficient plants appear stunted, thin and spindly with pale green to yellowish green leaves. The number of tillers and grain yields are reduced severely.

2. Nitrogen is mobile in plants and under short supply conditions it is easily mobilized from older to younger leaves.

3. The deficiency symptoms appear first and become more severe on older leaves (Plate 63).

4. If deficiency occurs during the young stage of the crop, the whole plant appears uniformly pale green to yellowish green. The deficient rice field gives a clear impression of nitrogen deficiency by providing a yellowish green look to the entire crop (Plates 64 and 65).

5. In later stages of the crop, older leaves become pale yellow while younger leaves remain green.

6. A pale yellow chlorosis develops at the tip of old leaves and proceeds in a broad front towards the leaf base.

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Medium 9781855751910

7. Comments on the psychodynamics of interaction

Sandler, Anne-Marie; Sandler, Joseph Karnac Books ePub

Introduction

In this chapter an attempt is made to show how the externaliza-tion of the unconscious phantasy derivatives of internal object relationships by both analyst and patient can interact, making it vital for the analyst to keep in touch with his countertransfer-ence. The need to use both one-person and two-person models in order to understand such interaction is illustrated by a rather graphic clinical example.

* * *

One of the major theoretical issues in considering processes of interaction is the question of whether it is appropriate to use a one-person or two-person frame of reference. This is a complicated issue and one that cannot be answered simply by saying that the psychoanalytic model of the mind is a one-person model on the grounds that all information arising from the outside does so as mental representations of one sort or another. Furthermore, it could be said that the essence of the psychoanalytic point of view is that these representations, and all our feelings, are profoundly affected by what arises from the inside. In a paper some time ago1I suggested that the theoretical models, theories, or schemata used by psychoanalysts are not fully integrated with one another, and that there were significant differences between our private psychoanalytic theories and what I called the “public” or “official” theories of psychoanalysis. I suggested that the complex private preconscious working model of the psychoanalyst—essentially a set of not-very-well-integrated part-theories—had an important advantage over the public or “official” ones in that “such a loosely jointed theory… allows developments in psychoanalytic theory to take place without necessarily causing radical disruptions.”

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Medium 9781576754054

Raising Our Children

Wheatley, Margaret J. Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

I keep noticing many disturbing indicators that things are not well in the lives of American children, including my own. By themselves, any of these incidents might mean little, but together they paint a disturbing picture. They indicate that children’s lives have become miniature versions of our own lives.

Here are just a few incidents that I’ve noted:

– A New Jersey school system decides to give all children one free night with no scheduled activities. They have to plan for this six months in advance.

– Elementary school children are developing back and neck problems normally not seen until adulthood. These physical ailments are caused by their school backpacks. The packs often weigh about twenty pounds; the children often weigh about sixty pounds.

– Fourteen hundred college students died in 2002 as a consequence of binge drinking. Out-of-control college drinking on campuses has become so serious that congressional hearings have been held to investigate its causes.

– My thirteen-year-old granddaughter explained to me how she needs to know her weekly schedule; otherwise she can’t cope with the anxiety and develops headaches.

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Medium 9781935542773

Chapter 6 Challenge the Use of a Single Grade

Thomas R. Guskey Solution Tree Press ePub

CHAPTER 6

Challenge the Use of a Single Grade

Imagine two students, Marie and Robert, who attend the same high school and take many of the same classes. Marie is an exceptionally bright but negligent student. She consistently gets high grades on classroom quizzes and assessments, even though she rarely completes homework assignments and seldom participates in class discussions. Her compositions and reports show unusually keen insight and thoughtful analyses of critical issues but often are turned in a day or two late. Because of her missing homework assignments and lack of punctuality, Marie receives Cs in most of her classes, and her grade point average ranks her in the middle of her high school class. But Marie scores at the highest level on the state accountability assessment, qualifies for a state honor diploma because of her scores, and is eligible for state scholarships.

Robert, on the other hand, is an extremely dedicated and hardworking student. He completes every homework assignment, takes advantage of extra-credit options in all of his classes, and regularly attends special study sessions held by his teachers. Yet despite his efforts, Robert often performs poorly on classroom quizzes and assessments. His compositions and reports are well organized and always turned in on time but rarely demonstrate more than a rudimentary understanding of critical issues. Robert also receives Cs in most of his classes and has a class rank very similar to Marie’s. But because he scores at a low level on the state accountability assessment, Robert is at risk of receiving an alternative diploma and will not qualify for state scholarship funds.

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Medium 9781780644998

17: Pest Management in Organic Field Vegetables in Temperate Areas

Vacante, V.; Kreiter, S. CABI PDF

17 

Pest Management in Organic Field

Vegetables in Temperate Areas

Claudia Daniel,1* Rosemary Collier,2 Urs Niggli1 and Martin Koller1

1

Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Forschungsinstitut für biologischen Landbau (FiBL), Frick, Switzerland; 2Warwick Crop Centre,

The University of Warwick, Warwick, UK

Introduction

Preventative measures and the creation of resilient growing systems are key parts of pest management practice in organic field vegetable production (see also Chapter 1, this volume). Soil improvement, crop rotation, site selection, habitat management, variety choice, timing of planting and plant spacing are all considered before planting in order to avoid the most detrimental pest problems. Due to the huge variety of vegetable crops and their associated pest insects, specific tailored approaches are necessary.

