Medium 9781780644639

Climate Change Challenges and Adaptations at Farm-level: Case Studies from Asia and Africa. CABI Climate Change series. 9.

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This book emphasis the role of farm level adaptation as a key in developmental pathways that are challenged by climate risks in the semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa. It throws light on key issues that arise in farm level impacts, adaptation and vulnerability to climate change and discusses Q2 methodological approaches undertaken in study domains of Asia and Africa. The book systematically describes the perceptions, aspirations as elicited/voiced by the farmers and identifies determinants of adaptation decisions. Chapters identify constraints and opportunities that are translated into indicative intervention recommendations towards climate resilient farm households in the semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa. Furthermore, it discusses with evidences that contributes to the development of livelihood strategy for poor farmers in Asia (Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam and China) and Africa (Burkina Faso, Niger, Kenya and Ghana).

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1 Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Strategies at Farm-level: A Retrospection

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1

Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Strategies at

Farm-level: A Retrospection

N.P. Singh,* K. Byjesh and C. Bantilan

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics

(ICRISAT), Hyderabad, India

Abstract

This chapter introduces current and future climatic implication on national, regional and sub-regional agro-socioeconomy. It focuses on the growing recognition of the climate change studies that are being considered inevitable.

Authors argue that better understanding and assessment of adaptation and/or coping strategies at farm-level are prerequisite in the long-term development planning of the country or the region towards climate resiliency. The arguments were put forward to emphasize the vital link between agriculture, rural livelihoods and climate in the semi-arid tropics for the majority of the population in Asia and Africa. This chapter confines itself to various discourses on the past and present efforts on assessing impacts, adaptation and vulnerability to climate change particularly in the semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa. It also discusses the global efforts on improving resilience against climatic risks in agricultural sector and also poor smallholder farmers of the semi-arid tropics. The chapter briefly reviews the current state of knowledge related to farmers’ strategies and determinants of decision in the choice of adaptation at farm-level. The chapter further discusses the organization of the book and also identifies potential uses of the book and the audience for whom this information is valuable.

 

2 Analytical Framework and Methodologies for Analysing Farm-level Vulnerability

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Analytical Framework and

Methodologies for Analysing

Farm-level Vulnerability

N.P. Singh,1* K. Byjesh,1 C. Bantilan,1 V.U.M. Rao,2

S. Nedumaran,1 B. Venkateswarulu,2 F. Niranjan,3

W. Jayatilaka,1 U.K. Deb,1 P.Q. Ha4 and P. Suddhiyam5

1International

Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics

(ICRISAT), Hyderabad, India; 2Central Research Institute for

Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India; 3Sri Lanka Council for

Agricultural Research Policy, Colombo, Sri Lanka; 4Vietnam Academy of Agriculture Sciences (VAAS), Hanoi, Vietnam; 5Department of

Agriculture, Bangkok, Thailand

Abstract

A comprehensive and well-thought-out framework of analysis is a pre-requisite in analysing pathways in improving resilience to climate change. This chapter discusses the analytical framework that includes macro data analysis, modelling, social analysis, etc., with an inclusive Q2 approach. All information gathered is from primary data collected through questionnaire surveys, focus group discussions and personal interviews. The analytics adopted include: climatic analysis; vulnerability analysis; farmers’ perceptional analysis and matching perceptions with reality; social analysis including gender and social networks; and regional assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture using an integrated modelling approach.

 

3 What’s in Store for Asia: Making Sense of Changes in Climate Trends

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What’s in Store for Asia:

Making Sense of Changes in

Climate Trends

N.P. Singh,1* K. Byjesh,1 C. Bantilan,1 V.U.M. Rao,2

B. Venkateswarulu,2 F. Niranjan,3 W. Jayatilaka,3

U.K. Deb,4 P.Q. Ha5 and P. Suddhiyam6

1International

Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics

(ICRISAT), Hyderabad, India; 2Central Research Institute for

Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India; 3Sri Lanka Council for

Agricultural Research Policy, Colombo, Sri Lanka; 4Centre for Policy

Dialogue, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 5Vietnam Academy of Agriculture

