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Destination Competitiveness, the Environment and Sustainability: Challenges and Cases. CABI Series in Tourism Management Research

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Destination competitiveness and sustainability are important issues for many stakeholders within the tourism industry. In recent years, destinations have faced some challenges with respect to maintaining sustainability; they must be cleaner, greener and safer in order to safeguard the life quality of holidaymakers and local residents. Providing an invaluable review of the latests research on the topic, global case studies provide a perspective of the worldwide challenges and solutions arising in the management of tourism destinations. The analysis presents an interdisciplinary approach, including contributions of economists, geographers, managers and marketing professionals.

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16 Chapters

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2: Tourism Destination Competitiveness and Innovation: The Case of the Spanish Mediterranean Coast



Tourism Destination

Competitiveness and Innovation:

The Case of the Spanish

Mediterranean Coast

Antonio García Sánchez* and David Siles López

Technical University of Cartagena, Cartagena, Spain



Tourism is one of the most valuable industries in a country’s economy today; it adds value to the country’s GDP, resulting in increased well-being for the country’s inhabitants. According to the World Data Bank, there were 1.076 million tourist arrivals around the world in 2012, and these tourists contributed large expenditures to their destinations’ economies (World Data Bank, 2012). Tourism is important for economies and is common in developed countries, and can be a determinant in developing countries to ensure their economic growth. For many countries, tourism is a good option for growth, and during economic slowdowns, tourism offers an excellent boost to local economies. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC), tourism has contributed 10% to world GDPs over the past 20 years (WTTC, n.d.).


3: Destination Evaluation through the Prioritization of Competitiveness Pillars: The Case of Brazil



Destination Evaluation through the Prioritization of Competitiveness Pillars:

The Case of Brazil

Jose Manoel Gândara1* and Adriana Fumi Chim-Miki2

Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil; 2CAPES Foundation, Brasilia-DF,

Brazil, and University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain


3.1  Introduction

The competitiveness of tourism destinations has been analysed according to different measurement models in recent decades (Crouch and Ritchie, 1999; Dwyer and Kim,

2003; Heath, 2003; Enright and Newton, 2004; Gooroochurn and Sugiyarto, 2005;

Mazanec et al., 2007; Barbosa, 2008; Gomezelj and Mihalic, 2008; Hong, 2009;

Gandara et al., 2013). In general, the models’ determinants cover the main attributes to success in the tourism industry. The differences between them are the indicators used to compose the aggregate index that determines the degree of competitive against other competitors.

Noteworthy is the growing interest of academics and global organizations in the topic of competitiveness, leading them to create competitiveness measurement methods. Some of these methods have been developed for very specific areas, countries or regions. Some countries in particular, through those managing the tourism industry, have created internal competitiveness indices.


4: Creativity and City Tourism Repositioning: The Case of Valencia, Spain



Creativity and City Tourism

Repositioning: The Case of Valencia, Spain

José María Nácher Escriche* and Paula Simó Tomás

University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain

4.1  Introduction

Creative activities are important regional facilitators. The urban interaction of the professionals of art, communication, universities, science and R&D leads to an increase in productivity, quality of life and competitiveness. These creative clusters attract other creative professionals, generating leisure or professional visits, which in turn may generate the decision to reside in the visited destination. Urban positioning strategies show a growing interest in the creation or attraction of creative activities.

This paper reviews the creativity and tourism literature, proposes a research method to detect creative flows and makes a first approach to the case of Valencia, Spain, a city with a long history of creativity and with a present that can make it a remarkable

European creative destination.

4.2  Creative Industries and Cities


5: Visual Semantics and Destination Competitiveness: The Case of Wedding Tourism in Mexico



Visual Semantics and Destination

Competitiveness: The Case of

Wedding Tourism in Mexico

Gerardo Novo Espinosa de los Monteros1* and Maribel Osorio Garcia

El Colegio Mexiquense, Zinacantepec, México; 2Universidad Autónoma del

Estado de México, Toluca, México




While Mexico has not positioned itself explicitly as a wedding destination, it has in recent years begun to capitalize on those attributes that make it an attractive destination for such purposes and has begun to channel its efforts toward particular market segments, primarily the North American market. Its marketing efforts, particularly those using visual communication of destination weddings, have featured

Mexican destinations that serve as ideal backdrops for such celebrations, while also highlighting the qualities that make them attractive for vacationing and tourism. For consumers, choosing a location for a destination wedding has become a complex task as more and more places attempt to incorporate into their offerings activities, amenities and integrated services for organizing a wedding.


