Medium 9781475816358

IJER Vol 12-N4

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The mission of the International Journal of Educational Reform (IJER) is to keep readers up-to-date with worldwide developments in education reform by providing scholarly information and practical analysis from recognized international authorities. As the only peer-reviewed scholarly publication that combines authors’ voices without regard for the political affiliations perspectives, or research methodologies, IJER provides readers with a balanced view of all sides of the political and educational mainstream. To this end, IJER includes, but is not limited to, inquiry based and opinion pieces on developments in such areas as policy, administration, curriculum, instruction, law, and research.
IJER should thus be of interest to professional educators with decision-making roles and policymakers at all levels turn since it provides a broad-based conversation between and among policymakers, practitioners, and academicians about reform goals, objectives, and methods for success throughout the world.
Readers can call on IJER to learn from an international group of reform implementers by discovering what they can do that has actually worked. IJER can also help readers to understand the pitfalls of current reforms in order to avoid making similar mistakes. Finally, it is the mission of IJER to help readers to learn about key issues in school reform from movers and shakers who help to study and shape the power base directing educational reform in the U.S. and the world.

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From Policy Into Practice: The Effects of Principal Preparation Programs on Principal Behavior

ePub

Halil Isik

The purpose of this article is to evaluate the effectiveness of principals who have undergone administrative training compared to those who have not. The article begins with a discussion of the status of principal-ship in various contexts. It then reviews the potential impact of the new policy on principal training in Turkey and the literature regarding the effects of principal training programs. The methodology, results, limitations, and the conclusions are presented.

The principal is a crucial factor in a school regarding both evidence and experience (Gunraj & Rutherford, 1999). The current status of educational administration both as an academic field and as a profession in practice differs from one country to another. The reasons for the differences may be many, but mainly they can be attributed to cultural, political, and socioeconomic differences. For example, Turkey has a very centralized educational system, whereas it is decentralized at the systemic level in the United States and Britain.

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Getting Good Results From Survey Research: Part One

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James F. McNamara

This article is the first of a research methods series dedicated to getting good results from survey research. In this series, good results is a stenographic term used to define surveys that yield accurate and meaningful information decision makers can use with confidence to identify current practices that merit continuation and to create or modify policies, programs, and services that can improve organizational efforts to serve all clients.

From a research methods perspective, a survey earns a decision maker’s confidence in the accuracy and relevance of survey results when it achieves “high marks” on three specific validity concerns. First, the sampling plan must have high population validity. This implies that the survey sample is an accurate representation of the population to which the survey findings are generalized.

Second, the survey must have high measurement validity. This implies that the survey questionnaire has three essential characteristics: (a) each questionnaire item is clear and unambiguous, (b) each respondent has a common understanding of all questions and has the ability to answer them, and (c) the complete set of questionnaire items is sufficient to cover the overall intent of the survey.

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Choosing a High School in Open Enrollment Areas: Voices of Israeli Parents and Children

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Izhar Oplatka

Advocates of school choice reform in education believe that when parents are granted the right to choose their child’s school, they will act rationally, in a goal-oriented fashion, to maximize their educational utility by finding the “best” school for their children. The current qualitative study aims to examine these basic assumptions by exploring the elements that comprise the process of school choice, thereby unearthing the reasons for choosing or rejecting a school. Based on data gathered from eight families in Tel Aviv, it seems that a major factor in choosing a school among these Israeli families was the child’s classmates in the elementary school, and their decision was largely influenced by inaccurate, informal sources of information. Theoretical implications for parental choice reform are suggested.

School choice has been introduced in many Western countries over the past two decades (Carlson, 1996; Cookson, 1994; Glegg, 2002; Haymann, Golan, & Shapira, 1997; Levin, 2001; Teelken, 1999). Advocates of choice in education argue that the exigencies of competition will make public school systems more efficient, more productive, and more responsive to the demands of students, parents, and communities (Chubb & Moe, 1990; Peterson & Hassel, 1998). Greater use of free market institutions, it is held, will more effectively provide the range and quality of education demanded by parents and students (Chubb & Moe, 1990; Tooley, 1992).

