Medium 9781475816105

IJER Vol 6-N4

Views: 1259
Ratings: (0)
The mission of the International Journal of Educational Reform (IJER) is to keep readers up-to-date with worldwide developments in education reform by providing scholarly information and practical analysis from recognized international authorities. As the only peer-reviewed scholarly publication that combines authors’ voices without regard for the political affiliations perspectives, or research methodologies, IJER provides readers with a balanced view of all sides of the political and educational mainstream. To this end, IJER includes, but is not limited to, inquiry based and opinion pieces on developments in such areas as policy, administration, curriculum, instruction, law, and research.
IJER should thus be of interest to professional educators with decision-making roles and policymakers at all levels turn since it provides a broad-based conversation between and among policymakers, practitioners, and academicians about reform goals, objectives, and methods for success throughout the world.
Readers can call on IJER to learn from an international group of reform implementers by discovering what they can do that has actually worked. IJER can also help readers to understand the pitfalls of current reforms in order to avoid making similar mistakes. Finally, it is the mission of IJER to help readers to learn about key issues in school reform from movers and shakers who help to study and shape the power base directing educational reform in the U.S. and the world.

List price: $46.99

Your Price: $37.59

You Save: 20%

Remix
Remove
Annual Subscriptions (4/year) Subscribe Discounts for Institutions
 

12 Chapters

Format Buy Remix

Constructing a New Social Identity: Taiwan’s Curricular Reforms of the Nineties

ePub

CHIN-JU MAO

Department of Educational Policy Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Educational Science, 1025 West Johnson St., Madison, WI 53706-1796

Introduction

Taiwan’s rapid socioeconomic and political development which began in the 1980s has created a new social context in which civil society is reviving amidst challenges to the state’s authority. The women’s movement, aboriginal human-rights movement, political victims human-rights movement, and indigenous cultural movement are reflected in curricular reform. As the medium of cultural construction of social identity, curricular reform represents a struggle over who constructs whose identity and what is constructed. Curricular reform reflecting the eradication of gender stereotypes, ethnic discrimination, and sinocentricism in the contents of the elementary and middle school curricula reflect the process of Taiwanese identity reconstruction.

Following the trajectory of social transformation, Taiwan’s curricular reform focuses on teaching indigenous languages and cultures. These reforms are closely associated with a larger social transformation in which liberalization, democratization, and indigenization are the aims for which Taiwanese society is striving. In contrast to a sinocentric curriculum, the indigenous curriculum emphasizes the land, the history, and the diversity of Taiwan to which people’s past, present, and future are closely connected. The indigenous curriculum assigns a new importance to “the discovery of Taiwan” that was distinctly absent in sinocentric education. At the historical conjunction of this conversion, this article tries to make sense of what is happening in Taiwan’s curricular reform and its relation to the construction of a new social identity.

See All Chapters

Finland’s Ammattikorkeakoulu: Pursuing World-Class Higher Education

ePub

MALCOLM B. CAMPBELL

Professor of Education, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403-0251

Background: The Diversification of Western European Higher Education

Finland has made efforts over the past decade to develop parity between its nonuniversity and university sectors of higher education. These efforts are clearly visible in the creation of twenty-two experimental ammattikorkeakoulu (or “polytechnics”). This coincides with the general Western European trend of the past four decades to upgrade the status of nonuniversity higher education. In the past decade, this trend has encouraged the massification of Western European higher education. The existence of a viable nonuniversity sector of higher education, it is estimated, will increase access of traditionally underrepresented groups in Western European higher education.

