Medium 9781475816433

IJER Vol 14-N4

Views: 865
Ratings: (0)
The mission of the International Journal of Educational Reform (IJER) is to keep readers up-to-date with worldwide developments in education reform by providing scholarly information and practical analysis from recognized international authorities. As the only peer-reviewed scholarly publication that combines authors’ voices without regard for the political affiliations perspectives, or research methodologies, IJER provides readers with a balanced view of all sides of the political and educational mainstream. To this end, IJER includes, but is not limited to, inquiry based and opinion pieces on developments in such areas as policy, administration, curriculum, instruction, law, and research.
IJER should thus be of interest to professional educators with decision-making roles and policymakers at all levels turn since it provides a broad-based conversation between and among policymakers, practitioners, and academicians about reform goals, objectives, and methods for success throughout the world.
Readers can call on IJER to learn from an international group of reform implementers by discovering what they can do that has actually worked. IJER can also help readers to understand the pitfalls of current reforms in order to avoid making similar mistakes. Finally, it is the mission of IJER to help readers to learn about key issues in school reform from movers and shakers who help to study and shape the power base directing educational reform in the U.S. and the world.

List price: $46.99

Your Price: $37.59

You Save: 20%

Remix
Remove
Annual Subscriptions (4/year) Subscribe Discounts for Institutions
 

9 Slices

Format Buy Remix

Attitudes of Prospective Primary School Teachers Toward Gender Equity

ePub

Mualla Bilgin Aksu

Women’s International Network News has indicated that girls face discrimination barriers starting in the cradle (“Girls Face Discrimination Barriers Starting in the Cradle,” 1993). Feder (1993) discusses the provisions of the Gender Equity in Education Act, describing it as feminist dogma for schools and recommending that more female teachers be recruited to eliminate the inequitable classroom practices. Normile (2001) reports that 35 female scientists in Japan have faced a list of obstacles in obtaining research grants, and the author has striven to create better working conditions for the women. Although women and men are considered to be equal in terms of their legal rights, there are some serious problems in reality. Gender equity has still been a problematic subject, not only in Turkey, but also throughout the world.

Levi (2000) observed elementary school teachers in mathematics and points out that they played three different roles in approaching gender equity: to provide equal opportunities and respect differences, to ensure that girls and boys have the same experiences, and to attempt to compensate for gender differences in society. Women’s International Network News (“MIT and 8 Top Universities ‘Discuss’ Pervasive Sex Discrimination,” 2001) reports that the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and eight top universities discussed pervasive sex discrimination and that their presidents promised to eliminate inequality. Weiner and Kallós (2000) discuss the position of women in teacher education in Europe and point out some strategies used at Umeå University in Sweden. Golombisky (2000) reveals four different gender equity models: equal, equitable, fair, and affirmative. Although all models assumed differences between females and males, the fair model based these differences mostly on the result of disparate treatment at school. Sanders (2002) argues that gender equity must become a standard part of the curriculum of preservice teacher education. Jones, Evans, Byrd, and Campbell (2000) found that the use of a gender resource module helped teachers understand their behaviors and create an equitable atmosphere in the classroom.

See All Chapters

School Principalship in Turkey: Women’s View

ePub

Mustafa Celikten

Although the life patterns of the majority of Turkish women remain conditioned by male-dominated institutions relating to the family, society, and education, the traditional ideal of a woman remaining in the home and of a male providing “protection” has been continually changing as a result of economic and demographic developments. These changes are resisted, however, by conservative members of society who during the 1990s pushed for a renewed emphasis on a woman’s role as wife and mother. Women in Turkey continue to marry early, particularly in the rural areas, and bear large numbers of children, entering into a pattern of high fertility, which is the norm in some regions (World Bank, 1993). Overall, the prevailing social norms still put women at risk by making them dependent on men. These norms continue to produce a strict division of labor and a highly gender-segregated labor market.

Recently, however, research on women in administration, management, and leadership has received increased attention, due primarily to changes in the labor market, shifts in perception of class membership, and new gender roles emerging within education in the 21st century. Reflecting this idea are Ragguet, Russo, and Harris (1994), who pinpoint that the number of women in the workforce in Turkey has increased substantially. The authors further state that more women than ever are pursuing advanced degrees and that there has been a noticeable shift of women going into businesses other than education.

See All Chapters

Democratic Classroom Management and the Opinions of University Students About Attitudes and Behavior of Faculty

ePub

Hasan Demirtas

The word democracy has become a magic concept of this era. The concept, which is polemic in every society and every place in the world and which represents an essential ideal, means a kind of longing everywhere. The longing for democracy and demand for democratization, meaning a process in which the longing comes true, have turned into universally shared values.

