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Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage Management: An International Perspective, 2nd Edition

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Within the past 10 years ïReligious TourismÍ has seen both economic and education-sector growth on a global scale. This book addresses the central role of religious tourism and interrelationships with other aspects of pilgrimage management. It provides practical applications, models and illustrations and looks at secular and sacred spaces on a global stage. The second edition sees the introduction of a new structure and the addition of new international case studies. It is an invaluable reference for academics, students and practitioners and is a timely text on the future of faith-based tourism and pilgrimage.

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1: Introduction to Sacred or Secular Journeys

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Introduction to Sacred or Secular

Journeys

Razaq Raj1*and Kevin Griffin2

Leeds Business School, Leeds Beckett University, UK; 2School of Hospitality

Management and Tourism, Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland

1

Introduction

The principle behind this new edition is to demonstrate to the reader the intrinsic details that have a crucial role to play within the religious tourism and pilgrimage management process. The connection with other generic disciplines will become evident within the text, leading the reader to a more complete understanding of the key management concepts. The new 2nd edition provides an updated and valuable resource for scholars of religious tourism management from other disciplines, who may not have considered how intricately management is contextualized within and intertwined with the marketing, finance and operation of religious and pilgrimage sites. The 2nd edition lays a foundation for scholars, practitioners and students who do not study management, but who are concerned with the appearance and development of religious tourism and pilgrimage.

 

2: Politics, Policy and the Practice of Religious Tourism

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Politics, Policy and the Practice of

Religious Tourism

Anna Trono*

Department of Cultural Heritage, University of Salento, Italy

Introduction

Defining and distinguishing policy from politics in religious tourism is not easy, because the two superficially similar terms in fact have quite different meanings. Policy indicates the search for a rational way of tackling problems of an ethical, religious, cultural, environmental and economic nature affecting religious tourism in different societies, cultures and locations. Politics is the search for solutions, not necessarily optimal ones, to issues concerning the promotion and management of practices and religious rites, taking account of their results in environmental and economic terms. At times, policy morphs directly into politics, especially where different ‘religions’, ‘philosophies’ and ‘beliefs’ end up becoming a given, and force policy to take a back seat. Values and motives get mixed up and rationality gives way to the expression of a popular belief, or more often to the will of some authority (secular or ecclesiastical) motivated above all by economic considerations, creating situations in which it is hard to discern whether they are coincidental or conflictual. However, as Hanson argues (Hanson, 2006, p. 92), it is also worth considering that ‘much of the religious influence on politics takes place over long time periods. People do not change their basic identities in a split second’.

 

3: Sacred Sites and the Tourist: Sustaining Tourism Infrastructures for Religious Tourists and Pilgrims – a UK Perspective

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Sacred Sites and the Tourist:

Sustaining Tourism Infrastructures for Religious Tourists and Pilgrims – a UK Perspective

Ian D. Rotherham*

Department of the Natural and Built Environment, Sheffield Hallam University,

Sheffield, UK

Introduction

This chapter explores issues and concepts associated with pilgrimage and with religious tourism. Casting the net wide, it considers sacredness and sense of place in relation to spirituality and the visitor experience. On the one hand, visitors to a locale can mean economic impact and a vibrant local community; on the other hand, these places and their landscapes are contested terrains. Actors and players include both religious and non-religious residents and visitors, and in the UK, with an increasingly secular society, this may generate or exacerbate tensions. However, many visitors who would not claim adherence to a particular religion still experience a deeply spiritual interaction with buildings, places and landscapes of significance. Indeed, for the UK in particular, with a decline in formal Christian faith and a rapidly diversifying cultural and ethnic society, there has been a parallel re-emergence of nature-based spirituality and, in some cases, paganism. Furthermore, those now embracing such beliefs hold strong attachments to religious and sacred places and spaces. Recent contestations over heritage sites such as at Stonehenge in Wiltshire, or at the Stanton

 

4: The Globalization of Pilgrimage Tourism? Some Thoughts from Ireland

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The Globalization of Pilgrimage

Tourism? Some Thoughts from

Ireland

Kevin Griffin1* and Razaq Raj2

School of Hospitality Management and Tourism, Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland; 2Leeds Business School, Leeds Beckett University, UK

1

Introduction

Whilst in many societies – especially in the developed world – belief in religion has been eroded in the face of growing agnosticism and atheism, religious sites have become an increasingly popular object of the tourist gaze, even if people do not subscribe to the beliefs that such places represent.