Participation rates of traditionally underrepresented groups remain problematic in Western Europe. The Council of Europe’s Project Group on Access to Higher Education in Europe concluded:

See All Chapters

Precious Beads Multiply: Family Decision Making and Girl’s Access to Primary Schooling in Ghana

ePub

ALBERTA YEBOAH

1523 East County Line Road, Apt. F 43, Jackson, MI 39211

Introduction

The role of family decision making in the education of young girls in Africa has been barely explored in the literature. While research has produced considerable evidence that support for girls’ schooling is crucial to the political and socioeconomic development of a nation (Floro and Wolf, 1990; Hyde, 1993; King and Hill, 1993; World Bank, 1989), we do not have a comprehensive understanding of how families make decisions about sending their daughters to school and retaining them there. In fact, female access to education and retention in school in developing countries in general, and in Africa in particular, are issues of priority on the agenda of educators, development agencies, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and the United Nations, such as was the case during the world population conference in Cairo in September, 1994.

The linkage between female education and development in general cannot be overemphasized. Female education is highly correlated with better usage of family planning which leads to low fertility rates and low infant mortality (Cochrane, 1979; Floro and Wolf, 1990; Herz et al., 1991; Hyde, 1993; King and Hill, 1993). Additionally, the more highly educated a parent is, the more likely it is that s/he will support increased schooling for their own children (Behrman, 1991). In studying Ghana, Lavy (1992) found that maternal education was the main influence on children’s schooling. The effect of maternal education on girls’ schooling was twice as great either for their actual enrollment or for the probability that they would continue to the next grade. Chernikovsky (1985) and Koussoudji and Mueller (1983) found in their respective investigations of Botswana that households headed by educated females were more likely to send girls as well as boys to school. Such households were also more likely to keep both boys and girls in school longer than households headed by uneducated females or males. Floro and Wolf (1990) iterated that female education leads to the acquisition of better skills, attitudinal changes, and increased control over life and decision making by women. Herz et al. (1991) argued that the potential for more productive labor, better health care, and slower population growth, which contribute immensely to individual, national, and global development, are reasons for investment in female education.

See All Chapters

Strategies for Survival in Kenya: Women, Education, and Self-Help Groups

ePub

TATA MBUGUA-MURITHI

5735C Millbank Road, Columbus, OH 43229

Introduction

Women’s groups have existed in many parts of Africa for decades. These groups allow their members to adapt effectively to external changes in their contemporary societies. According to Staudt, there are more extensive female solidarity organizations in Africa than anywhere else in the world (1981). This is an indication of the importance among women of ties outside household boundaries. In the last few years, women’s groups in Kenya have increasingly focused on educational and economic issues. This change has been prompted in part by the Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) (Robertson, 1995).

The United Nations Decade for Women (1975–1985), with a focus on the linkages between women’s education and their participation in economic and social development, was a turning point in research on African women and development. Related research on female education reveals that it has the potential for synergistic effects in both economic and human development. The United Nation’s Report on the State of the World’s Women 1985, based on a questionnaire completed by 121 member governments, revealed that:

See All Chapters

Analyzing New Russian Textbooks: Governmental Programs and Private Initiatives

ePub

ELENA LISOVSKAYA

Assistant Professor, Department of Education and Professional Development, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008

Introduction

In 1995–1996, new elementary and secondary school textbooks in the humanities and social sciences emerged on the Russian market. They were prepared as part of a private initiative, and published on Western money. The new textbooks are a radically new phenomenon in Russian education, as they coexist with the textbooks developed by the state agencies that have been traditionally doing this job since the times of communism. Consequently, Russian schools have received an opportunity to select between these two kinds of textbooks.

The differences between the two sets of textbooks and their potential to contribute to the education for democracy in Russia are unique and interesting topics for scholarly attention. The innovations in textbook content are necessary, but not sufficient for the development of democratic education, and the cognitive and linguistic style of the texts deserves serious consideration from this point of view. In addition, this is due to powerful organizational and economic impediments to the success of the new textbooks, that the old-style textbooks are likely to dominate the Russian market in the near future.

See All Chapters

In Our Own Eyes: A New Look at African History

ePub

THOMPSON KUMBIRAI TSODZO

Michigan State University, 332 Paris Avenue, Lansing, MI 48910

Introduction

Between 1992 and 1996, I surveyed history textbooks covering Africa that are used in high schools and universities in Zimbabwe. The results of the survey indicate that almost all the writers portray a stereotypical image of Africa that, until recently, historians have failed to address. The students using these books are not learning the authentic history of Africa, but are learning distorted interpretations of a bizarre place conceived of from across the oceans. Within Africa, both teachers and students at colleges and universities are already aware of this, and have recently called for major changes in African history syllabi. There are also cases at some African universities where history books with too much negative bias have been rejected.