It is imperative that students be educated according to the democratic way of life, because it is taken as a modern way of life and because democracy can be improved and maintained only by those who understand and adopt it. The duty of educating students belongs to both the family and the educational institutions. Students cannot adopt democracy and be citizens of a democratic country unless they see samples of desired democratic attitudes at home or at school. If democracy is the best governmental system of all so far, it is due to the citizens who are aware of their rights, freedoms, and responsibilities and can use them appropriately. Citizens are an essential part of democracy (Gündüz & Gündüz, 2002). To educate students who are conscious citizens is a duty of educational institutions.

See All Chapters

Social Anxiety in University Students

ePub

Guzin Subasi

Social anxiety occurs when people feel doubtful about their particular impressions, real or imaginary, on others (Schlenker & Leary, 1982). Social anxiety, as denoted by its name, is a situation that arises in social settings as an outcome of interpersonal relationships. What lies in the basis of social anxiety is the fear of being evaluated by others as inadequate.

The literature survey demonstrates that studies conducted on social–evaluative anxiety, shyness, dating anxiety, communication apprehension, social phobia, performance anxiety, and so on, are studied under the title of “social anxiety.” Leary and Kowalski (1995) claim that these are not different types of social anxiety: the individual anxiety experience arising in each of them is the same; what changes is not the type of anxiety but rather the medium of interpersonal relationships that gives rise to anxiety.

The means of the studies carried out by the Interaction Anxiousness Scale, developed by Leary (1991), varied between 39 and 43 but were generally 41 (Buren & Cooley, 2002; Camanho & Paulus, 1995; Cecil & Pinkerton, 1998; Leary, 1986; Leary, Atherton, Hill, & Hur, 1986; Leary & Kowalski, 1993; Leary & Meadows, 1991; Oakman & Gifford, 2003; Pontari & Schlenker, 2000; Sabini, Siepmann, Stein, & Meyerowitz, 2000; Sanz, 1994). Leary’s scale comprises 15 items in Likert style; thus, these means are typically below 3.0, which indicates the midpoint.

See All Chapters

The Effects of Problem-Based Learning on the Academic Achievement of Students in Development and Learning

ePub

Nuriye Semerci

Today, the velocity and size of development are changing incredibly. The rapid increases in knowledge cause one to lose the validity of some knowledge in a short time, thereby making it obligatory for an individual to prove his or her worth continually and to maintain this dedication lifelong. In this change, knowing how to do something gains more importance than knowing everything. It becomes essential for traditional education to relate understanding to production, delivery, use, storing, and reproduction of knowledge.

Traditional understanding has thrown the responsibility of learning onto the teacher and has not taken into consideration the element of learner so far. The transfer of knowledge and its feedback have limited the learner’s intellectual development. It is necessary for an individual to acquire analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluation skills on the basis of knowledge in order to make healthy mental developments. Yet knowledge presented while the teacher is active cannot go beyond memorizing. The rate of knowledge has limited the thinking of students and prevented them (1) from reaching the knowledge source necessary to solve the problems encountered and (2) from using this knowledge well. This traditional understanding has had to change as a result of the educational institutions’ necessity for rapid developments and the acceptance that the learner should be the important element in learning. Regarding the learners, concepts such as curiosity, needs, motivation, skepticism and inquiry, research, and investigation are necessary to be set to work during learning (Dicle, 2001). The studies done over permanent education and flexible learning with these elements suggest that learners’ passive reception should change and that learners should have their own learning responsibility. As Dewey indicated, the aim of education should be to improve creative, exploratory, and natural instincts of the students and to make the learner actually eager to learn (Timmins & Bryant, 1999). Consequently, the primary role of the school, going beyond teaching words and transferring knowledge, should be to give experiences in relation to how they apply outside the school. Knowledge and skills gained should provide clues for the students to get accustomed to life outside the school, and lessons should be prepared according to their interests and attentions (Timmins & Bryant, 1999). To do this, schools need to make the students face the conditions that they will come across in the real world. Students who investigate and analyze these conditions will have the skills to form knowledge by themselves and take responsibility for their own learning.