(Williams, 1998, p. 166)

There are many reasons why people travel, and these motivations have been researched extensively by geographers, sociologists and others, including the business community. The phenomenon of religious tourism – and, more particularly, pilgrimage tourism – while widely recognized has not received much attention in literature. Perhaps the reason for this neglect is the difficulty of classifying this aspect of the tourism industry in a growingly secular world, where spiritual meaning is often seen as unfashionable and perhaps even seen as a little ‘backward’. Referring to Ireland, this disquiet was captured by Pochin

 

5: Religious Tourism for Religious Tolerance

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Religious Tourism for Religious

Tolerance

Yasin Bilim1* and Sevde Düzgüner2

Faculty of Tourism, Necmettin Erbakan University, Turkey; 2Faculty of

Theology, Marmara University, Turkey

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Introduction

This chapter presents conceptual and theoretical proposals to explain the role of religious tourism in developing religious tolerance. While evaluating the initial effects of the tourism industry, economic, social and environmental effects are most emphasized both by academics and practitioners. However, philosophical and phenomenological aspects like faithfulness, spirituality, peace and moral and ethical beliefs are not very well considered. Different communities meet each other and have inter-communal experiences through the medium of tourism activities. Religious tourism, as a kind of cultural tourism, plays an active role in this interaction. Based on this, inter-religious approaches present a new research area for tourism.

Religious tourism can be the most important movement to promote tolerance and peace. Also, tolerance and peace are essential preconditions for travel and tourism. Tolerance towards other religions or beliefs is one of the main doctrines for all religions. So, religious tourism has dual effects of both tolerance to other religions and completing one’s own religious formation.

 

6: Pilgrimage, Diversity and Terrorism

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Pilgrimage, Diversity and

Terrorism

Tahir Rashid* and Neil Robinson

Salford Business School, University of Salford, Manchester, UK

Introduction

Over recent years we have seen an increase in politically motivated attacks on individuals from differing faiths while they are engaging in the act of pilgrimage.

This chapter will review the many manifestations of terrorism in general, with particular reference to the atrocities carried out against the holy visitor and a review of the motivations and terror philosophy of the perpetrators behind the attacks. Issues associated with security, freedom of travel, diversity and contested religious heritage will all be discussed in an attempt to identify possible solutions to ensure safe passage for the world’s religious travellers.

The act of pilgrimage is found in all the great religions of the world and is associated with travel for religious reasons to a distant sacred goal. Outwardly, it involves travelling to new, different and sometimes dangerous places. Inwardly, pilgrims may take the journey to develop themselves spiritually, to seek forgiveness for past sins, or to pursue benefit through the medium of God or a saint in the hope of a cure for an illness or a resolution of a difficulty (Barber, 1991).

 

7: Motivations for Religious Tourism, Pilgrimage, Festivals and Events

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Motivations for Religious Tourism,

Pilgrimage, Festivals and Events

Razaq Raj1*, Kevin Griffin2 and Ruth Blackwell3

Leeds Business School, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK;

School of Hospitality Management and Tourism, Dublin Institute of

Technology, Dublin, Ireland; 3Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK

1

2

Introduction

The religious tourism phenomenon arouses the interest of many researchers and practitioners, but few concentrate on the non-religious motivations of religious travellers. The aim of this chapter is to provide an understanding of the motivations for religious tourism, pilgrimage, festivals and events. Religion and spirituality are very common motivations for travel over the last few decades for religious pilgrimage. Major world religious tourism destinations having developed over the last century due to links with sacred people, holy places and religious festivals. The religious tourism phenomenon in the last decade has provoked major discussion among many leading researchers and practitioners, but only a few have managed to look at the motivation theory, or why travel to religious destinations has increased.

