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Mountain Tourism: Experiences, Communities, Environments and Sustainable Futures

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Mountains have long held an appeal for people around the world. This book focusses on the diversity of perspectives, interaction and role of tourism within these areas. Providing a vital update to the current literature, it considers the interdisciplinary context of communities, the creation of mountain tourism experiences and the impacts tourism has on these environments. Including authors from Europe, Asia-Pacific and North America, the development, planning and governance issues are also covered.

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1: Overview of Mountain Tourism: Substantive Nature, Historical Context, Areas of Focus

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Overview of Mountain Tourism:

Substantive Nature, Historical Context,

Areas of Focus

Harold Richins,1* Sydney Johnsen2 and Dr John S. Hull1

Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada;

2

Peak Planning Associates, Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada

1

The Aim of This Book on Mountain

Tourism

The aim of this book is to advance the literature in the field of mountain tourism. In particular, this book aims to broaden the discussion on the diversity of perspectives, interactions and roles of mountain tourism, through an interdisciplinary and management context that addresses communities, impacts, development approaches, planning and governance, natural environment, and creation of mountain tourism experiences.

Mountain Tourism: Experiences, Communities, Environments and Sustainable

Futures contains five thematic areas, each with an overview and relevant case studies. These themes include: (i) the creation of mountain tourism experiences; (ii) people and communities in mountain tourism; (iii) natural environments in mountain tourism; (iv) impacts and solutions in mountain tourism; and (v) development, planning and governance approaches in mountain tourism. Mountain areas from around the world are covered in this edited book including areas within Europe, Asia-Pacific, North

 

2: Experience Provision in Mountain Tourism: Overview, Contextual Development and Emphasis

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Experience Provision in Mountain

Tourism: Overview, Contextual

Development and Emphasis

Harold Richins*

Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada

Introduction

This chapter introduces Part II by providing an overview of experience provision within mountain tourism settings. Included is a contextual emphasis on experiences in mountain environments, both within the sphere of visitor experiences and services and also concerning the significance of organizational commitment and destination emphasis on experience provision within these unique environments. Numerous examples of organizational commitment within a mountain tourism context are presented through a basic content exploration of tourism enterprise communication and promotion, which emphasizes customer experience service provision. This introduction summarizes the chapters included in Part II.

The notion of experience studies incorporates the understanding, creation, development, and provision of human experiences and services, and has progressed toward more complexity, inclusion, application, and focus over the 45 years since Toffler (1970) first wrote about the upcoming experience industries. The literature has advanced concepts in specific areas including: extraordinary experience; products and services as experiences; and the concept of the experience society

 

3: Wellness Tourism Experiences in Mountain Regions: The Case of Sparkling Hill Resort, Canada

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Wellness Tourism Experiences in Mountain Regions: The Case of Sparkling Hill Resort, Canada

John S. Hull*

Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada

Introduction

Resorts have been a feature of travel for centuries. Their origins in Europe are traced to Roman times when their typical structure was defined by an atrium surrounded by recreational or sporting amenities, restaurants, rooms and shops (Mill,

2001). The purpose of Roman resorts focused on promoting health and social benefits as well as relaxation for legionnaires and consuls throughout the Empire (Mill, 2001; Murphy,

2008). Murphy (2008, 9) defines a modern-day resort as a ‘planned vacation business . . . that can operate at a variety of scales and with a selection of target markets through the creation of a valued experience’. The purpose of a resort is to provide a place of escape or restoration from the world of work and daily care by providing holiday-makers with high-quality experiences and services that include accommodations, food and beverage, entertainment, recreation, health amenities and social opportunities (Krippendorf,

 

4: Creating Tourist Experiences in European Alpine Areas: Beyond Mass Tourism

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Creating Tourist Experiences in European Alpine Areas:

Beyond Mass Tourism

Umberto Martini* and Federica Buffa

University of Trento, Trento, Italy

Introduction

The Alps have experienced profound economic and social change in recent decades, with the landscape having been considerably modified due to the development of the tourist industry. The key pillars of the tourist industry in the Alps are skiing in winter and hiking and climbing in summer. The success of the Alps’ main tourism products has led to the development of a mass tourism model, where large sums have been invested in areas such as accommodation capacity, cable car systems, and transport and mobility, and where tourist flows are concentrated in short, seasonal peaks of no more than a few weeks. The sustainability of mass mountain tourism is being called into question due to both internal and external factors. The latter includes the impact of global warming on snow reliability during the ski season

(Elsasser and Bürki, 2002; Agrawala, 2007) and ongoing changes in international tourist demand (Dwyer et al., 2009).

 

5: Motivations for a Destination Wedding in Canada’s Mountain Parks

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Motivations for a Destination

Wedding in Canada’s Mountain Parks

Elizabeth A. Halpenny*

University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Introduction

Background

This chapter recounts couples’ decisions to engage in a destination wedding in Canada’s

Rocky Mountain parks. The motivations for choosing to travel to a particular destination have been studied extensively by tourism re­ searchers; however, few of these studies have examined mountain tourists’ motivations and even fewer studies have examined motivations for engaging in destination wedding travel.

Understanding couples’ motivations will en­ hance practitioners’ understanding of what mountain tourists and destination wedding tourists seek. This will not only assist tourism sector operators, but also the managers of mountain landscapes who are assigned the achievement of management goals that in­ clude conservation, recreational enjoyment, and opportunities to make a living in moun­ tain regions. This chapter briefly reviews p ublished destination wedding and moun­

 

6: Stamp Books in the Harz Mountains, Germany – Fun not Just for Children

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Stamp Books in the Harz Mountains,

Germany – Fun not Just for Children

Michael Lück1* and Sven Gross2

Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand;

2

Harz University of Applied Sciences, Wernigerode, Germany

1

Introduction

Hiking has long been a popular leisure and holiday activity. This is, in part, because it is seen as an inexpensive activity (there is no need to purchase and maintain expensive equipment), can be undertaken almost anywhere, and can be enjoyed by all age groups, from children to seniors. Dreyer et al. (2010) talked about a renaissance of hiking in the last 15 years in Germany, and noted that tourism destinations have increasingly promoted hiking and provided the necessary infrastructure in a fiercely competitive market.

These hiking destinations are mostly located in the German mid-mountain and alpine ranges, with the most popular hiking regions in

­Germany being the Black Forest (12%), followed by the Elbsandsteingebirge in Saxonia

(8%), the Bayerische Wald in Bavaria (7%), and the Harz region (6%) (Menzel et  al.,

 

7: Significant Innovation in the Development and Provision of Heli-ski Mountain Experiences: The Case of Mike Wiegele Helicopter Skiing

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Significant Innovation in the

Development and Provision of Heli-ski

Mountain Experiences: The Case of Mike

Wiegele Helicopter Skiing

Harold Richins*

Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada

Innovation in Special Niche Tourism

Experience Development

Tourism, and particularly special niche tourism, has advanced through a multitude of innovative practices over the last 50 years (Poon, 1993;

Rachman and Richins, 1997; Benckendorff et al., 2014; Neuhofer et al., 2014). These innovative practices are found in both major and minor tourism product/service experience

­provision developments; through innovation in channel/promotion methods; and in the methods for accessing these experiences (Novelli, 2005;

Swarbrooke and Horner, 2005; Scarinci and

Richins, 2008).