A new breed of indigenous African historian has recently come forward, and is offering to tell the story of Africa as it really is. As I belong to this new breed of historical scholars, I can openly declare that in our own eyes, the picture of Africa that has been presented to the world so far is not our motherland’s true picture. It is that of Europe’s Africa or of Eurafrica. The first steps toward a remedy must include a universal awareness of this problem, and then a commitment to remedy it.

See All Chapters

Issues in Post-Soviet Secondary School Reform: The Case of Kazakstan

ePub

ALAN J. DEYOUNG

Professor of Education, Educational Policy Studies and Evaluation, College of Education, 131 Taylor Education Building, Lexington, KY 40506-0001

SUZHIKOVA BALZHAN

Abai University, Almaty, Kazakstan

The Republic of Kazakstan is one of five Central Asian states created in 1991 upon the collapse of the former Soviet Union. Today these states—all formerly under the rule of Moscow—are all interested in transforming an inherited colonialist and socialist education system into one with more freedom and flexibility, and dedicated to purposes of nation building. In this essay, we attempt to describe the major social and economic development themes which have emerged in Kazakstan since 1991, and to link such developments to the status of education reform currently underway. Our insights into the following matters come from interviews with key government and school leaders, from official statistics of the Kazakstan Ministry of Education (MoE), and from four recent reports by international agencies on social and economic trends and issues in the Republic. Many of the issues we discuss here are shared concerns and dynamics of most former Soviet republics, some are unique to the Central Asian states, and others are unique to the Republic of Kazakstan itself.

See All Chapters

Effective School Desegregation in a Changing World

ePub

BRIAN L. FIFE

Associate Professor, Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne, School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Neff Hall, Fort Wayne, IN 46805-1499

Many nations with heterogeneous populations are confronted with the dilemma of desegregating their schools so that their children attend schools that are reflective of the diversity in their society. The process of desegregation may be a function of a plethora of variables, including socioeconomic background, race, ethnicity, and religious preference. For example, in the last three or four decades, thousands of the more affluent middle- and upper-class Americans have physically left urban America for suburbia. This migration has been distinctly white in nature, e.g., Fife (1992). In many European nations as well as other industrialized societies, wealthier citizens tend to reside in prestigious cities, while the working and lower-middle classes dwell in the suburbs. If desegregation is valued as an important policy and societal objective, then some recent school desegregation efforts in the Midwestern United States can provide useful insights into how the desegregation process may be enhanced in metropolitan regions across the industrialized world. Obviously, there is no single formula for effective school desegregation, whether the focus is on America alone or the entire world, for both entities are far too diverse geographically and otherwise. Yet some important lessons can be extracted from the desegregation histories in Indianapolis and Marion County (Indiana) as well as Fort Wayne and Allen County (Indiana).

See All Chapters

The Internationalist

ePub

Peter McLaren

Professor of Education

University of California, Los Angeles

College of Education

Los Angeles, CA 90024-1521

Carmen Montecinos* is an associate professor at the College of Education, University of Northern Iowa. Prior to her current position, she worked for five years as a school psychologist and as a university lecturer in Chile. She is the author of numerous papers on multicultural education and the preparation of teachers of color. Currently, her research is focused on a study of the gendering of elementary teaching by male preservice teachers. She has co-authored with Walter de Oliveira** two papers on social education with out-of-school youth: “Social Pedagogy: A Matter of Presence, Commitment, and Availability (forthcoming in Teaching Education) and “Education in the Open Environment: Conceptualization and Practice (published in Humanics, Spring 1997).