6: The Potential Effects of Climate Change on the Tourism Industry: A Study in Turkey



The Potential Effects of Climate

Change on the Tourism Industry:

A Study in Turkey

Musa Pinar,1* Ibrahim Birkan,2 Gamze Tanil3 and Muzaffer Uysal4

Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, USA; 2Atilim University, Ankara, Turkey; 3Dogus

University, Istanbul, Turkey; 4Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,

Blacksburg, USA


6.1  Introduction

Scientific research shows that the global climate has changed as a result of human

­activities that are increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) declared ‘warming of the climate system is unequivocal’. Climate change includes an increase in continental average temperatures, temperature extremes and wind patterns, widespread decreases in glaciers and ice caps and warming ocean surface temperature that contributed to a sea level rise of 1.8 mm/year from 1961 to 2003 and approximately 3.1 mm/year from

1993 to 2003 (IPCC, 2007). These changes to the world’s climate cause substantial concerns, for many reasons. For example, the rising sea level threatens the viability of many coastal zones and small islands; temperature rises are predicted to change precipitation patterns, which could exacerbate water supply problems and create a greater risk of both flooding and drought conditions in many parts of the world; and climate change also seems likely to increase the magnitude, frequency and risk of ­extreme climatic events, such as storms and sea surges. Moreover, recent research indicates that hot extremes, heatwaves and heavy precipitation events will become more frequent and tropical cyclones (typhoons and hurricanes) will become more intense (UNWTO, UNEP–WMO, 2008). Water scarcity and increased drought will also be serious problems for some regions.


7: Using Tourism to Mitigate Against Climate Change: The Case of the Caribbean



Using Tourism to Mitigate Against

Climate Change: The Case of the


Kimberley Blackwood,1* Juley Wynter-Robertson2 and Nadine


University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica; 2University of the West Indies,

Cobbla, Jamaica




To facilitate tourism, there must be movement wherein an individual has to travel from one location to another using a form of transportation. Travel in Caribbean tourism is mainly by airplanes and cruise ships. Tourists travel to the region mainly for sun, sand and sea, and most Caribbean islands have not cultivated a tourism industry based on much beyond that (Pattullo, 2005). Mass tourism began in the

Caribbean in the 1960s with the advent of low-cost air travel. Jamaica, Barbados and the Bahamas were among the first places to develop a resort-based tourism programme. Within 20 years, these locations began to experience the problems that are now typically associated with unplanned growth (Cameron and Gatewood, 2008).

Tourism is considered one of the most highly climate-sensitive economic sectors. Many tourism destinations are dependent on climate as their principal attraction, sun and sea, or on environmental resources such as wildlife and biodiversity.


8: Green Economy Practices in the Tourism Industry: The Case of Limpopo Province, South Africa



Green Economy Practices in the

Tourism Industry: The Case of

Limpopo Province, South Africa

Charles Nhemachena,1* Siyanda Jonas2 and Selma Karuaihe2

International Water Management Institute, Pretoria, South Africa; 2Human Sciences

Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa




Tourism as an industry contributes significantly to the national and provincial ­economies of South Africa, accounting for over 5% of gross domestic product (GDP). In recent years, the focus on the green economy initiatives across the various sectors is gaining momentum. In its 2013 World Tourism Barometer, the United Nations World

Tourism Organization (UNWTO, 2013) showed that the contribution of tourism to the global economy was estimated at around 9% of GDP, through direct and induced impact. Moreover, the sector’s contribution to employment was estimated at an average of 1 in 11 jobs generated globally. The contribution of the tourism industry in South Africa has led the government to recognize the sector as, inter alia, a key sector that can precipitate addressing the challenges of inequality, poverty and unemployment. For instance, the State of Travel and Tourism in South Africa posits that the government identifies tourism as one of the key contributing sectors to the medium-term strategic priorities of growing the economy and creating decent work


9: Environmental Resources and the Hotel Industry: The Case of Slovenia



Environmental Resources and the Hotel Industry: The Case of


Tanja Mihalič*

University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia



Tourism products and experience encompass a multidimensional concept that i­ncludes not only purposely produced tourism services but also environmental resources, such as ‘not produced for tourism’ climate, traditions, the friendliness of locals, or traditional architecture. Research has shown that tourists have become increasingly demanding in regard to the natural and sociocultural surroundings and their quality

(Aguiló et al., 2005).

The role of environmental resources in tourism supply, demand and competitiveness has been debated for almost a century (Mariotti, 1938; Planina, 1966; Mihalič, 2000;

Ritchie and Crouch, 2003). The tourism demand potential of a destination’s environmental resources and how they trigger that demand and bring value to tourism firms has been studied and become an integral part of tourism economics. Following the sustainable tourism development paradigm, environmental resources entered the competitiveness and destination management debate (Mihalič, 2000; Dwyer and Kim, 2003).