The effects of cultural practices to reduce pest outbreaks, such as weed control, appropriate irrigation, suitable fertilization, the use of mulches, and adjusted harvest times have been investigated during the last few years. For some crops (e.g. cabbage and carrot; Finch and Collier, 2000), a holistic pest control strategy, which combines preventative and direct control measures, is available, whereas there are still huge knowledge gaps for other crops. For example, in lettuce production, pest management under organic conditions still relies heavily on direct pest control measures. However, direct control methods using bioinsecticides

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Medium 9781855757387

CHAPTER SEVEN: A general model for situating repression

Boag, Simon Karnac Books ePub

Situating memory within Freud’s general theory

From the beginning of Freud’s theory, memory has been associated with repression. Freud’s early account explicitly equates repression with forgetting (Breuer & Freud, 1895d, p. 10) and “motivated forgetting”, based on primary process thinking, is described as the prototype of repression (Freud, 1900a, p. 600). Freud further emphasizes the relationship between repression and memory when he attempts to clarify the relation between repression and defence, equating repression with hysterical amnesia (Freud, 1926d, p. 163). Nevertheless, this apparent association between repression and memory needs to be understood within a greater context. Freud’s (1915d) metapsychological paper on repression makes no reference to memory at all, and Madison notes that while “[r]epression is tied up in our minds with forgetting … when we check with Freud’s writings, we find that forgetting is apparently not a good criterion of repression” (Madison, 1956, p. 76). To appreciate this greater context requires recognizing the distinction between conflict-free traumatic neuroses and conflict-ridden psychoneuroses (Freud, 1919d, p. 209). The significance of this latter class of neuroses emerges with the abandonment of the seduction hypothesis and the emergence of a dynamic framework, picturing the mind as a society of conflicting motives. Within this framework, memories become repressed in so far as they are associated with desires and anxiety, and, given this broader picture, “memories” are not isolated cognitive units within some non-affective, computational apparatus, but rather intimately bound with drives and affects (Freud, 1907a, pp. 48–49). Freud’s (1900a) account of the development of wishes links these to attending to memories of past satisfactions (p. 598), and Freud recognizes this complex relation between past and present, wishes and memory when he discusses the relation of wishes and memories to previous satisfactions:

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Medium 9781782200307

Chapter Seven: Crossroads of Engagement: Meeting of Minds or Isolationism?

Erlich, H. Shmuel Karnac Books ePub

CHAPTER SEVEN

Crossroads of engagement: meeting of minds or isolationism?

In this chapter I want to review and explore some of the difficulties inherent in the interface between psychoanalysis and some other areas. One specific aspect of these difficulties is related to questions about the aim and task of psychoanalytic journals, whether their function is inner-directed and inbred, or externally-directed, as an outreach to wider audiences. Other, possibly related issues, have to do with an increasingly observable split between what may be described as “institutional” as against “intellectual” psychoanalysis: psychoanalysis as represented by its formal organs, institutes, and clinical practitioners, as against its existence as an academic, scientific, and heuristic body of knowledge. There is a notable gap between a theory of mind based on the phenomenology of subjective experience and one based on impersonal, abstract theoretical tenets. Unconscious motivation is distinct from traumatogenic causality in its fundamental conceptualisation, calling for essentially different rules of evidence and discourse. It is difficult for the scientific world to interact with a psychodynamic approach that relies on inferred, not directly observable or readily replicable, data. These generic issues and their implications affect deeply the relationship between psychoanalysis and the university.

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Medium 9781605099750

Contents

Bell, Chip R. Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub
Medium 9780946439454

IV. Illustrations of Different Types of Dreams

Sharpe, Ella F. Karnac Books ePub

1. Dream related by a “normal” young woman with strong ego-resistances.

2. Dream related by a man experiencing anxiety with regard to women.

3. Dream revealing the (Edipus situation in oral imagery.

4. Dream revealing a typical jealousy situation of childhood related by a woman of fifty.

5. Dream revealing phantasies displaced on to multiplication and genealogical tables.

THIS chapter will be devoted to a series of different types of dreams from the analyses of different patients. In connection with each I shall point out the material that was of importance in the progress of the analysis. This will be more in the nature of a résumé of the hour’s work in each case and not an exhaustive examination of the whole material. I am not selecting analytical sessions which every analyst experiences when the patient’s dreams and associations fit together like a classic on psychoanalysis and interpretation is easy to make. I shall give only one such example.

In this series of dreams the things of importance will be selected from a mass of material as in the last two lectures but in greater detail.

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