Sciences (VAAS), Hanoi, Vietnam; 6Department of Agriculture,

Bangkok, Thailand

Abstract

This chapter provides a comparative meta-analysis of several global studies on long-term climatic trends, extreme events and their consequences on the important countries in Asia and Africa. Here we argue that climate-related losses are of greater magnitude than, and inventoried less than, the losses due to climatic extremes and natural disasters. It tries to answer questions such as what do the data indicate for the regions? Comparative assessment and regional trends are reported for: (i) the semi-arid tropics of India; (ii) the Mekong river region and north-east region of Vietnam; (iii) the semi-arid north-east region of Thailand; (iv) the drought and flood plains of Bangladesh; and (v) the dry regions of Sri Lanka.

 

4 Changing Climate – Responding to the Inevitable

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4

Changing Climate – Responding to the Inevitable

N.P. Singh,1* K. Byjesh,1 C. Bantilan,1 V.U.M. Rao,2

B. Venkateswarulu,2 F. Niranjan,3 W. Jayatilaka,1

U.K. Deb,1 P.Q. Ha4 and P. Suddhiyam5

1International

Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics

(ICRISAT), Hyderabad, India; 2Central Research Institute for

Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India; 3Sri Lanka Council for

Agricultural Research Policy, Colombo, Sri Lanka; 4Vietnam

Academy of Agriculture Sciences (VAAS), Hanoi, Vietnam;

5Department of Agriculture, Bangkok, Thailand

Abstract

This chapter depicts the trends and future predictions of climate, and current changing patterns of climatic parameters particularly temperature, rainfall and extreme events such as drought that are crucial in the semiarid environment. The trends in extreme events such as droughts, floods, etc., describe the perceptions and aspirations as conceived by the farmers and identifies determinants of adaptation decisions with respect to their livelihood assets, i.e. natural, financial, physical, social and human. This chapter also presents the comprehensive adaptation mapping of households belonging to different asset categories and further discusses, with evidence, the current status and possible trends in these assets contributing to the livelihood of the poor farmers in semi-arid tropics of six countries in Asia (Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam and

 

5 Climate Change and Food Security in Asia and Africa: Agricultural Futures

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Climate Change and Food Security in Asia and Africa: Agricultural

Futures

S. Nedumaran,* P. Jyosthnaa, N.P. Singh, C. Bantilan and K. Byjesh

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics

(ICRISAT), Hyderabad, India

Abstract

This chapter presents the regional level (Asia and Africa) projected impacts of climate change on yield, production, prices, net trade of major crops and food security through to 2050. It also presents the modelling framework that integrates the economic, crop and climate models to assess the impact of climate change scenarios and socioeconomic pathways in 2050 at the country level.

5.1 Introduction

Climate change, in terms of both climate means and variability, poses a great threat to the resource-poor farmers the world over, especially in the tropics and semi-arid tropics.

The possible impacts include reduced yields, lower farm incomes and reduced welfare. There is increasing awareness of these threats among national and international governments.

Agriculture is vulnerable to climate change in a number of dimensions. Higher temperatures eventually reduce yields and tend to encourage weed and pest proliferation. Greater variations in precipitation patterns increase the likelihood of short-run crop failures and long-term production declines.

 

6 Evaluating Adaptation Options at Crop Level for Climate Change in the Tropics of South Asia and West Africa

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Evaluating Adaptation Options at Crop Level for Climate Change in the Tropics of South Asia and

West Africa

P. Singh, N.P. Singh,* S. Nedumaran and C. Bantilan

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics,

Patancheru, India

Abstract

Crop level adaptations to present and future climate are indispensable to farmers because their livelihood depends on crop-based income. Hence, quantifying impact and adaptation options at the field level is yet another important step in adaptation planning at farm-level. This chapter analyses the impact and plausible adaptations for the major crops of the semi-arid tropical region with illustrations from the selected study sites in Asia and Africa. The calibrated crop simulation models that simulate physical and physiological processes of plant growth were used for this purpose. Finally, the chapter evaluates plausible agronomic and genetic options that have the potential to adapt to climate changes in the tropical environments.

