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Transformational Tourism: Host Perspectives

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Transformational Tourism deals with the important issue of how travel and tourism can change human behaviour and have a positive impact on the world. The book focuses on human development in a world dominated by post-9/11 security and political challenges, economic and financial collapses, as well as environmental threats; it identifies various types of tourism that can transform human beings, such as educational, volunteer, survival, community-based, eco, farm, extreme, religious, spiritual, wellness, and mission tourism.

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In Chapter 1, ‘Reflections on Life Purpose’, Yvette Reisinger asks a fundamental question about the purpose of human existence. By presenting conflicting interpretations of the purpose of life she calls for a change in human perspective and attitudes towards the world. She argues that travel and tourism have great potential to change humanity and the surrounding reality.

In Chapter 2, ‘Personal Transformation and Travel and Tourism’, Yvette Reisinger explains the concept of personal transformation and how travel and tourism create conditions conducive to transformation. She argues that, although travel and tourism can enlarge a sense of ‘self’ for both tourists and the host population, tourism holds more potential to transform the host population than tourists.

In Chapter 3, ‘Destinations under Discipline: Foucault and the Transformation of Place Makers’, Keith Hollinshead, Milka Ivanova and Kellee Caton examine Foucault’s suggestions that those who ‘govern’ tourism may be regulated by forms of knowing and acting that limit what constitutes the viewable and projectable tourism product of places, and how that product can be transformed through rapport à soi (self-rapport, the relationship to oneself) to conceivably take on board other/ alternative visions of inheritance or attractivity.

 

1 Reflections on Life Purpose

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Reflections on Life Purpose

Yvette Reisinger

Gulf University for Science and Technology, Kuwait

Searching for Purpose of Life

What is the purpose of life is a philosophical and spiritual question concerning the significance of life or human existence. Questions about the purpose of life can be expressed in a variety of ways, such as ‘Who are we?’, ‘Why are we here?’, ‘What are we here for?’, ‘Why do we live?’, ‘What sense does life have?’, ‘What is the significance of life?’, ‘What is the value of life?’, ‘What is the meaning of life?’ and ‘What is the purpose of our existence?’. The question about the purpose of life has been the subject of many philosophical, scientific, cultural, ideological, theological and spiritual discussions throughout history. There has been a large number of competing answers to these questions, and arguments from many different perspectives that have provided a wide range of explanations.

The questions about the purpose of human existence challenge and haunt every human being as we continue upon life’s journey (Kroth and Boverie, 2000). Human beings ask ourselves these questions at some point during our lives regardless of stage of life or intellectual development. Young and old, scientists and blue-collar workers, poets and ordinary people on the street wonder about the purpose of life and seek the answer to it in their own way

 

2 Personal Transformation and Travel and Tourism

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Personal Transformation and Travel and Tourism

Yvette Reisinger

Gulf University for Science and Technology, Kuwait

Tourism is one of the world’s biggest industries.

Global tourism is characterized by the development of new types of tourists, with new needs and preferences, and seeking new tourism products. Although it is widely believed that one of the main travel motivations is leisure and relaxation, new tourists seem to be seeking individuality and self-realization instead of comfort and rationality. New tourists are more interested in the educational and experiential aspects of travelling, broadening their horizons and exploring new places. For them, travelling is about discovering, an enhancing sense of self and developing an attitude of openness and openmindedness. New tourists are not just looking and seeing, they want to feel and sense. They want to better understand themselves and the world, and to adopt new and broader understanding of the surrounding reality and life.

Consciously or not, they want to undergo personal transformation.

 

3 Destination under Discipline: Foucault and the Transformation of Place Makers

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Destination under Discipline: Foucault and the Transformation of Place Makers

Keith Hollinshead,1 Milka Ivanova1 and Kellee Caton2

1University

of Bedfordshire, UK and 2Thompson Rivers University, Canada

Introduction

This chapter argues that although Foucault wrote nothing explicitly about ‘tourism’ per se, his work as a philosopher of the everyday governmentality of things has much relevance for those who work in tourism management and tourism studies. The chapter is premised on the view that Foucault’s subversive ways of thinking about undersuspected normalizing processes are important for those who ply their trade in global travel, as (for instance) the predominant

‘Western’ or ‘North Atlantic’ thoughtlines of industrially scripted tourism have historically suppressed other ways of seeing the world.