Innovation has been defined and conceptualized in diverse ways (Peters and Pikkematt,

2005). The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development defined enterprise innovation as: ‘The implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service), or process, a new marketing method, or a new organizational method in business practices, workplace organization or external relations’

 

8: From Winter Destination to All-year-round Tourism: How Focus on Service can Reduce Fluctuation in Demand due to Seasonality

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From Winter Destination to All-yearround Tourism: How Focus on Service can Reduce Fluctuation in Demand due to Seasonality

Marit Gundersen Engeset* and Jan Velvin

Buskerud Vestfold University College, Kongsberg, Norway

Introduction

Fluctuation in demand causes challenges with tourism, related to capacity management, workforce retention, and profitability (Allcock,

1989; Butler, 2001; Higham and Hinch, 2002;

Koenig-Lewis and Bischoff, 2005; Pegg et al.,

2012). A major reason for fluctuation is the seasonality of the tourism product, where demand is concentrated during a few months of the year. Many tourism destinations and companies meet this challenge by targeting business markets when the leisure market is off-season. For mountain resorts relying on snow tourism, this strategy is difficult, since high season in the leisure market coincides with peak demand in the business market. Competition from other vacation forms and changes in climate will affect the future earnings of the destinations that focus only on winter tourism (Moen and Fredman, 2007). Mountain resorts therefore need to develop their attractiveness in the leisure market in all seasons. Tourism destinations dedicated to breaking out of seasonal fluctuations typically focus on developing off-season products or marketing activities such as price discounts and promotions to increase demand during low-­ season (Higham and Hinch, 2002). In order to be

 

9: People and Communities in Mountain Tourism: Overview, Contextual Development and Areas of Focus

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People and Communities in Mountain

Tourism: Overview, Contextual

Development and Areas of Focus

John S. Hull* and Harold Richins

Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada

Introduction

This chapter provides an introduction to Part III, which explores aspects of people and communities in mountain tourism, including a broad range of topics, diverse geographical areas, and discussion regarding communities that have evolved in mountain areas. The people that visit and/or reside in mountain regions are normally significant participants in recreation and tourism activities. Meeting and integrating their interests with the diverse residential needs specific to mountain communities introduces opportunities, challenges, impacts, and outcomes. Planning processes and efforts to build infrastructure and services in what is often a harsh mountain environment that is dynamically changing, can be extremely challenging, but it is this very circumstance that requires careful consideration and the need for issues to be addressed.

 

10: Tourism-led Amenity Migration in a Mountain Community: Quality of Life Implications for Fernie, British Columbia

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Tourism-led Amenity Migration in a

Mountain Community: Quality of Life

Implications for Fernie, British Columbia

Peter W. Williams,1* Alison M. Gill1 and Jeff M. Zukiwsky2

1

Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada;

2

Zumundo Consultants, Fernie, Canada

Introduction

Globalization forces linked to changes in socio-­ political systems, as well as innovations in communications, transportation, and workplace technologies, have fuelled unprecedented opportunities for people to visit, live, work, and/ or retire in areas possessing high quality of life

(QoL) amenities (Sheller and Urry, 2006).

These amenities include attractive recreation and cultural facilities, scenic and healthy natural environments, efficient transportation and communication systems, and vital community support services (Moss, 2006). The flows of people drawn to places possessing such attributes are often referred to as amenity-led migrations, and the participants are amenity migrants.

Because of their unique combination of tourism and community QoL assets, mountain resort communities are increasingly the destination of choice for amenity migrants (Chipeniuk and Rapport, 2008). Those motivated primarily to move to such places because of the presence of tourism-related assets and opportunities are referred to as tourism-led amenity migrants (Williams and Hall, 2000). A particularly important subset of this group ­comprises

 

11: In the Shadow of Machu Picchu: A Case Study of the Salkantay Trail

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In the Shadow of Machu Picchu:

A Case Study of the Salkantay Trail

Joe Pavelka*

Mount Royal University, Calgary, Canada

Introduction

Travel to Peru has risen sharply in the past two decades from 479,000 in 1995 to over 3.1 million in 2013 (Index Mundi, 2014) and so has travel to the cultural site of Machu Picchu, Peru’s primary attraction. Just over 70% of all international travellers to Peru visit Machu Picchu

(Pavelka, 2010). There are few attractions in the world with such a prominent role in a nation’s tourism and identity (Shullenberger, 2008) as