6.1 Introduction

 

7 Scoping Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Smallholder Farmers in East Africa – A Multi-dimensional, Multi-scenario Impact Assessment

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Scoping Climate Change

Adaptation Strategies for

Smallholder Farmers in East

Africa – A Multi-dimensional,

Multi-scenario Impact

Assessment

L Claessens,1* J.M. Antle,2 J.J. Stoorvogel,3

R.O. Valdivia,2 P.K. Thornton4 and M. Herrero5

1International

Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics

(ICRISAT), Kenya, East Africa; 2Oregon State University, Corvallis,

USA; 3Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands;

4International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Nairobi, Kenya;

5CSIRO, Brisbane, Australia

Abstract

This chapter assesses the characteristics of current and future agricultural systems, land use, agricultural output, output price, cost of production, and farm and household size in response to climate change. This analysis also compared both current and projected future climate (2030), with and without adaptation, and for different socioeconomic scenarios (Representative Agricultural Pathways, RAPs) in two study areas in Kenya. A new approach to impact assessment, the Tradeoff Analysis Model for Multi-Dimensional Impact Assessment (TOA-MD) was adopted for this analysis, which simulated technology adoption and associated economic, environmental and social outcomes in a heterogeneous farm population for a regional impact assessment. These case studies yield new insights into the way that adaptation strategies could improve the livelihoods of smallholder farmers operating in the mixed crop–livestock systems in East Africa.

 

8 Sustainable Land and Water Management Approaches in Sub-Saharan Africa: Farm-level Analysis of Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation from Sub-Saharan Africa

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8

Sustainable Land and Water

Management Approaches in

Sub-Saharan Africa: Farm-level

Analysis of Climate Change

Mitigation and Adaptation from

Sub-Saharan Africa

Jupiter Ndjeunga,1* Marou A. Zarafi,2 Albert

Nikiema,1 P.S. Traore,1 Abdou Amani,2 Sabiou

Mahamane,2 A.M. Ibro,1 Souleymane Amadou3 and

Ephraim Nkonya4

1International

Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics

(ICRISAT), Niamey, Niger; 2Institut National de la Recherche

Agricole du Niger (INRAN), Niamey, Niger; 3Forest Ecologist,

Direction Départementale de l’Environnement et de la Lutte Contre la Désertification (DDE/LCD); 4International Food Policy Research

Institute, USA

Abstract

Climate change is increasingly recognized as a worldwide phenomenon that impacts people’s livelihoods in many ways. This is especially important in rural areas where households are heavily dependent on rainfed agriculture and natural resources in general for their livelihoods. Farmers’ perception and the household level data were collected and analysed to understand the determinants of adaptation to climate change and the impacts of sustainable land and water management practices on agricultural productivity and climate change vulnerability. Rainfall has been showing a decreasing trend and increased variability so there have been new practices adopted by farmers to minimize the impact. Using the case study of Niger, this chapter explores the question of what drives adaptation to climate change in the region, including the adoption of land and water management practices using econometric analysis. Context-specific policy recommendations were drawn from the results that enhance the adaptation to climate change and reduce vulnerability through integrated land, water and soil management practices.

 

9 Sociological Signifi cance: Enhancing Resilience to Climate Change Among Communities

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Sociological Significance:

Enhancing Resilience to Climate

Change Among Communities

N.P. Singh,* C. Bantilan, W. Jayatilaka and R.

