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Brassica Oilseeds: Breeding and Management

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Oilseed brassicas are among the largest traded agricultural commodities and are grown in around fifty countries worldwide. Utilised for both consumption and bioenergy use, demand is increasing and this book covers the entire gamut of oilseed brassicas. Beginning with an introduction and then organised into two sections, it reviews genetics and genomics (including breeding, heterosis and selection methods) and stress management and important pathogens, to provide a complete overview of brassica oilseeds.

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1: Importance and Origin

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1  Importance and Origin

Arvind Kumar,1* P.A. Salisbury,2,3 A.M. Gurung4 and M.J. Barbetti5

1

Vice Chancellor, Rani Lakshmi Bai Central Agricultural University,

Jhansi-284003, Uttar Pradesh, India; 2University of Melbourne,

Institute of Land and Food Resources, University of Melbourne,

Parkville, Victoria, Australia; 3Victorian Institute for Dryland

Agriculture, Horsham, Victoria, Australia; 4Faculty of Land and Food Resources, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia;

5

School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia

Introduction

Oilseed brassicas, also known by their trade name of rapeseed-mustard, include Brassica napus, B. juncea, B. carinata and three ecotypes of B. rapa. In 2012/13 global production of these crops exceeded 63.76 Mt, making them the second most valuable source of vegetable oil in the world. The leading oilseed-brassica producers in the world are the European

Union, China, Canada and India (USDA,

2015). Different forms of oilseed brassicas are cultivated throughout the world. Winter-type

 

2: Genetics and Breeding

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2 

Genetics and Breeding

Shashi Banga,1* P.R. Kumar,2 Ram Bhajan,3 Dhiraj Singh4 and S.S. Banga1

1

Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab; 2Indian Council of

Agricultural Research, Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi; 3Department of Plant

Breeding & Genetics, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of

Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttrakhand; 4(ICAR), Directorate of

Rapeseed-Mustard Research, Sewar, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India

Introduction

Oilseed brassicas are critical for the edible oilseeds economy of the world. Therefore, these crops have received much attention from cytogeneticists, taxonomists, evolutionary biologists, crop breeders and biotechnologists.

Notwithstanding unsolved problems of susceptibility to pests and diseases, significant progress has been made towards enhanced productivity and seed quality modifications.

A great deal is also understood about the origin and diversification of the genus. Modern molecular technologies have helped to answer many critical questions about the origin of the polyploid brassicas, the relationships among species and species groups, and the genesis of the domesticated forms from their wild progenitors. Also well characterized are wild crucifers and their relatedness with cultivated species. Investigators also focused on introgressing alien genetic resources in crop brassicas. Hybrids are now available in otherwise self-­pollinated di-genomic species, Brassica jun­ cea (mustard) and Brassica napus (rapeseed), thanks to alloplasmic male sterility systems. Genome sequencing has been completed in all three monogenomics and B. napus. Complete genome sequences of B. juncea and Brassica ­carinata,

 

3: Intersubgenomic Heterosis: Brassica napus as an Example

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3 

1

Intersubgenomic Heterosis: Brassica napus as an Example

Donghui Fu1* and Meili Xiao2

Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of

Education, Agronomy College, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang;

2

Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Rapeseed, College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China

Introduction

There are six predominant Brassica species.

These include three primary diploids, B. rapa

(AA, 2n=20), B. oleracea (CC, 2n=18), B. nigra

(BB, 2n=16) and three amphidiploids, B. napus

(AACC, 2n=38), B. juncea (AABB, 2n=36) and

B. carinata (BBCC, 2n=34). Each pair of diploid species hybridized during evolution has undergone chromosome doubling to generate amphidiploids. Of the three amphiploids,

B. napus is now a major oilseed crop of the world. Both open-pollinated (OP) varieties and hybrids are cultivated. Hybrids are now more popular as these provide 30% higher yields than OP varieties and also exhibit superior stress tolerance and adaptability.

 

4: Induced Mutagenesis and Allele Mining

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4 

Induced Mutagenesis and Allele Mining

Sanjay J. Jambhulkar*

Nuclear Agriculture & Biotechnology Division,

Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India

Introduction

Induced Mutations for Plant Traits

Wide variation for morphological traits and adaptability has been observed in Brassica species. A range of genetic, biochemical and metabolic variation is required to be generated to exploit beneficial alleles for effective crop breeding. Mutation breeding is an important approach to improve a small number of specific characters and to enhance the spectrum of variability for traits of significant agronomic value in otherwise high yielding and adapted varieties. It has been optimally utilized to enhance the production potential of many crop plants (Chopra, 2005).

Substantive improvement of qualitative and quantitative traits has been achieved in oleiferous brassicas (Robbelen, 1990; Bhatia et al.,

1999; Jambhulkar, 2007) through induced mutagenesis (Jambhulkar and Shitre, 2007).