Machu Picchu, which stands as a visual focal point of indigenous cultural reawakening. It acts as the economic engine of tourism, and it fuels constant debate of its environmental carrying capacity, with arguments that daily visitor limits threaten its ecological integrity (Lincoln and

Neelam, 2012). Machu Picchu differs from many other attractions because the experience of Machu

Picchu involves two distinct components: getting to the site and the site itself. Machu Picchu receives about 2500 visitors each day (Zan and

 

12: Transformative Wine Tourism in Mountain Communities

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Transformative Wine Tourism in Mountain Communities

Donna M. Senese*

University of British Columbia–Okanagan, Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada

Introduction

Wine regions are classified according to their landscape, climate, and geological origin. These are factors that also help define ‘terroir’, a complex term that delimits geographical space constructed in the interaction of the natural

­ environment and human factors over time

­

(­Unwin, 2012). Terroir is widely discussed and hotly contested wherever wine is produced, and this is especially true in unique environments with difficult growing conditions such as mountain regions. Mountain regions and cultures also possess conflicted economic landscapes, where the amenities of primordial nature compete, often unsuccessfully, with the needs of industry.

Tourism and wine industries share a potential to co-exist sustainably in amenity-­rich mountain environments where the lifestyle and aesthetic of wine culture transforms mountain landscapes into a unique rural idyll. The author examines the transformative potential of mountain wine tourism to address some of the issues facing rural mountain communities beginning with presentation of the potential of wine tourism to join the cast of niche tourism sectors as it transforms the landscape and worldview of hosts and guests. The value of mountain wine-producing areas in a global perspective is introduced and

 

13: Sustainable Tourism in the Carpathians

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Sustainable Tourism in the

Carpathians

László Puczkó,1* Michael Meyer,2 Martina Voskarova2 and Ivett Sziva1

1

Xellum Ltd, Budapest, Hungary; 2Ecological Tourism in Europe (ETE), Bonn, Germany

Introduction

This chapter describes the development of a sustainable tourism strategy for the Carpathian mountain system. Seven countries share the

Carpathians, the second-longest mountain range in Europe. The Carpathians have great potential for tourism, though they are relatively unknown and less developed when compared to the Alps. The seven countries follow unique strategies and use different methods of tourism development, which may limit the expected positive contributions from tourism and/ or allow tourism to have a negative impact on local communities and the mountainous landscape.

The efforts of developing sustainable tourism in the Carpathians crystallized in preparation of a joint tourism development strategy.

The purpose of the strategy was to determine common actions and measures in  order to value and sustainably use the ­outstanding natural and cultural assets for sustainable tourism development of the C

 

14: Leisure Living in the Alps

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1

Leisure Living in the Alps

Aurelia Kogler1* and Philipp Boksberger2

Montcon Tourism, Austria and HTW Chur, Switzerland;

2

Lorange Institute, Switzerland

Introduction

Alpine tourism has evolved slowly but steadily from an isolated phenomenon in the 19th century to a mature tourism market in the 21st century. Not surprisingly, tourism in the Alps has been the focus of various scientific contributions. It is therefore well recognized that the following four factors significantly influence the spatial development in the Alpine region in general (Schuckert and Boksberger, 2008).

First, the usable space is very limited in the

Alps. Between 5% and 20% of the alpine surface only can be used for private or commercial activities. Compared to other regions, the space for tourism development is very limited.

Second, the real-estate situation in the Alps can be described as highly fragmented in consequence of small lots of land as a result of the historic agricultural structure of land ownership. This leads to the characteristic situation that various stakeholders (land owners) need to be democratically involved in the development of alpine destinations. Third, tourism is generally in competition and, sometimes, conflict with other non-compatible industries that may create even higher value added for the region.

 

15: Australia’s Alpine Areas: Motivations, Experiences and Satisfaction of Visitors to Mt Kosciuszko

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Australia’s Alpine Areas:

Motivations, Experiences and

Satisfaction of Visitors to Mt Kosciuszko

Tracey Dickson*

University of Canberra, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

‘From the forest and wilderness come the tonics and barks which brace mankind.’