Padmaja

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics

(ICRISAT), Hyderabad, India

Abstract

Interesting sociological dimensions of enhancing resilience to climate change among communities were observed for formulating viable policy interventions. This chapter applied a comprehensive approach appealing to principles, methodologies, tools, validation and evaluation techniques for understanding the social dimensions of responses and adaptation to climate change. The analyses were undertaken at the individual and systems level with particular attention to the role of networks. The case studies from India revealed deeper sociological insights on i) farmers’ perceptions of climate change or variability; ii) binding constraints to adaptation and vulnerability; and iii) coping mechanisms to enhance their adaptive capacity. Three case studies of the villages of Dokur, Kanzara and Shirapur in the semi-arid regions of India, complemented by comparable observations from three additional villages from the longitudinal Village Level Studies panel data (ICRISAT 2014), highlighted significant findings. The first is that farmers perceive climate variability rather than climate change. Second, the critical constraints are not just the lack of access to financial resources, but that human and social capital as well as institutional and governance challenges are equally binding. Lastly, collective action and institutional arrangements effectively mediate the adaptive capacity and resilience of communities to climate change.

 

10 Policy Options Towards Climate Resilience: Agent-based Assessment of Farm Households in West Africa

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10

Policy Options Towards Climate

Resilience: Agent-based

Assessment of Farm

Households in West Africa

T. Wossen,1* S. Nedumaran2 and T. Berger3

1International

Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) Hanoi,

Vietnam; 2International Crops Research Institute for the

Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Hyderabad, India; 3Institute of

Agricultural Economics and Social Sciences in the Tropics and

Subtropics, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany

Abstract

This chapter will present the impacts of farm-level adaptation strategies on farm household income and food security under the changing climate in Northern region of Ghana using a bio-economic modelling approach. The modeling approach captures the heterogeneity of important resources of farm households such as access to credits, irrigation and non-farm income sources under the context of climatic change.

10.1 Introduction

While reducing poverty and ensuring food security is a major priority of many governments of developing countries, the complex and ever-changing impacts of climate variability coupled with dependencies on weather-sensitive agriculture has become a major threat for poverty and food insecurity reduction efforts. According to the Food and

 

11 Moving Along Adaptation Pathways Toward Grass-root Resilience: A Synthesis

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11

Moving Along Adaptation

Pathways Toward Grass-root

Resilience: A Synthesis

N.P. Singh,1* C. Bantilan,1 K. Byjesh,1

S. Nedumaran,1 V.U.M. Rao,2 B. Venkateswarulu,2

F. Niranjan,3 W. Jayatilaka,1 U.K. Deb,1 P.Q. Ha4 and P. Suddhiyam5

1International

Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics

(ICRISAT), Hyderabad, India; 2Central Research Institute for

Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India; 3Sri Lanka Council for

Agricultural Research Policy, Colombo, Sri Lanka; 4Vietnam

Academy of Agriculture Sciences (VAAS), Hanoi, Vietnam;

5Department of Agriculture, Bangkok, Thailand

Abstract

This chapter reports on cross-country evidence from the micro (farm-level) analysis on impacts, adaptation and vulnerability to the ever-rising climate-related risks. It has also identified the common challenges across countries, as well as unique features within regions, countries and continents. The challenges include excessive stress on natural capital, increasing demand for physical and financial resources and social capital. Through extensive data collection and analysis it also identifies deficiencies in future planning and country-specific strategies, policies and programmes. These deficiencies and their implications for the future on the farm households are highlighted comprehensively in these selected countries of Asia and Africa.

 

12 Way Forward – Towards Climate Resilience

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Way Forward – Towards Climate

Resilience

N.P. Singh,* C. Bantilan, K. Byjesh and

S. Nedumaran

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid

Tropics (ICRISAT), Hyderabad, India

Abstract

This chapter sketches out the intervention needs from the evidence evolved from the comprehensive analysis described in the previous chapters. The authors argue that there are innumerable entry points for interventions that should be in place through policies, and programmes to create an enabling environment to adapt effectively among the rural population in the arid and semi-arid tropics. This chapter summarizes the critical areas identified within the sustainable livelihood framework that has to be promoted relentlessly until the very objective of enhancing resilience is achieved. The current policies and support are blanket in nature and they resonate a high disconnect because they are aggregative, top down, highly macro-level approaches. Furthermore, they are often coupled with uncertainties and information gaps, thereby vitiating the mainstreaming of adaptation options that is crucial for these marginal environments of the developing world. A comprehensive policy recommendation will be discussed with reference to contexts of Asia and Africa.

 

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