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The Impact of Globalization on Russian Education

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Ilghiz M. Sinagatullin

The notion of globalization, which Andrutchenko (2001) defines as a “consequence of the development of human civilization” (p. 663), and the way it is related to the issues of education are being discussed widely today among Russian educational and scientific circles, education policymakers, scholars, educators, as well as school and university students. Some of the “discussants” fully reject and refuse to accept this phenomenon under pretense of its coming from the Western countries, thus its perception of being an alien entity, “spoiling” the unique Russian culture and the system of education. Others try to understand and accept this notion, placing it into the ranks of other philosophical and pedagogical questions on an equal basis. Still others completely accept the idea of globalization and associate with it all the progressive changes occurring now in the third millennium’s pedagogical space (Altbakh, 2001; Belkanov, 2001; Lushnikov, 2001; Medvedeva & Shishova, 2001; Osherov, 2001; Rakitiansky, 2002; Ratlend, 2002; Ribakov, 2001; Sinagatullin, 2003; Strelkova, 2001; Utkin, 2001; Zuganov, 2001, 2002). As for Western countries, notions of “globalization,” “global,” “cross-cultural,” “global education,” “Global Village,” “Global Age” are frequently used in philosophical, sociological, and pedagogical literature. Like in Russia, some people in the west are zealous supporters of this idea and are seriously absorbed with it; others use this term as a tribute to fashion, reflecting the new times (Kirkwood, 2001; Kollontay, 2002; Stolfi & Sussman, 2001; Tomaserski, 2001). In general, in the West–East continuum, the idea of globalism seems, up to now, to have been accepted and cherished more in the western hemisphere than in its eastern counterpart.

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School Safety in Turkey and the Role of School Counselor

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Mehmet Guven

A school is an institution that presents students information, competence, attitudes, and culture. One of the basic conditions in reaching the objectives of education, which is a need for both individuals and society, is to create a safe and comfortable school environment. Such an environment increases student success, protecting mental health and facilitating development.

In Turkey, school safety is one of the subjects of importance in the educational process. Protecting students from negative events such as violence, aggressiveness, theft, drug, traffic, fire, and earthquake has become one of the most important duties of school. School must be a place where children can go to pursue learning and express themselves in healthy, productive ways. It must also be an environment where they can learn and teachers and others who assist them in learning may do so safely and without the fear of danger (Dunn, 1999). A safe school is one in which both students and teachers feel free of physical, psychological, and emotional abuse. A safe school has a comfortable climate in which students can master academic skills and enjoy extracurricular activities (Wanat, 1996). It also creates an environment where there is less chance of violence and where teachers and administrators spend less time disciplining students and more time encouraging the learning function of the school, where everyone perceives him- or herself important and the young are offered meaningful opportunities (Caulfield, 2000). In other words, school safety means creating an appropriate environment to learn in school.

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Brown: The Historical-Legal Antecedents

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Margaret Engl, Steven B. Permuth, and Terri K. Wonder

Prejudices, it is well known, are most difficult to eradicate from the heart whose soil has never been loosened or fertilized by education; they grow there, firm as weeds among stones.

—Charlotte Bronte, from Jane Eyre

In the Columbia Law Review, Harry Jones (1974) illustrates five general and sometimes overlapping purposes of the law. They include the preservation of the public peace and safety, the settlements of individual disputes, the maintenance of security expectations, the resolutions of conflicting social interests, and the channeling of social change. Of those purposes, perhaps no case in legal history has directed the course of social change in the United States more than the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (347 U.S. 483, 1954). In addition, as conversations with South African educators witness, the case also maintains international significance for nations and peoples who have functioned under apartheid-like systems with laws reminiscent of the United States’ own Jim Crow social policy, dismantled after the rendering of the Brown decision. As we move to the golden anniversary of the decision next year on May 17, 2004, it is important to showcase the decision and the Supreme Court’s rationale, if only for the simple reason that the unanimous decision still resonates not only as a decision heralding the desegregation of schools under the “separate but equal” doctrine of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but also the issues of racial equality and equity that extend beyond the case itself.

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