10: Ecological Modernization and Environmental Education: The Case of Turkey



Ecological Modernization and

Environmental Education:

The Case of Turkey

Habib Alipour* and Hossein G.T. Olya

Eastern Mediterranean University, Gazimagusa/KKTC, Turkey

10.1 Introduction

Educational institutions are recognized as suitable venues to provide environmental awareness through their various programmes (Shin, 2000). Based on the Tbilisi

Conference on Environmental Education in 1977, the main objectives of environmental education are awareness, knowledge, attitudes, skills and participation (http://www. Overall, environmental education provides valid infor­ mation for understanding the biophysical environment, creating motivation and guiding the discovery of suitable solutions to biophysical environmental problems. It is also involved, and plays an effective role, in environmental movements as a social and pol­ itical culture (Hajer, 1996; Potter, 2010). Eventually,

Those now being educated will have to do what the present generation has been unable or unwilling to do: stabilize world population, reduce the emission of greenhouse gases that threaten to change the climate . . .  protect biological diversity, reverse the destruction of forests everywhere, and conserve soils.


11: Understanding the Seasonal Concentration of Tourist Arrivals: The Case of the South of Spain



Understanding the Seasonal

Concentration of Tourist Arrivals:

The Case of the South of Spain

José David Cisneros-Martínez * and Antonio Fernández-Morales

Universidad de Málaga, Málaga, Spain

11.1 Introduction

Seasonality is a phenomenon that affects many economic activities, including tourism.

Regions or destinations where the tourism industry represents a significant part of their economies are indeed more affected by seasonal fluctuations. In Andalusia, the southern region of Spain, tourism is a very important economic industry, with 12.8% of the share in the regional gross domestic product (GDP) for 2013. Employment

­figures for 2013 indicate that there are 320,000 tourism-related jobs, which is 13% of the total regional employment. Moreover, it has been estimated that 22.4 million tourists visited Andalusia in 2013, of which 59% chose the Andalusian coastline; ‘sun and beach’ was the predominant product (Consejería de Turismo, Comercio y Deporte

[CTCYD], 2013).

Thus, the entire Andalusian region must deal with the effects of seasonality. Both local and regional administration, as well as tourism business owners, are currently confronting this problem by implementing remedial measures to reduce seasonal concentration with the relentless pursuit of new formulas for product diversification.


12: Tourism Policy and the Challenge of Seasonality: The Case of the Balearic Islands



Tourism Policy and the Challenge of Seasonality: The Case of the

Balearic Islands

Margarita Alemany,* Maria Antonia García and Ángela Aguilo

University of the Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain

12.1 Introduction

The origin of tourism in the Balearic Islands dates from the end of the 19th century, but travelling to the Balearic Islands did not become a mass phenomenon until the late 1950s and 1960s. This was the so-called tourism boom, which led to a significant increase in hotel capacity and annual number of tourists. This new reality became the backbone of a unique economic model, which has almost always shown an upward trend, with only slight fluctuations such as the one caused by the energy crisis of the

1960s. This tourism model established itself as a successful production system, reaching a turning point in the 1980s when, as a consequence of the decentralization of state powers prompted by the Spanish constitution of 1978, the area of responsibility for tourism was transferred to the Autonomous Region. This led to the development of an independent tourism model for the notable creation of wealth, which, despite inevitable fluctuations from one year to another, has been the undisputed driver of the economy of the Balearic Islands from its creation to the present day.


13: Expenditure and Stay Behaviour of Nature-based Visitors: The Case of Costa Rica



Expenditure and Stay Behaviour of Nature-based Visitors:

The Case of Costa Rica

Andres Artal-Tur* and Antonio Juan Briones-Peñalver

Technical University of Cartagena, Cartagena, Spain

13.1 Introduction

The tourism industry has shown an important development in Central America in

­recent years, with arrivals growing 7% annually between 1995 and 2013, from 2.6 to

7.9 million people. According to UNWTO forecasts, 14 million people are expected to arrive in the region in 2020, and 22 million in 2030 (United Nations World Tourism

Organization (UNWTO), 2014). Nature-based tourism is highly extended in this area.

Green forest and wildlife richness attract international visitors to this place, one of the most important world reserves of the biosphere. In this chapter, we gain a deeper understanding of the particularities of tourists coming to a nature-based destination. Building on a survey of more than 14,000 questionnaires for the years 2009–2011, we investigate the behaviour of tourists coming to a salient destination of this region, Costa Rica.