Likewise, it is founded on the assessment that

Foucault’s deep insights into the vogue practices of ‘total institutions’ like asylums, prisons, clinics, etc., are also crucially important for those employed within (for example) large corporations or state promotional bureaux in tourism, where those sorts of bodies may similarly serve as enormously prejudiced totalizing institutions as they select and produce local places.

 

4 The Normalization of Places and Spaces: Tourism and Transformation – A Glossary on the Eye-of-Authority

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The Normalization of Places and

Spaces: Tourism and Transformation –

A Glossary on the Eye-of-Authority

Keith Hollinshead,1 Kellee Caton2 and Milka Ivanova1

1University

of Bedfordshire, UK and 2Thompson Rivers University, Canada

Prologue

This chapter is the second of two chapters that seek to situate Foucault’s applied work on dominance and subjugation in everyday institutional discourse to tourism settings and to tourism studies research contexts. Chapter 3 by Hollinshead, Ivanova and Caton introduced Foucault’s outlook on the mundane/quotidian habitual forms of practice which all fields/institutions/disciplines have, and it sought to explain how

Foucault’s views on the ordinary/banal governmentality of things could be applied to day-byday subject making in tourism/tourism studies, just as in any other domain of discourse and praxis.

To recap, the previous chapter on the political economy of things explained that Foucauldian forms of power-knowledge within institutions work as a form of normalized truth ‘there’: that is, dominant/hegemonic truths serve as an ensemble of ordered procedures that (sometimes consciously but, more consequentially, unconsciously) act as a circular system – or conditioning formative force – which governs what is sayable or doable within the given institutional field of relations.

 

5 Where is the Host? An Analytic Autoethnographic Inquiry in Transformational Tourism

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Where is the Host? An Analytic

Autoethnographic Inquiry in

Transformational Tourism

Sagar Singh

Centre for Tourism Research and Development, Lucknow, India

Studies in the relationship between tourist and host experiences often revolve round the economic aspects because it is taken for granted that, since tourism is a business, this aspect of study cannot be eliminated. Host experiences, as studied by anthropologists and sociologists, are classified as often characterized by apathy or even dislike, especially where non-business stakeholders are taken into account. As a result, no clear picture emerges as to the nature of host perspectives that can lead to transformation of selves and ‘others’. This chapter, by utilizing the analytic authoethnographic approach, seeks to explain that host experiences are as much the other side of the coin as tourist experiences, and that a better insight is gained by looking at this relationship anthropologically, without minimizing the economic aspect. This can be done by utilizing an economic anthropology approach that complements and enhances Marxian theory.

 

6 The Political and Social Transformation of Roma and Jewish Communities through Tourism in Budapest

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The Political and Social

Transformation of Roma and Jewish

Communities through Tourism in Budapest

Melanie Smith1 and Anita Zatori2

1BKF

University of Applied Sciences, Hungary and 2Corvinus University of

Budapest, Hungary

This chapter focuses on the potential for transformation through tourism of the lives of Roma and Jewish communities in Budapest. Both groups have suffered from past and present persecutions. It is argued that the increased interest of international tourists in the Roma and Jewish communities can help to support and represent more positively the cultures of these communities. A series of interviews was undertaken with representatives and advocates of the Roma and

Jewish communities, including cultural organizations, tour companies and guides. The purpose was to analyse current and potential product development opportunities in both communities. This includes festivals, events and guided tours, as well as home and neighbourhood visits. It is suggested that an increased tourist interest in the Jewish and Roma communities of Budapest can help to raise awareness of their current political status, increase tolerance, create economic benefits and business opportunities, and enhance cultural pride.

 

7 Tourism, Transformation and Urban Ethnic Communities: The Case of Matonge, Brussels

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Tourism, Transformation and

Urban Ethnic Communities: The Case of

Matonge, Brussels

Anya Diekmann and Isabelle Cloquet

Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium

Over the past few decades, the urban precinct of ‘Matonge’ in Brussels has undergone several socio-cultural and economic transformations to become the busy African-oriented commercial belt we know today. Its visitors are mainly part of the African community (referred to by the authors as ‘intern tourists’) and come from other cities in Belgium and neighbouring countries. Since 2007 and with ‘extern (Western) tourists’ as the sole target, Brussels’ tourist authorities have promoted Matonge as an

‘exotic’ African quarter, stressing the multiculturalism of Brussels as a destination. While those extern tourists come to gaze at the otherness of the host community, the intern tourists come to purchase specific cultural goods and meet people from their community, exchange information and share cultural traditions. The expectations, needs and behaviours of these two types of tourist groups are extremely different and so is the impact of the encounter between the visitors and the hosts. Both visitor groups have contributed to varying extents to shaping the destination of Matonge and transforming its community. Focusing on the transformation theory of McLennan et al. (2012), this chapter examines the transformation of the