An overview of the induced variability for morphological, biochemical and yield attributes, their use to develop high-yielding varieties, the molecular mechanism of selected mutations and advances in mutation breeding techniques have been attempted in this chapter.

 

5: Seed Quality Modifications in Oilseed Brassicas

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5 

Seed Quality Modifications in Oilseed

Brassicas

Abha Agnihotri*

Centre for Agricultural Biotechnology, Amity Institute of Microbial Technology,

Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India

Introduction

Brassica is a large genus belonging to the Brassicaceae family. It contain 37 species (Kumar and Tsunoda, 1980), which include important crop plants such as oilseed rape (canola), mustard, cabbage, turnip rape, cauliflower and broccoli. Nutritionally, brassicas are rich in vitamins A and C and are the source of various bioactive agents. They are an important source of edible oils; their seeds are ­extensively used as condiments and spices. Among oil-­ bearing Brassica species, commonly known as rapeseed-mustard, Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) occupies the maximum hectarage followed by Brassica rapa and Brassica napus

(Anonymous, 2005). Rapeseed-­mustard provides one of the healthiest edible oils, being commonly consumed in India; however, the biochemical composition of presently

­cultivated Indian rapeseed-mustard varieties does not match the internationally accepted standards. Therefore, the enhancement of oil quality is aimed at making Indian mustard at par with international standards and competitive in Indian and international markets.

 

6: Genomics of Brassica Oilseeds

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6

Genomics of Brassica Oilseeds

Venkatesh Bollina,1 Yogendra Khedikar,1 Wayne E. Clarke1,2 and Isobel A.P. Parkin1*

1

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon; 2Department of Plant Sciences,

University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

Introduction

Brassica species are important for oilseed

­production worldwide and represent a significant agricultural commodity for a number of countries (http://www.fao.org). All brassica crops belong to tribe Brassiceae of the family

Brassicaceae. These are commonly known as mustards due to their natural production of high levels of the secondary metabolites glucosinolates, which contribute to the distinct pungent taste of the seed. In the 1970s breeding efforts to lower the levels of the perceived antinutritionals, glucosinolates and the long-chain saturated fatty acid, erucic acid, from Brassica napus (rapeseed) seed led to the development of the most widely grown and economically important brassica crop type, canola (Canadian oil low acid).

 

7: Diseases

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7 Diseases

1

C. Chattopadhyay1* and S.J. Kolte2

National Centre on Integrated Pest Management, Pusa Campus, New Delhi;

2

Ex-Professor (Plant Pathology), Kothrud, Pune, India

Introduction

Rapeseed-mustard crops are confronted by numerous diseases, insects, drought, high temperature, salinity and frost, etc. Fungal diseases are a major hurdle towards achieving higher production. The intensive cultivation of rapeseed-mustard crops with more inputs has further compounded the problem and now the occurrence of diseases has become more frequent and widespread. Severe outbreak of diseases deteriorates the quantity as well as quality of seed and oil content drastically in different oilseed brassica crops. Expression of full inherent genetic potential of a genotype is governed by inputs that go in to the production system. This can be very well illustrated with examples that involve disease management of rapeseed-mustard.

The yield reduction in oilseed brassica crops due to biotic stresses is about 19.9%, out of which diseases cause severe yield reduction at various plant growth stages. Various plant pathogens have been found to distress the crop. Of these, 18 are commercially damaging in different parts of the world. It is essential to know the causal agents, their behaviour and means to attack the vulnerable stage of the

 

8: Albugo candida

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8 

Albugo candida

P.R. Verma,1 G.S. Saharan2 and P.D. Meena3*

Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada;

2

Department of Plant Pathology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University,

Hisar, India; 3ICAR-Directorate of Rapeseed-Mustard Research,

Bharatpur, India

1

Introduction

Albugo candida (Pers. ex. Lev.) Kuntze. (A. cruciferarum

S.F. Gray) is an oomycete belonging to the family Albuginaceae (Albugonales, Peronosporomycetes). It is an obligate parasite responsible for the white rust disease of many cruciferous crops. It causes both local and general infection (Saharan and Verma, 1992). Local infection produces white to cream pustules on the lower (abaxial) surface of leaves and stems or pods, while general, or flower bud infection (Verma and Petrie, 1980) causes extensive distortion, hypertrophy, hyperplasia and sterility of inflorescences generally called

‘staghead’. The staghead phase accounts for most of the yield losses attributed to this disease. The combined infection of leaf and inflorescence caused extensive yield losses up to 30–60% in severely affected fields in turnip rape (Brassica rapa L.) (Petrie, 1973; Harper and Pittman, 1974; Petrie and Vanterpool,

 

9: Pathogenesis of Alternaria Species: Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular Characterization

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9 

Pathogenesis of Alternaria Species:

Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular

Characterization

P.D. Meena,1* Gohar Taj2 and C. Chattopadhyay3

ICAR-Directorate of Rapeseed-Mustard Research, Bharatpur; 2Molecular Biology &

Genetic Engineering, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar;

3

ICAR-National Centre on Integrated Pest Management,

Pusa Campus, New Delhi, India

1

Introduction

Alternaria blight or black leaf, and silique spot is an exceptionally serious disease of oilseed brassica crops worldwide. It is mainly induced by Alternaria brassicae (Berk) Sacc., A. brassicicola (Schwein) Wiltshire, and is a n

­ ecrotrophic pathogen that can infect every plant part in  every plant growth stage. The symptoms emerge on all aerial parts of the plant, generally resulting in serious damages to yield and quality of the seed. The disease starts as minute dark-brown to light black pustules on the older leaves that spread rapidly on to the above foliar parts of the plant by producing typical centred bands and a yellow circle of discoloration in and surrounding the lesions.

 

10: Plant Disease Resistance Genes: Insights and Concepts for Durable Disease Resistance

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10 

Plant Disease Resistance Genes: Insights and Concepts for Durable Disease Resistance

Lisong Ma and M. Hossein Borhan*

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

Introduction

understanding the innate resistance mechanisms in plants is central to genetic improvePlants are continuously exposed to biotic and ment of plant disease resistance (McDowell abiotic stress. Plant pathogenic fungi, oomy- and Woffenden, 2003).

Plants rely mainly on the innate defence cetes, bacteria, viruses and nematodes affect various crops and contribute to major yield mechanism to resist pathogen infection. This loss. Aside from their economic importance, innate defence is orchestrated by a multilayered plant pathogens of staple crops could have innate immune system (Segonzac and Zipfel, great social impact. The best example is the 2011). The first layer is based on the membrane-­

Irish famine of the 19th century caused by localized pattern-recognition receptors

Phytophthora infestans, the oomycete agent of (PRRs) that perceive the microbe or pathogen-­ potato late blight (Vurro et al., 2010; Fisher associated molecular patterns (MAMPs or et al., 2012). Despite advances of modern agri- PAMPs). Recognition of these e­ ssential moltriggered culture in controlling plant diseases, emerging ecules by PRRs initiates PAMP-­ immunity (PTI) (Ma et al., 2012). Adapted infectious diseases are still posing a threat to ­ the global crop yield and food security (Fisher pathogens have evolved to overcome PTI by et al., 2012; Gawehns et al., 2013). An estimated the production of effector proteins. Effectors

 

11: Insect Pests

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11  Insect Pests

Sarwan Kumar1* and Y.P. Singh2 department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University,

Ludhiana, 141004, Punjab, India; 2ICAR-Directorate of Rapeseed

Mustard Research, Bharatpur, 321303 Rajasthan, India

1

Introduction

The Pest Complex

Brassicaceae are cultivated the world over under varied agroclimatic conditions (Suwabe et al., 2006; Hong et al., 2008) and for diverse agricultural usage. Oilseed brassicas have become important sources of oil and protein due to the increased oilseed production of Brassica rapa, B. juncea, B. napus and B. carinata in the past three decades (Font et al., 2003). B. napus alone contributed 58.56 Mt out of total oilseed production of 446.97 Mt amounting to 13.1% during the year 2010/11 (USDA, 2011). Over the course of domestication for thousands of years, domesticated plants have lost many of the genes controlling defence mechanisms employed by their ancestors to ward off herbivores, including insect pests. Very little attention was paid by plant breeders to maintain adequate levels of insect and disease resistance in them as synthetic pesticidal chemicals were available for their management, which at that time were thought to be satisfactory.

 

12: Abiotic Stresses with Emphasis on Brassica juncea

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12 

Abiotic Stresses with Emphasis on Brassica juncea

D.K. Sharma,1* D. Kumar2 and P.C. Sharma1

ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, India;

2

ICAR-Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India

1

Introduction

Agricultural productivity is affected by a number of abiotic stresses. These may include deficit or excess water availability, flash floods, high salt levels in soil as well as in irrigation water and extreme temperatures.

In addition, mineral deficiency or toxicity is frequently encountered by plants in agricultural systems. In many cases, different abiotic stresses challenge plants in combination. For example, high temperatures and scarcity of water are commonly encountered in periods of drought and can be exacerbated by mineral toxicities that constrain root growth. Further, plants are also exposed to salinity, drought and frost-like conditions in combination in some of the cases. Higher plants have evolved multiple, interconnected strategies that enable them to survive abiotic stresses. However, these strategies are not well developed in most agricultural crops. Across a range of cropping systems around the world, abiotic stresses are estimated to reduce yields to less than half of that possible under ideal growing conditions. Traditional approaches to breeding crop plants with improved stress tolerance have so far met with limited success, in part because of the difficulty of breeding for

 

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