 

8: Exploring Pilgrimage and Religious Heritage Tourism Experiences

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Exploring Pilgrimage and Religious

Heritage Tourism Experiences

Nigel Bond*

New Museum Project, Western Australian Museum, Welshpool, Australia

Introduction

For over four decades, religious tourism and pilgrimage scholars have argued that there are two distinct functions of religious sites. The first of these is as a place of worship, while the second is that of a tourist destination. Given these distinct functions, it is further suggested that the pilgrim and the tourist will have two very different sets of experiences. This dichotomy has dominated pilgrimage research and is based on a conceptual understanding of pilgrimage that scholars now consider as inaccurate and ahistorical (Olsen, 2010).

Recently, researchers such as Olsen (2010), Collins-Kreiner (2010) and

Di Giovine (2011) have argued for a shift away from this dichotomy. More particularly, the authors have called for a new way of examining the experiences of visitors to religious heritage sites that does not assume that the modern pilgrim experience conforms to some medieval ideal. In a similar way, researchers have sought an approach to pilgrimage study that does not relegate all other visitors to a single classification of ‘tourist’. The discussion here aligns with this debate and provides an alternative lens through which one can interpret the experiences of visitors to religious heritage sites; visitors who come with range of motivations, interests and expectations.

 

9: Sacred Pilgrimage and Tourism as Secular Pilgrimage

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Sacred Pilgrimage and Tourism as Secular Pilgrimage

Vitor Ambrósio*

Escola Superior de Hotelaria e Turismo do Estoril, Estoril, Portugal

Introduction

This chapter provides insights into the pilgrim’s experiential perspective of the spiritual fundamentals of pilgrimage and the author articulates emic insights into the emotions of the tradition of Christian pilgrimage. This is compared with different academic discourses on the characteristics of pilgrimage. For the author, independently of the academic and analytical perspectives, pilgrimage is viewed as a significant event in the believer’s life, which should enrich them with a cognitive and aesthetic experience.

The Spiritual Fundamentals of Pilgrimage: The Pilgrims’ Experiential

Perspective

A pilgrimage, when based upon spiritual assumptions, is essentially defined as the approximation of God by man. According to Mattoso (2000), people seek to engage in such acts in order to discover a way to establish contact with hidden forces that they presume preside over all of existence. These are perceived to be concentrated into benign, edifying or protective clusters in specific privileged sites and exist in all, or the vast majority of, civilizations, and are almost always integrated into religious practices and concrete places with defined itineraries and rituals set out for preferred dates.

 

10: Social Network Tools as Guides to Religious Sites

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Social Network Tools as Guides to Religious Sites

Lluís Prats,* Silvia Aulet and Dolors Vidal

University of Girona, Spain

Introduction

Religious sites, when viewed from the perspective of tourism, are resources that can also be offered to tourists interested in history and culture (Olsen,

2006). Within that group lie many tourist types, motivated by incentives such as religion, religious tourism or pilgrimage.

Shackley (2001) affirms that the nature of the experience a sacred space offers its visitors is highly complex, intangible and includes elements such as nostalgia, divine proximity, atmosphere and spiritual merit. Religious tourists venerate and respect sacred sites; they are in search of an experience which brings them close to divinity and transcendence. However, they share religious sites with other tourist types, and unless the values and expected behaviour from tourists are made explicit by the site, attitudes held by pilgrims and religious tourists and those of other tourists can be conflictive.

 

11: Stakeholders and Co-creation in Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage

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Stakeholders and Co-creation in

Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage

Alan Clarke* and Ágnes Raffay

Faculty of Business and Economics, University of Pannonia, Veszprém,

Hungary

Introduction

Co-creation has become a way of viewing events that recognizes both the producers and consumers as vital to the experience. Both are partners in the co-creation of what happens, bringing resources that help in forming meaning.

The mapping of stakeholders began in a traditional model of business but has to recognize the dialectics of the (multi)positionality of the roles undertaken and ascribed to stakeholders in the development processes of co-creation.