14: Socio-economic Profile of Sustainable Tourists and Expenditure at Destinations: A Local-based Analysis in Andalusia, Spain



Socio-economic Profile of

Sustainable Tourists and

Expenditure at Destinations:

A Local-based Analysis in

Andalusia, Spain

Pablo Juan Cárdenas-García* and Juan Ignacio Pulido-Fernández

University of Jaén, Spain

14.1 Introduction

The core around which all economic impacts revolve is tourism expenditure

(Cárdenas-García, 2012; Brida and Scuderi, 2013), which is therefore considered a key variable in the analysis of the tourism market, even though its assessment is becoming increasingly complex (Aguiló and Juaneda, 2000).

In fact, tourists have specific characteristics – such as age, origin, income, occupational status, etc. – that usually determine the tourism expenditure linked to a particular tourism activity. Thus, the study of the underlying causes that explain such expenditure becomes crucial to guide both the private sector and those responsible for setting tourism policy, inasmuch as it would be possible to know in advance the tourism expenditure that will be performed by a consumer according to his or her specific characteristics (Woodside and Dubelaar, 2002).


15: Networking for Sustainable Cultural Tourism Activities and Dynamics: The Case of Oporto



Networking for Sustainable

Cultural Tourism Activities and

Dynamics: The Case of Oporto

Ivana Stević* and Zélia Breda

University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal

15.1 Introduction

‘We live in a networked world’ (Scott et al., 2008, p. 1), with constantly getting in touch with the term ‘network’ in our everyday lives, yet not thinking about what it actually represents and using it without a second thought. We have our networks of friends, family members and colleagues with whom we interact, interrelate and cooperate. We all are parts of a complex global system that functions on the basis of connections and interrelations, both people and industries, with tourism being no exception. Tourism is a phenomenon, an industry, an activity, an international business, an income generator, a development mechanism, a poverty alleviator. It can be studied and defined from the demand side (e.g. Frechtling, 2001; Eurostat, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, United Nations and World Tourism Organization, 2001), from the supply side (e.g. Smith, 1988, 1991, 1993, 1995), as a system composed of supply and demand (e.g. Mill and Morrison, 1985; Leiper, 1990; Wall and Mathieson, 2006), from a community perspective (e.g. Murphy, 1985; Murphy and Murphy, 2004), or from a market perspective (e.g. Hall, 2003).


16: Facing the Challenges of Sustainability: The Case of Bulgarian Tourism



Facing the Challenges of

Sustainability: The Case of

Bulgarian Tourism

Mariya Stankova*

South-West University ‘Neofit Rilski’, Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria

16.1 Introduction

Bulgaria is a country with beautiful and fascinating nature, ancient cultural and historical heritage left by old-world civilizations, and magical music, dances and rituals.

In all their diversity, those resources provide various combinations for the tourist offerings. Tourism development in Bulgaria dates back to the pre-World War II period, but gained momentum after the war (Ivanov and Dimitrova, 2013). Over the years, Bulgaria has been a holiday destination for the former Soviet bloc (Madanoglu,

2012), but after its collapse and during the transition period (after 1989) it faced the challenge of finding the right path of development. Today, tourism, as one of the leading industries in the Bulgarian economy, is characterized by dynamic development and high rates of growth, clearly expressed since 2000. Its contribution to the growth of the gross domestic product (GDP) is indisputable, and this makes it an efficient tool of social economic growth, as is apparent from the statistical indicators of the Bulgarian National Statistical Institute (NSI) (2015). The merits for its development could be attributed to a large extent to private entrepreneurs. Nowadays, over


17: Conclusion




Andrés Artal-Tur1* and Metin Kozak2

Technical University of Cartagena, Cartagena, Spain; 2Dokuz Eylul University,

Foca, Turkey


Destination is the place where tourism occurs. Tourism supply meets demand in the destination. Environmental and cultural resources, attractions and the hospitality industry are all located in the destination. The tourism industry touches the ground at the destination. As a result, enormous pressure is put on destination resources. The development of the mass tourism model extends that pressure all over the world.

Many families and firms, either in developing or developed countries, depend on the revenues generated through the tourism industry. The extension of tourism activities results in a negative impact on the life conditions of the local population. In this context, it is necessary to continue improving our understanding of the phenomena of destination sustainability. This has constituted the main aim of the present book, with a strong focus on the environmental and competitiveness dimensions. We have endeavoured to direct the attention once more towards these pivotal fields of research, providing new tools and knowledge to confront the big challenges appearing for tourism destinations.



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