 

8 The Travelling Favela: Cosmopolitanisms from Above and from Below

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The Travelling Favela:

Cosmopolitanisms from Above and from Below

Bianca Freire-Medeiros and Gabriel Cohen

Getulio Vargas Foundation, Brazil

Introduction

The present chapter reflects upon the potentialities and limits of tourism on transforming local residents and their worldviews in a context of economic inequality and social segregation. We do so by confronting two notions, one that is widely used – ‘cosmopolitanism’, and another

– ‘travelling favela’ (Freire-Medeiros, 2013), which intends to be an unassuming contribution to the New Mobilities Paradigm (Sheller and Urry, 2006; Urry, 2007). This paradigmatic shift helps us to rethink understandings of place, power and politics within relational ontologies that highlight openness and change rather than boundedness and permanence. We are especially interested on the idea that mobilities are always complex and never restricted to a mere dislocation between two points and need to be considered in differential and relational ways.

The combined use of the notions of cosmopolitanism and travelling favela in this chapter, therefore, attempts to highlight that mobilities carry a co-relationality between material and symbolic issues involved in the very act of moving.

 

9 Transforming Nature’s Value – Cultural Change Comes from Below: Rural Communities, the ‘Othered’ and Host Capacity Building

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Transforming Nature’s Value –

Cultural Change Comes from Below:

Rural Communities, the ‘Othered’ and

Host Capacity Building

Stephen Schweinsberg,1 Stephen Wearing1 and Michael Wearing2

1University

of Technology and 2University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

Throughout history the transformative potential of tourism has impacted, for better or worse, tourism stakeholders and their environments.

The growth of mass tourism in the second half of the 20th century was characteristic of broader neoliberalist trends towards market based competition and corporate efficiency. Concern over the unchecked development of mass tourism was one of the catalysts for the development of academic interest in sustainable tourism. Early scholarship on the impacts of tourism often proposed a uniform progression of host community response to tourism development, identifying a correlation between carrying capacity, scale of development and resident perception.

However, more recently commentators have engaged with vagaries of tourism and its relationship to the social and physical environment.

 

10 Transformation of Local Lives through Volunteer Tourism: Peruvian and Thai Case Studies

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Transformation of Local Lives through Volunteer Tourism: Peruvian and Thai Case Studies

Elisa Burrai1 and Jose Ignacio de las Cuevas2

1International

Centre for Research in Events, Tourism and Hospitality,

Leeds Beckett University, UK, and 2Graduate Institute of International and

Development Studies, Switzerland

Introduction

Volunteer tourism, because of its ambiguities and complexities, represents an interesting and controversial field of investigation. However, to date few empirical studies have been conducted on its transformative potential for the host populations. The literature on volunteer tourism focuses mainly on the volunteers, their motivations, expectations and the transformations they go through during volunteer tourism (Zahra and

McGehee, 2013). This chapter aims at bridging the gap in the literature and addressing the potential of volunteer tourism to shape and transform host communities’ perceptions and behaviours. Through a comparative study of two popular volunteer tourism destinations in

 

11 The Impact of Extreme Sports on Host Communities’ Psychological Growth and Development

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The Impact of Extreme Sports on Host Communities’ Psychological

Growth and Development

Eric Brymer1 and Susan Houge Mackenzie2

1Manchester

Metropolitan University, UK, and 2California State Polytechnic

University, USA

Research on extreme and adventure sport is in its infancy. Studies in this area have primarily focused on individual participants and the psychology and sociology underpinning extreme and adventure sports participation. However, participation in extreme sports depends on the natural world and local communities to support this participation. Until recently these sports have been vilified and generally considered socially undesirable and destructive for host communities. In many parts of the world extreme sports are banned by potential host communities. This chapter presents a new perspective on the relationship between extreme sports and host communities by showing how these sports enhance host community psychological growth and development. Currently, there is a need for more research and new perspectives on the relationship between host communities and extreme sports that recognizes the potentially transformational benefits of these activities for host communities.