See All Chapters

Effective Schools: Predictors of Students’ Achievement in Primary Schools in Turkey: Edirne Province

ePub

Ali Balcı and Kamile Demir

The effective school movement started with empirical research in the late 1960s. The earliest research—carried out by Coleman, Campbel, Hobson McPartiant, Moon Weinfield, and York (1966) and Jenks and colleagues (1972)—demonstrated that schools did not make a difference in predicting student achievement (Caldas, 1993; Cole, 2003; Elliott, 1996; Lezotte, 1992). These researchers concluded that student background characteristics, such as socioeconomic status, were more effective on students’ achievement than their schools were (Balcı, 2001). The findings of early research stimulated a strong reaction among researchers and practitioners. Therefore, researchers and practitioners have attempted to criticize the methods of the early research and to do research to indicate schools’ positive impact on student achievement and development. These studies formed a basis for the effective school movement (Balcı, 2001; De Stefano, 2003; Elliott, 1996; Lezotte, 1992).

See All Chapters

The Blackboard Jungle: Junior High School Students’ Perceptions of Crime In School and To and From School

ePub

Avi Bruchman and Israel Kim

The problem of juvenile delinquency in general and violence among youth in particular has been topping the public agenda in recent years. The phenomenon of violence is widespread among various groups, one of the major arenas being that of the school premises. Kenney and Watson (1989) aptly define violence in schools through the metaphor “the blackboard jungle.”

Israel, similar to many other countries, is seriously concerned about the problem of violence in schools. This concern is reflected in the diverse attempts to study the manifestation of violence in institutes of education, the aim being to find ways to contend with and possibly even prevent such violence (Haviv, Ben Rabi, & Argov, 2001; Horowitz & Amir, 1981).

This study focused on the different ways that students, as opposed to schoolteachers and staff, perceived physical violence and violence against property in school and to and from school. Also studied were their perceptions of the various forms of victimization in school, the drug abuse in school and to and from school, and injury from road accidents to and from school.

See All Chapters

Building a Strong Contingent of Secondary English-as-a-Foreign-Language Teachers in China: Problems and Policies

ePub

Guangwei Hu

Amid the havoc wreaked by the decade-long cultural revolution, China started its modernization program in the late 1970s.1 As an integral part of the modernization drive, English-language teaching (ELT) was revived and vigorously promoted (Boyle, 2000; Hu, 2002a; Ross, 1993). With a conceptual twist, English, which had been viewed in the previous decade as a language of the enemy, became the language of modernization (Adamson & Morris, 1997; Ross, 1992). This change stemmed from an increasing recognition of the vital role that English as a foreign language (EFL) could play in China’s modernization effort. The late Chinese leader, Deng Xiaoping, who has been acclaimed as the architect of national modernization, saw scientific and technological development as the key to China’s modernization (People’s Education Press, 1986). Deng maintained that to develop its science and technology, China must learn from and draw on scientific and technological advances from other parts of the world. Because English had already gained international currency as the dominant medium of scientific and technological information, mastering the language was a precondition for access to the information needed for China’s revitalization (Higher Education Research Center of Sichuan Foreign Languages Institute [HERC], 1993; Ministry of Education [MOE], 1979). Besides providing access to the latest scientific and technological developments, English was perceived by the Chinese leadership as a vital means for the country to open up and engage in economic, commercial, educational, and cultural exchange with the outside world. Thus, to develop nationwide proficiency in English became a task of paramount importance.

See All Chapters

SWOT Analysis on Educational Systems on the Two Sides of the Taiwan Strait

ePub

I-Ming Wang and Chich-Jen Shieh

It was an important, historic phenomenon for Taiwan to separate from mainland China in 1949. Mainland China and Taiwan were originally a unified country, using the same language and same alphabet characters. Now there are still similarities in many aspects; the differences are primarily governmental. Taiwan has become more Westernized and more developed in many ways. For instance, Taiwan is generally more affluent and open to Western influences.

But Taiwan has been alienated from mainland China for so long that discrepancies have developed in many areas. Two major differences lie within economics and mind-sets. A serious problem has been with some of mainland China’s various policies. With different social environments, the higher educational systems on the two sides have gradually become different. The development of higher education is closely related to a nation’s power, especially in an era of globalization and knowledge economy. Because of the antagonistic situation that has always existed between the two sides, the system of cooperation and the exchange of ideas for higher education have encountered difficulties. However, since the end of 2001, with both sides successively entering the World Trade Organization (WTO), both are confronted with the trends of the world. In such circumstances, how can communication and cooperation be facilitated between the international community and both sides as higher education becomes an important issue?

See All Chapters

Details

Print Book
E-Books
Slices

Format name
ePub
Encrypted
No
Sku
I000000047643
Isbn
9781475816433
File size
1.86 MB
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Format name
ePub
Encrypted
No
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Sku
In metadata
Isbn
In metadata
File size
In metadata