Here we will reference the changes and to some extent the contradictions involved in the integration of the religious tourism and pilgrimage experience within the city of Veszprém’s tourism offer and indeed with a specific tourism site actually developed by the Church in the heart of the city. The positions adopted by the Church in Veszprém were hostile and antagonistic to the involvement of religion within the tourism development of the historic city

 

12: Case Study 1: Pilgrimage Experience and Consumption of Travel to the City of Makkah for the Hajj Ritual

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Case Study 1: Pilgrimage

Experience and Consumption of

Travel to the City of Makkah for the Hajj Ritual

Razaq Raj*

Leeds Business School, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK

Introduction

Events and festivals have played an important part in human life since the days of Adam. Events and festivals provide humans with an opportunity to assert their identities, both for themselves and to share with other people in our modern society, which is increasingly secular and culturally motivated.

The hajj is considered as the culmination of each Muslim’s religious duties and aspirations. It is stated in the Holy Qur’an that every physically and financially able Muslim should make the hajj to the Holy City of Makkah once in his or her lifetime. In Islamic belief, the hajj honours a number of events in the life of Prophet Abraham and his family in Makkah. Prophet Abraham is the leading figure of Christianity, Judaism and Islam.

Several leading authors – Eade (1992), Nolan and Nolan (1992), Shackley

(2001) and Raj (2012) – have often wondered what Muslims do during their pilgrimage. Pilgrims come for hajj from all parts of the globe – from the Middle

 

13: Case Study 2: Religious Tourism Experiences in South East Asia

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Case Study 2: Religious Tourism

Experiences in South East Asia

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Jaeyeon Choe* and 2Michael O’Regan

Bournemouth University, UK, 2Oxford Brookes University, UK

Introduction

The purpose of this chapter is to introduce religious tourism in South East Asia, examine the tourist motivations to visit religious (Buddhist) sites and address the role of religious tourism in regional development among members of the

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). South East Asia is home to numerous religious sites, pilgrim centres and religious festivals. However, while South East Asian nations have strong geographical, cultural, historical and archaeological links and social similarities, there are strong political, ethnic and religious boundaries. The chapter concludes by exploring the strategies required to overcome barriers to develop religious tourism in the region. Such strategies include the need for transparent objectives, community consultation and integrated national and regional plans.

Religion has inspired, and continues to inspire, the construction of spectacular festivals, monuments, geographic movements, forms of art and architecture across the world. Countries and destinations from across the globe have been seeking to leverage cultural heritage to attract religious or faith-based tourists.

 

14: Case Study 3: Nordic Pilgrimage to Israel: A Case of Christian Zionism

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Case Study 3: Nordic Pilgrimage to Israel: A Case of Christian

Zionism

Maria Leppäkari*

Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland

Introduction

This chapter will discuss the contemporary Nordic Protestant pilgrimage to

Israel with special attention paid to Christian Zionism (CZ). ‘Christian Zionism’ is a generic term applied by both its practitioners and scholars to describe a religiously motivated (faith-based) political support for the State of Israel (Ariel,

1991; Gunner, 2006; Leppäkari, 2006).

It is generally agreed upon by scholars that pilgrimage is a journey d

­ eriving from religious causes to a sacred site. Pilgrimage consists of two central elements: the external journey to the sacred site, and the internal journey as a transformative spiritual experience (Bowman, 1991; Dallen and Olsen, 2006;

Blackwell, 2007, 2010; Coleman, 2010). This chapter seeks to understand the underlying motivational factors for contemporary Nordic Christian pilgrimage to Israel/Palestine. Sometimes travel debouches into political stances, which from time to time lead to exclusivity, procrastination and eventually hard-core xenophobic attitudes (Leppäkari, 2013). The examples presented here ­address the way motivational factors for travel are expressed and highlight consequences they come with, political-theological implications and standpoints in relation to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Tourism to Israel/Palestine is significant for local people and it affects and polarizes people worldwide. It divides

 

15: Case Study 4: The Consumption and Management of Religious Tourism Sites in Africa

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Case Study 4: The Consumption and Management of Religious

Tourism Sites in Africa

Samson Olawale Fadare* and Elizabeth Ifeyinwa Benson

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Obafemi Awolowo University,

Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Introduction

Today, tourism is the world’s biggest industry; indeed, the biggest the planet has ever seen, according to the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO, 2007) in their

Tourism 2020 Vision. In their long-term forecast and assessment for the development of tourism, the status and growth of tourism will continue throughout the first 20 years of the new millennium. Essential outcomes of the Tourism 2020

Vision are quantitative forecasts, covering a 25-year period, with 1995 as the base year and forecasts for 2010 and 2020. By 2020, the UN World Tourism

Organization (UNWTO) predicts that 1.5 billion tourists will be spending US$2 trillion a year or over US$5 billion every day. Tourism is a significant and sometimes dominant contributor to the GDP of many countries. It is one of the five top export categories for 83% of countries and the main one for 38% of them.