Walter de Oliveira is an assistant professor and coordinator of the Youth and Human Services Division at the University of Northern Iowa. He has worked extensively as a service provider, researcher, and advocate for street children in Brazil. He lectures and publishes on the topic of street social education, social pedagogy, and youth development. He is also the advisor of the Center for the Theater of Liberation, a center for the Theater of the Oppressed, at the University of Northern Iowa.

See All Chapters

The Instruction Department

ePub

John M. Jenkins

6211 NW 93 Terrace

Gainesville, FL 32653

Karen Pelletier*

Students are excited about school. Teachers look forward to coming to school each day. The place is Three Oaks Elementary School in Fort Myers, Florida. Three Oaks was the first school in America to adopt and institute Core Knowledge, an approach to cultural literacy proposed by E. D. Hirsch, a Linden Kent Memorial Professor of English at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville.

Core Knowledge is an articulated curriculum K–6, based on the bestselling book, Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know, published in 1987. The popularity of the book led Hirsch to organize various groups of educators around the country to design a curriculum based on knowledge that all students should know. Hirsch labels his approach anthropological because it is rooted in the culture of the country. He observes that schools in Japan, Germany, and France require a different body of core knowledge than schools in the United States. Core knowledge provides the foundation for the development of advanced reading, writing, and higher-order thinking. “It (core knowledge) is an attempt to define, in a coherent and sequential way, a body of knowledge taken for granted by competent writers and speakers in the United States” (Hirsch, 1991, xviii).

See All Chapters

The Legal Department

ePub

Todd A. DeMitchell

Associate Chair, Department of Education

University of New Hampshire

Durham, NH 03824-3595

The First Amendment to the United States Constitution reads, in part, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.” These few words have been the subject of intense debate for many decades as to what they mean and how to operationalize them in a complex public education system. While there are few absolutes in Establishment Clause jurisprudence, all parties to the debate seem to have reached consensus that government cannot decide that it will become a theocracy and cannot finance or sponsor indoctrination into the beliefs of a particular religion. While this common ground seems solid, all other ground slopes swiftly away on two sides into a bog with few firm spots that often seem unconnected. On one side, there are proponents of a strict separationist view of the Establishment Clause that supports a rigid wall of separation between church and state. The United States Supreme Court in Everson v. Board of Education (1947) wrote: “A wall between church and state . . . must be kept high and impregnable. We could not approve the slightest breach” (p. 18). On the other side is an accommodationist view that holds that religion and the state must coexist and that some interaction is permissible. Justice Douglas echoed this view in Zorach v. Clauson (1952) when he wrote, “The First Amendment . . . does not say that in every and all respects there shall be a separation of Church and State. . . . Otherwise, the state and religion would be aliens to each other—hostile, suspicious, and even unfriendly” (p. 312).

See All Chapters

The Research Department

ePub

James F. McNamara

Professor of Educational Administration and Educational Psychology

College of Education

Texas A&M University

College Station, TX 77843-4226

The primary goal of research in any area of inquiry is the production of an integrated statement of findings for the many pieces of research done in that area. This goal is clearly the direction to be taken in any review of research literature that is designed to inform theory or to guide the development of actual policies and procedures used in future educational reform efforts.

At this time, meta-analysis studies are becoming a central part of research integration in almost all areas of inquiry. For example, Lipsey and Wilson (1993) have recently documented and described 302 specific meta­analysis studies dealing with the efficacy of a wide array of behavioral interventions. Mann (1994) has shown the value of using meta-analysis findings in policy development and policy impact studies. Capitalizing on these advances in research integration and their potential to improve future reviews of empirical research findings, many behavioral science research methods texts (see for example, Cooper, 1990; Gall, Borg, and Gall, 1996; Hittleman and Simon, 1997) now routinely include a treatment of meta­analysis which is within the grasp of both researchers and research consumers (practitioners).

See All Chapters

Details

Print Book
E-Books
Chapters

Format name
ePub
Encrypted
No
Sku
I000000047644
Isbn
9781475816105
File size
2.62 MB
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Format name
ePub
Encrypted
No
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Sku
In metadata
Isbn
In metadata
File size
In metadata