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Potential Invasive Pests of Agricultural Crops

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Invasive arthropods cause significant damage in agricultural crops and natural environments across the globe. Potentially threatened regions need to be prepared to prevent new pests from becoming established. Therefore, information on pest identity, host range, geographical distribution, biology, tools for detection and identification are all essential to researchers and regulatory personnel. This book focuses on the most recent invasive pests of agricultural crops in temperate subtropical and tropical areas and on potential invaders, discussing their spread, biology and control.

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1. Biology and Management of the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus

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1 

Biology and Management of the Red

Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus

Robin M. Giblin-Davis,1 Jose Romeno Faleiro,2 Josep A. Jacas,3

Jorge E. Peña4 and P.S.P.V. Vidyasagar5

1

Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center, University of

Florida/IFAS, Davie, Florida, USA; 2Mariella, Arlem-Raia, Salcette, Goa 403 720,

India; 3Universitat Jaume I, Campus del Riu Sec, Castelló de la Plana, Spain;

4

Tropical Research and Education Center, University of Florida/IFAS, Homestead,

Florida 33031, USA; 5King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

The red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus

­ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a palm borer native to South Asia, which has spread mainly due to the movement of cryptically infested planting material to the Middle

East, Africa and the Mediterranean during the last two decades. Globally, the pest has a wide geographical distribution in diverse agro-­ climates and an extensive host range in Oceania,

Asia, Africa and Europe. The RPW is reported to attack over 40 palm species belonging to 23 different genera worldwide. Although it was first reported as a pest of coconut (Cocos nuci­ fera) in South Asia, it has become the major pest of date palm (Phoenix ­dactylifera), and the

 

2. Avocado Weevils of the Genus Heilipus

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2 

Avocado Weevils of the

Genus Heilipus

Alvaro Castañeda-Vildózola,1 Armando Equihua-Martinez2 and Jorge E. Peña3

1

Facultad de Ciencias Agricolas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de México,

Toluca, Estado de México, México; 2Instituto de Fitosanidad, Colegio de

Posgraduados, Montecillo, Texcoco, Estado de México, México; 3Tropical Research and Education Center, University of Florida/IFAS, Homestead, Florida 33031, USA

The genus Heilipus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), originally described by Germar in 1854, com­ prises 91 species distributed in the Americas,

39 for North and Central America (O’Brien and Wibmer, 1982) and 52 for South America

(Wibmer and O’Brien, 1986). Vanin and Gaiger

(2005) reported H. odoratus as a new South

American species, increasing the number of the original list to 92. The morphological charac­ ters that describe the genus Heilipus were

­proposed by Kuschel (1955) and are as follows: prementum glabrous, hind tibiae curved and formed in the inner corner unciniform strong mucro, premucron absent and mesosternal pro­ cess tuberculiform. It has been suggested that most of these species show their close relation­ ship with plants within the families Lauraceae and Annonaceae, and primitive angiosperms, however this association has been confirmed for only a few of them (Benchaya-Nunes, 2006;

 

3. Exotic Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in the USA: Potential and Current Invaders

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3 

Exotic Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in the USA: Potential and Current Invaders

Robert A. Haack1 and Robert J. Rabaglia2

USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, 1407 S Harrison Road,

East Lansing, Michigan 48823, USA; 2USDA Forest Service, Forest Health

Protection, 1601 N Kent Street, RPC–7, Arlington, Virginia 22209, USA

1

3.1  Introduction

Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera:

Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are among the most important insects affecting trees and forests worldwide. There are approximately 6000 scolytine species worldwide, with species found on all continents except Antarctica (Table 3.1) (Wood and Bright, 1992; Bright and Skidmore, 1997,

2002; Wood, 2007). The majority of species are found in the tropics, but many also occur in boreal forests. Undoubtedly, there are hundreds of additional species that have not yet been described.

Many authorities now consider the bark and ambrosia beetles a subfamily (Scolytinae) of the weevil family (Curculionidae) (AlonsoZarazaga and Lyal, 2009), while others continue to treat them as a distinct family (Wood, 2007).