 

16: Case Study 5: Ashura and its Commemoration in Ireland: A ‘Proxy’ Pilgrimage Experience

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Case Study 5: Ashura and its

Commemoration in Ireland:

A ‘Proxy’ Pilgrimage Experience

Kevin Griffin* and Hadil M. Faris

School of Hospitality Management and Tourism, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland

Introduction

Islam is a major world religion that originated in the Middle East after Judaism and

Christianity; it was promulgated by the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in Arabia in the 7th century (Doniger, 2006). Thus, it is the youngest of the three Abrahamic faiths and grew out of a revelation to and through a prophet (Renard, 1996).

A demographic study of more than 200 countries by the Pew Research Center in 2009 found that there are 1.57 billion Muslims (followers of Islam) of all ages living in the world today, representing 23% of the estimated world population of 6.8 billion. Initially, the Muslim world was not divided into denominations as it is now, but soon after the death of Prophet Muhammad things changed and different parties appeared to claim leadership.

Of the total Muslim population, 10–13% are Shia Muslims while the overwhelming majority (87–90%) are Sunnis (Pew Research Center, 2009). The focus of this chapter is this minority group, the Shia, which counts for between 154 and 200 million Muslims, of which approximately three-quarters (between 116 and 147 million) live in Asia (note – in this calculation, Iran is included in the

 

17: Case Study 6: Revisiting Religious Tourism in Northern Portugal

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Case Study 6: Revisiting Religious

Tourism in Northern Portugal

Carlos Fernandes,* Jorge Coelho and Miguel Brázio

Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo, Viana do Castelo, Portugal

Introduction

In 2003, a study was conducted in Northern Portugal designed to establish the religious tourism potential throughout the region. The study was part of a wider project entitled ‘Religious tourism as a motor for regional development’, carried out by a regional organization, funded by the national government and part funded by the European regional structural funds under the national

­development plan.

Although development of religious tourism had been limited to a few major sites, the 2003 study showed that it should be possible to spread the development of religious tourism to a wider geographical area. Particularly taking into account the potential for combining religious tourism with cultural and nature-based tourism, and the potential for developing ‘New Age’ or ‘spiritual’ tourism, it should be possible to use the major anchor sites identified to stimulate ­regional development. Finally, an important aspect focused on in the recommendations was the need to implement further studies on visitor

 

18: Case Study 7: From Disaster to Religiosity: República de Cromañón, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Case Study 7: From Disaster to Religiosity: República de

Cromañón, Buenos Aires,

Argentina

Maximiliano E. Korstanje1* and Geoffrey Skoll2

Tourism and Hospitality Research Centre, Department of Economics,

University of Palermo, Argentina; 2Department of Criminal Justice, Buffalo

State College, Buffalo, New York, USA

1

Introduction

On 30 December 2004, the República de Cromañón, a classic nightclub in Buenos Aires, held an event hosting rock group ‘Callejeros’. One of the

­attendees, who was never identified, threw a flare to the ceiling which ignited in seconds due to the inflammable material it struck. As a result of this fire, 194 attendees were killed and more than a thousand were seriously affected by the toxic gases. This event was known as ‘the tragedy of República de Cromañón’.

Further police investigations showed that some irregularities were overlooked by officials and inspectors. Basically, the roof was made from banned materials, but also some of the secondary exit doors were kept closed at the time of the tragedy. This man-made disaster cost the Mayor Anibal Ibarra his job and sent the nightclub’s owner Omar Chabán to prison. Ultimately, the trial, which started in 2008 ended in 2009, resulted in the following sentences:

 

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