 

12 Transformation and the WWOOF Exchange: The Host Experience

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Transformation and the WWOOF

Exchange: The Host Experience

Adrian Deville

University of Technology, Sydney, Australia

The phenomenal growth and expansion of the

Willing Workers on Organic Farms (WWOOF) network in the mid-1990s, particularly in Australia, has been studied in a very limited fashion, but it is clear that young, mostly urban international long-term budget travellers have discovered a range of virtues in this labour exchange. Many such travellers undergo personal transformations as a result of their interactions with WWOOF hosts. It is of great interest also to consider what possibilities for similar transformation exist for hosts through engagement with WWOOFers. This chapter draws upon research conducted in Australia to explore

WWOOF hosts’ experiences during interactions with WWOOF travellers and the outcomes of these experiences. It is argued that the WWOOF exchange inherently offers transformative potential for participants and that this potential is frequently realized by hosts. Specific examples are presented. The chapter discusses the key underlying factors that recent research suggests are at play in fostering transformational processes and outcomes for hosts.

 

13 Ethnic Conflict: Is Heritage Tourism Part of the Solution or Part of the Problem?

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Ethnic conflict: Is Heritage Tourism

Part of the Solution or Part of the Problem?

Gregory Ashworth

University of Groningen, the Netherlands

It is frequently assumed that the development of heritage tourism might contribute in some ways to the alleviation or mitigation of often deepseated ethnic and cultural divisions. The expectation is that heritage tourism, being a discretionary entertainment-motivated activity transcending national or ethnic borders, could become an instrument for reconciliation. However, practice casts doubt on any such automatic impact and, in some cases, raises fears that tourism, especially locally based heritage tourism, may well, contrary to expectations, consolidate ethnic divisions and even exacerbate ethnic tensions. This explorative chapter will range over the cases of the islands of Ireland and Cyprus, Palestine, South Africa and specific heritage sites elsewhere, such as in Thailand, examining the various circumstances in which the development of heritage tourism contributes positively or negatively to the resolution of ethnic or cultural division within host societies. If a positive outcome is not to be taken as axiomatic then it becomes essential for the right placemanagement lessons to be drawn.

 

14 Developing a Tourism Poverty Reduction Strategy

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Developing a Tourism Poverty

Reduction Strategy

Omar Moufakkir1 and Ian Kelly2

1Ethics

and Global Citizenship Research Group and 2International Center for

Peace through Tourism Research

In this chapter attention is given to explaining how tourism can transform poor people’s lives and perceptions about poor people, and can contribute to the peace objective by encouraging contact situations in which attitudes may be changed for the better. The rationale for inclusion of poverty alleviation in the context of transformational tourism is based on recognition that poverty is a condition in which peace and wellbeing do not thrive and there are sound ethical grounds for seeking to help those in need.

Introduction

Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and wellbeing of himself and his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood and old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.

 

Conclusion

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Conclusion

The first volume of Transformational Tourism:

Tourist Perspectives argues that tourism scholarship has not adequately explored the complexity of the tourism phenomenon. In particular, tourism studies have not sufficiently embraced the concept of human transformation. It notes that awareness of the impact of travel and tourism experiences and their meanings for tourists’ relationships with others and the world is important to enable better understanding of the phenomenon of tourism. While the first volume aims at developing understanding of the concept of human transformation from the tourist perspective, this second volume Transformational Tourism: Host Perspectives tries to develop understanding of the concept of human transformation from the host perspective. In particular, this volume discusses the impact of travel and tourism experiences on transformation of destination host communities.

This volume explores the principles and thoughts behind personal transformation, and argues that host communities could be transformed through the rich transformational experiences offered by travel and tourism.

 

Appendix: Glossary of Foucauldian Terms Used in Chapter 4 and in the Companion Chapter 3

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Appendix Glossary of Foucauldian

Terms Used in Chapter 4 and in the

Companion Chapter 3

Keith Hollinshead, Milka Ivanova and Kellee Caton

Apparatus. In writing of and about sexuality,

Foucault makes much of the dispositif (apparatus) that regulates what we know and understand about the subject; the dispositif is that body of discourse(s), practices, propositions, laws, institutions and scientific statements about sexuality (1>1). It is the dispositif that constitutes a network which ties these understandings and actions together (1>2). Other writers have adapted Foucault’s views on the dispositif to the production of knowledge and practice of and about other subjects – in particular where these subjects are repressed (1>3), though Davidson suggests it is more consistent with Foucauldian thought to suggest that things are ‘normalized’ rather than ‘repressed’, per se, by such dispositifs of power (1>4). Thus, the dispositif within any field is that apparatus which is immanent to that field of understanding, and which tends to oversee and regulate things without itself routinely being ‘seen’ or perhaps ‘suspected’

 

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