 

4. Diabrotica speciosa: an Important Soil Pest in South America

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4 

Diabrotica speciosa: An Important

Soil Pest in South America

Crébio José Ávila and Alexa Gabriela Santana

Embrapa Western Agriculture, Caixa Postal 661, Dourados 79824-100, Brazil

4.1  Introduction

The genus Diabrotica, typically of Neotropical

­origin, represents a large number of polyphagous beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae:

Galerucinae: Luperini) and consists of about

338 described species (Wilcox, 1972). This genus is usually divided into three subgroups: signifera, fucata and virgifera. The fucata and virgifera groups are the most studied in the world (Krysan, 1986), containing 305 and

21  species, respectively, while the signifera group is represented by only 11 species (Wilcox,

1972; Krysan and Smith, 1987).

In Brazil, D. speciosa (Germar, 1824) is the predominant species of the genus Diabrotica.

The adults attack the aerial part of various crops and the larvae attack roots and tubers

(Gassen, 1989; Ávila and Milanez, 2004). In

Brazil, the adults of D. speciosa have the common names ‘vaquinha’, ‘brasileirinho’ and

 

5. Potential Lepidopteran Pests Associated with Avocado Fruit in Parts of the Home Range of Persea americana

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5 

Potential Lepidopteran Pests

Associated with Avocado Fruit in Parts of the Home Range of Persea americana

Mark S. Hoddle1 and J.R.P. Parra2

Department of Entomology, and Center for Invasive Species Research, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA; 2Departamento de Entomologia,

Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agrícola, Escola Superior de Agricultura ‘Luiz de Queiroz’,

Universidade de São Paulo, 13418-900, Brazil

1

5.1  Introduction

Legal imports of fresh avocado (Persea americana

Miller [Lauraceae]) fruit entering the USA, including California (the largest domestic producer of

‘Hass’), are increasing steadily because of cumulative imports from several countries such as México,

Chile, Perú, New Zealand and the Dominican

Republic. Increasing avocado imports into the USA are due to advertising and promotion under the

Hass Avocado Promotion and Research Order, and by the California Avocado Commission, along with various import associations realizing new business opportunities (Hoddle et al., 2010). Another reason the USA market is rapidly expanding is the growing Hispanic population in the USA that

 

6. Biology, Ecology and Management of the South American Tomato Pinworm, Tuta absoluta

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6 

Biology, Ecology and Management of the South American Tomato

Pinworm, Tuta absoluta

Alberto Urbaneja,1 Nicolas Desneux,2 Rosa Gabarra,3 Judit Arnó,3

Joel González-Cabrera,1 Agenor Mafra-Neto,4 Lyndsie Stoltman,4

Alexandre de Sene Pinto5 and José R.P. Parra6

1

Unidad de Entomología, Centro de Protección Vegetal y Biotecnología, Instituto

Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA), Carretera Moncada-Náquera km 4,5, 46113 Moncada, Valencia, Spain; 2INRA (French National Institute for

Agricultural Research), UR 880, 400 route des chappes, 06903 Sophia-Antipolis,

France; 3Entomology IRTA, Ctra. de Cabrils km 2, 08348 Cabrils (Barcelona),

Spain; 4ISCA Technologies, Inc., 1230 W. Spring Street, Riverside, California

92507, USA; 5Centro Universitário Moura Lacerda, Av. Dr. Oscar de Moura

Lacerda, 1520, 14076-510, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil; 6Departamento de Entomologia,

Fitopatologia e Acarologia, Escola Superior de Agricultura ‘Luiz de Queiroz’

Universidade de São Paulo, 13418-900, Brazil

6.1  Introduction

 

7. Tecia solanivora Povolny (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), an Invasive Pest of Potatoes Solanum tuberosum L. in the Northern Andes

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7 

Tecia solanivora Povolny

(Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), an invasive pest of potatoes Solanum tuberosum L. in the Northern Andes

Daniel Carrillo1* and Edison Torrado-Leon2

Department of Entomology and Nematology, Tropical Research and

Education Center, University of Florida, Homestead, Florida 33031, USA;

2

Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota

D.C., Colombia

1

7.1 Introduction

Tecia solanivora Povolny (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a key pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers that recently invaded some cultivation areas in South America and the Canary Islands, with disastrous effects on the potato industry in  these areas. The putative area of origin of

T.  solanivora is Guatemala, whence its common name (Guatemalan potato moth) is derived, probably ranging from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in

Mexico to Northern Honduras and El Salvador

(Puillandre et al., 2008). It was first described in 1973 and reported as a pest of potato in

Guatemala, Costa Rica, Panama, Honduras and

 

8. The Tomato Fruit Borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an Insect Pest of Neotropical Solanaceous Fruits