Henry David Thoreau, Walking (1862)

Introduction

The natural areas in alpine and mountain

­regions, especially summits, have been key attractions for tourists in winter and summer for decades. Mt Kosciuszko is one of those alpine summit destinations. Mt Kosciuszko is Australia’s highest point, and is located in the Snowy

Mountains, New South Wales (Fig. 15.1). It is of environmental and cultural significance to local Aboriginals as well as to current generations. Mt Kosciuszko in Kosciuszko National

Park (KNP) is a popular winter destination, but the summit also has special appeal for summer visitors when the snow has gone. This chapter explores the issues related to understanding why people are drawn to alpine natural areas; how people experience their natural world; how to support their ongoing and sustainable participation in often fragile environments; and to support the visitation to, and management of, those areas for future generations.

 

16: Natural Environments and Their Connection to Mountain Tourism: Overview, Contextual Development and Areas of Focus

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Natural Environments and

Their Connection to Mountain Tourism:

Overview, Contextual Development and

Areas of Focus

Sydney Johnsen1* and Harold Richins2

Peak Planning Associates, Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada;

2

Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada

1

Introduction

This chapter, as an introduction to Part IV, examines mountain tourism and its connection and integration to natural environments. Relevant literature is explored here, and a summary of each chapter within this section is included at the end.

Visitors are drawn to visit and explore the natural setting in mountain environments. For some it is the physical aspect – being active, getting healthy – that motivates them to undertake leisure activities in the peaks and valleys of the mountain environment. For others it has more of an indescribable or spiritual meaning, or a sense of place where one finds wonder, enchantment or calming peacefulness. Authors

Reid and Palechuck explore these benefits in

Chapter 21, referencing research conducted by

 

17: Tourism, Environmental Pragmatism and Changing Attitudes Towards Mountains

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Tourism, Environmental Pragmatism and Changing Attitudes Towards Mountains

C. Michael Hall*

University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand

Introduction

One of the most significant lessons of the history of tourism is that resources are socially and culturally constructed and therefore change over time (Cooper and Hall, 2008). Mountains provide an excellent example of this. For most of the history of Western civilization the dominant attitude towards mountains has been that they are wild places to be avoided. Mountains, and volcanoes in particular, were regarded as ‘warts’, ‘boils’, ‘pox’ and other ‘unsightly excrescences’ before the modern period of mountain appreciation (Porteous, 1986). It is only since the late 18th and early 19th centuries that there has been a shift in attitudes and mountains have come to be regarded in a positive aesthetic light (Nicholson, 1959). Such cultural change is vital for tourism, as, arguably, without them there would be little mountain tourism as we now recognize it, at least from Western tourists, ecotourism likely would not exist, and national parks may not have come into existence (McQuillan, 1995; Frost and Hall, 2009).

 

18: External and Internal Challenges of Glacier Tourism Development in Iceland

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External and Internal Challenges of

Glacier Tourism Development in Iceland

Johannes Welling* and Thorvarður Árnason

University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland

Introduction

Glaciers in Iceland have been visited by foreign guests for centuries, but it is only in the last few decades that some of these have become highly popular tourist destinations on which a broad array of guided tour activities, ranging from soft to hard adventure, are now provided.

Interest in these forms of tourist activities has grown rapidly in recent years, which has in turn led to the formation of many new tour companies specializing in this field, as well as increased overall product diversity. This chapter will examine the development of glacier tourism in Iceland and explore the challenges that this form of niche tourism is facing through gradual and sudden changes of the natural environment, as well as through the development of mountain tourism in Iceland more generally.

The findings are based on data collected through a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. Information concerning glacier tourism for this chapter was obtained by means of a literature study, analysis of tourist enterprises’ websites, participant observations during two commercial glacier tours, and in-depth interviews with eight entrepreneurs specialized in glacier tour activities.

 

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