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8 

The Tomato Fruit Borer,

Neoleucinodes elegantalis

(Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an Insect Pest of Neotropical

Solanaceous Fruits

Ana Elizabeth Diaz Montilla,1 Maria Alma Solis2 and Takumasa Kondo1

Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria, Corpoica, Colombia;

2

USDA/ARS, SEL, Room 133, Building 005, BARC-West, 10300 Baltimore Ave.,

Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA

1

8.1  Introduction

The tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis

(Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is one of the  most important pests in the production of

Solanaceae in South America. The larva of this insect develops inside the fruit, feeding on the mesocarp and the endosperm and caused

­damage that fluctuates between 13 and 77%

(Costa Lima, 1949). This insect is considered a quarantine pest for several countries in the

Americas (ICA and SOCOLEN, 1998; SAG, 2005;

USDA et al., 2005; SENASA, 2007). The objective of this chapter is to report several aspects of its biology, dynamics, damage, geographical range and integrated pest management and to provide information on species of the same genus.

 

9. Copitarsia spp.: Biology and Risk Posed by Potentially Invasive Lepidoptera from South and Central America

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9 

1

Copitarsia spp.: Biology and Risk

Posed by Potentially Invasive

Lepidoptera from South and Central America

Juli Gould,1 Rebecca Simmons2 and Robert Venette3

USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Center for Plant Health Science and Technology, Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, USA; 2University of North Dakota,

Grand Forks, North Dakota, USA; 3USDA Forest Service, Northern Research,

St. Paul, Minnesota, USA

9.1  Introduction

9.2  Taxonomy

Members of the genus Copitarsia (Lepidoptera:

Noctuidae) represent a potential threat to US agriculture. Although they are not known to be established in the USA, they are frequently intercepted on vegetables and cut flowers at ports of entry. These species are not generally outbreak pests in their native ranges; however, it is possible that these moths could greatly impact domestic agriculture after invasion, due to the release from selection pressures posed by native predators and parasitoids. This threat is complicated by difficulties in identifying species and understanding their life history and host preferences. Here we summarize the state of knowledge for members of this genus in terms of their pest status and control. We have reviewed the taxonomic difficulties involved with members of Copitarsia, their geographic range, host plant preferences and associated economic impacts. We have summarized the life  histories of these species and procedures for  rearing them in colonies for future study.

 

10. Host Range of the Nettle Caterpillar Darna pallivitta (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) in Hawai’i

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10 

Host Range of the Nettle Caterpillar

Darna pallivitta (Moore) (Lepidoptera:

Limacodidae) in Hawai’i

Arnold H. Hara,1 Christopher M. Kishimoto2 and Ruth Y. Niino-Duponte1

1

Department of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences, Komohana

Research and Extension Center, University of Hawai’i at Manoa,

875 Komohana Street, Hilo, Hawai’i 96720, USA;

2

Honolulu, Hawai’i 96819, USA

10.1  Introduction

The stinging nettle caterpillar, Darna pallivitta

(Moore) (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), was first discovered on the Island of Hawai’i in September 2001

(Pana’ewa 119° 39 min 13 s N / 155° 3 min 32 s W), and probably arrived from Taiwan on a shipment of rhapis palm seedlings (Conant et al., 2002). The native range of D. pallivitta is China, Taiwan,

Thailand, Java and Indonesia (Godfray et al., 1987), where it is regarded as a minor pest mainly on palms and grasses, including maize. D. pallivitta quickly became established, and caused extensive feeding damage on numerous agricultural and nursery crops, and on landscape plants. Moreover,

 

11. Fruit flies Anastrepha ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and A. grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae): Three Pestiferous Tropical Fruit Flies That Could Potentially Expand Their Range to Temperate Areas

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11  Fruit Flies Anastrepha ludens (Loew),

A. obliqua (Macquart) and A. grandis

(Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae): Three

Pestiferous Tropical Fruit Flies That

Could Potentially Expand Their Range to Temperate Areas

Andrea Birke,1 Larissa Guillén,1 David Midgarden2 and Martin Aluja1

1

Red de Manejo Biorracional de Plagas y Vectores, Instituto de

Ecología A.C., Xalapa, Veracruz, México; 2USDA APHIS Medfly

Program, Guatemala City, Guatemala

11.1  Introduction

The family Tephritidae (Diptera) comprises over

4000 species of which c. 250 belong to the genus

Anastrepha. Of these, fewer than ten species are considered to be economically important pests.

In  this review, we have concentrated on three

­pestiferous Anastrepha species considered highly polyphagous and identified as potential exotic invaders: Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obli­ qua (Macquart) and Anastrepha grandis (Macquart).

Anastrepha ludens, known as the Mexican fruit fly, is an important pest of citrus that poses a considerable threat to production areas in the southern

 

12. Bactrocera Species that Pose a Threat to Florida: B. carambolae and B. invadens

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12 

Bactrocera Species that Pose a Threat to Florida: B. carambolae and B. invadens

Aldo Malavasi,1 David Midgarden2 and Marc De Meyer3

Medfly Rearing Facility – Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, Bahia, Brazil;

2

USDA/APHIS, Guatemala City, Guatemala; 3Royal Museum for Central Africa,

Tervuren, Belgium

1

12.1  Introduction

Tephritidae is one of the largest families of

Diptera and contains more than 500 genera and

4000 species, divided into three subfamilies

(White and Elson-Harris, 1992; Norrbom et al.,

1999). Tephri­tidae pests are particularly important because of their ability to invade regions far  from their native distribution. Introduced populations attack commercial fruit species, which causes ­countries imp­orting fruit to impose quarantine regulations (McPheron and

Steck, 1996). These restrictions can inhibit the sale of produce and the development or expansion of fruit production in the areas in which the pest species are established.

As their name implies, many members of the family are frugivorous (feed on fruit), and the most important pest species have a high capacity to disperse to and colonize new areas. There are three major characteristics that give Tephritidae a status of good potential invasive species:

 

13. Signature Chemicals for Detection of Citrus Infestation by Fruit Fly Larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

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13 

Signature Chemicals for Detection of Citrus Infestation by Fruit Fly Larvae

(Diptera: Tephritidae)

Paul E. Kendra,1* Amy L. Roda,2 Wayne S. Montgomery,1 Elena Q. Schnell,1

Jerome Niogret,1 Nancy D. Epsky1 and Robert R. Heath1

1

USDA-ARS, Subtropical Horticulture Research Station, Miami, Florida 33158,

USA; 2USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Center for Plant Health Science and Technology,

Miami, Florida 33158, USA

13.1  Introduction

Tropical tephritid fruit flies are invasive pests that impact fruit production and global export.

Current US appropriations for exotic fruit fly risk  management programs exceed US$57

­million  per annum (USDA-APHIS, 2006).

Primary  threats to US agriculture include the

Anastrepha species, which occur throughout the

American tropics and subtropics (Aluja, 1994), and the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata

(Wiedemann), considered one of the most destructive agricultural pests worldwide, with several hundred recognized hosts (Liquido et al.,

1991). Outbreaks of C. capitata have occurred in

 

14. Gall Midges (Cecidomyiidae) attacking Horticultural Crops in the Caribbean Region and South America

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14 

Gall Midges (Cecidomyiidae) attacking Horticultural Crops in the

Caribbean Region and South America

Juliet Goldsmith,1 Jorge Castillo2 and Dionne Clarke-Harris3

Plant Quarantine, Produce Inspection Branch, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries,

Jamaica; 2Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Peru; 3Caribbean

Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Jamaica

1

14.1  Introduction

Gall midges are a major problem of horticultural crops (tomatoes, potatoes, asparagus, pepper) in the Caribbean region and in South America. The hot pepper gall midge (HPGM) became a pest of significance in Jamaica when larvae were intercepted in shipments of hot peppers from Jamaica to the USA. The HPGM was initially identified as

Contarinia lycopersici (Felt) by the United States

Department of Agriculture – Animal and Plant

Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS). After the pest interception, production and export of hot peppers from Jamaica declined by 25–70%

(Ministry of Agriculture (undated)). Today, export of fresh hot pepper from Jamaica to the

 

15. Recent Mite Invasions in South America

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15 

Recent Mite Invasions in South America

Denise Navia,1 Alberto Luiz Marsaro Júnior,2

Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim Jr,3 Renata Santos de Mendonça1 and Paulo Roberto Valle da Silva Pereira2

1

Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, Parque Estação Biológica,

W5 Norte Final, Cx. Postal 02372, 70770-917 Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil;

2

Embrapa Trigo, Rodovia BR 285, Km 294, Cx. Postal 451, 99001-970, Passo

Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; 3Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco –

UFRPE, Avenida Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n, Dois Irmãos, 52171-900,

Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

15.1  Introduction

Phytophagous mites belong to a group of organ­ isms which includes invasive species that can greatly impact agroecosystems and natural ter­ restrial ecosystems. These minute arachnids are not only extremely harmful to their host plants, but they also: (i) act as efficient vectors of major plant diseases; (ii) quickly develop resistance to pesticides; (iii) survive adverse environmental conditions; (iv) reproduce parthenogenetically

 

16. Planococcus minor (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae): Bioecology, Survey and Mitigation Strategies

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16 

Planococcus minor

(Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae):

Bioecology, Survey and Mitigation

Strategies

1

Amy Roda,1 Antonio Francis,2 Moses T.K. Kairo2 and Mark Culik3

USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Center for Plant Health Science and Technology, Miami,

Florida 33158, USA; 2Center for Biological Control, College of Engineering

Sciences, Technology and Agriculture, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical

University, Tallahassee, Florida, USA; 3Instituto Capixaba de Pesquisa,

Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural – INCAPER, Vitória,

Espírito Santo, Brazil

16.1  Introduction: Host Range,

Economic Impact and Pest Status

Planococcus minor (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is commonly referred to as the passionvine mealybug, pacific mealybug or guava mealybug. P. minor is one of 35 species belonging to a genus that is native to the Old World (Cox, 1989), which includes many well-known pests of economic importance

(Williams and Watson, 1988; Cox, 1989). As a phloem feeder, P. minor can cause stunting and defoliation that eventually leads to reduced yield and fruit quality. The pest also causes indirect or secondary damage due to the sooty mold growth on honeydew produced by the mealybug. P. minor is also likely to transmit plant viruses such as

 

17. The Citrus Orthezia Praelongorthezia praelonga (Douglas) (Hemiptera: Ortheziidae), a Potential Invasive Species

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17 

The citrus orthezia,

Praelongorthezia praelonga (Douglas)

(Hemiptera: Ortheziidae), a potential invasive species

Takumasa Kondo,1 Ana Lucia Peronti,2 Ferenc Kozár3 and Éva Szita3

Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria, Corpoica, Colombia;

2

Departamento de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva, Universidade Federal de São

Carlos (UFSCar), São Carlos/SP, Brazil; 3Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian

Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary

1

The citrus orthezia, Praelongorthezia praelonga

(Douglas) (Hemiptera: Ortheziidae), is a highly polyphagous scale insect that causes plant damage both directly by its feeding and indirectly due to its associated sooty molds. This Neotropical species currently is largely confined to Central and

South America and the Caribbean Region, but has the potential to be invasive if accidentally introduced into other climatically suitable parts of the world. The citrus orthezia was recently introduced into the Afro-tropical region where it has become a pest. This chapter provides a brief summary of the vast literature on the citrus orthezia, which is often difficult to access, including its taxonomy, biology, host records, economic importance, world distribution, integrated pest management (including chemical, mechanical, cultural, physical and biological control strategies) and quarantine methods. The scale insect can have multiple generations per year and has a lengthy life cycle lasting between 40 and 200 days.

 

18. Potential Invasive Species of Scale Insects for the USA and Caribbean Basin

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18 

Potential Invasive Species of Scale Insects for the USA and Caribbean Basin

Gregory A. Evans1 and John W. Dooley2

USDA/APHIS/PPQ/National Identification Service, 10300 Baltimore Avenue,

BARC-West, Bldg. 005, Rm 09A, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA; 2USDA/

APHIS/PPQ 389 Oyster Point Blvd, Suite 2A, South San Francisco, California

94080, USA

1

18.1  Introduction

History has shown that when an exotic pest enters and establishes in a country outside its native range, it often takes only a little time for the spe­ cies to spread to other countries in the region.

Therefore, it is mutually beneficial for those work­ ing in quarantine and crop protection in all regions of the world to work together to stop, or at least to slow down, the movement of pests. This chapter deals with potential invasive scale insect pests for the USA and the Caribbean Basin.

There are approximately 7500 known spe­ cies of scale insects (Coccoidea) belonging to 45 families (extant and fossil); however, the most common species, and the ones that are usually intercepted at US ports of entry on plant mater­ ial, belong to one of the following eight fami­ lies: Asterolecaniidae, Coccidae, Dactylopiidae,

 

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