Medium 9781780642994

Improving Diets and Nutrition: Food-based Approaches

Views: 961
Ratings: (0)
Nutrition-sensitive, food-based approaches towards hunger and malnutrition are effective, sustainable and long-term solutions. This book discusses the policy, strategic, methodological, technical and programmatic issues associated with such approaches, proposes "best practices" for the design, targeting, implementation and evaluation of specific nutrition-sensitive, food-based interventions and for improved methodologies for evaluating their efficacy and cost-effectiveness, and provides practical lessons for advancing nutrition-sensitive food-based approaches for improving nutrition at policy and programme level.

List price: $180.00

Your Price: $144.00

You Save: 20%

Remix
Remove
 

36 Chapters

Format Buy Remix

1 Perspective on Nutritional Problems in Developing Countries: Nutrition Security through Community Agriculture

PDF

1

Perspective on Nutritional Problems in

Developing Countries: Nutrition Security through Community Agriculture

Michael C. Latham

Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA

Michael C. Latham died only few months after the symposium. What is presented here is an edited transcription of the presentation he made at the symposium – without the slides, for which explanatory information has been added where this would be helpful.

First, I would like to thank Brian Thompson and others at FAO1 for inviting me to give this talk. I would like to say that in recent years

Brian and his colleagues have made a hugely important contribution to the nutrition world by getting agriculture to focus more on its impact on nutrition than has been the practice in the past.

Nowadays we talk much more about nutrition security when we talk of food security. Older people like myself, as we enter our dotage, often hark back to what was done three, four, five decades ago, and I will do the same. I also think as we age, some of us become more willing to be controversial and to say things that may not be the majority opinion of the audience.

 

2 Food Systems and Human Nutrition: Relationships and Policy Interventions

PDF

2

Food Systems and Human Nutrition:

Relationships and Policy Interventions

Per Pinstrup-Andersen*

Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA

Recent dramatic fluctuations in international food prices have drawn much attention to the global food situation and what the future will bring. Can the world feed future generations? Can it do so sustainably, i.e. without reducing the productive capacity of natural resources for future generations? What price will future generations have to pay for food and will food prices continue to be as volatile as they have been during the last few years? What proportion of the future population will have access to sufficient food to be healthy and productive and who will be food-insecure and malnourished? What action is needed to assure food security and good nutrition for all for the foreseeable future? Are there ways to improve the impact of existing food systems on food security and nutrition? Without in any way downplaying the importance of providing answers to the other questions posed here, this chapter is focused on the last one. This focus is justified by the belief that a better understanding of the relationships between food systems and human nutrition will offer opportunities for improving nutrition that are currently overlooked. Whether such opportunities are captured will depend on possible trade-offs with the achievement

 

3 Enhancing the Performance of Food-based Strategies to Improve Micronutrient Status and Associated Health Outcomes in Young Children from Poor-resource Households in Low-income Countries: Challenges and Solutions

PDF

3

Enhancing the Performance of Food-based

Strategies to Improve Micronutrient Status and Associated Health Outcomes in Young

Children from Poor-resource Households in Low-income Countries: Challenges and Solutions

Rosalind S. Gibson*

University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

Summary

Sustainable food-based micronutrient interventions are needed in poor-resource settings, where the prevalence of coexisting micronutrient deficiencies and infection is high, especially during childhood. Food-based interventions include fortification, dietary diversification and modification (DDM) and biofortification. This review focuses on DDM strategies that aim to improve the availability, access and utilization of foods with a high content and bioavailability of micronutrients throughout the year. The strategies include: increasing the production and consumption of micronutrient-dense foods through agriculture, small animal production or aquaculture and, in the future, biofortification; incorporating enhancers of micronutrient absorption; and reducing absorption inhibitors. Such strategies must be designed using formative research to ensure that they are culturally acceptable, economically feasible and sustainable. DDM has the potential to prevent coexisting micronutrient deficiencies simultaneously for the entire household and across generations without risk of antagonistic interactions. To maximize the impact of DDM, especially among children in poor-resource settings, DDM should be integrated with public health interventions designed to reduce the risk of infections.

 

4 Food-based Approaches for Combating Malnutrition – Lessons Lost?

PDF

4

Food-based Approaches for Combating

Malnutrition – Lessons Lost?

Ted Greiner*

Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of South Korea

Summary

This chapter describes programmes that focused on dietary quality in Tanzania, Zimbabwe and Bangladesh, a crucial but neglected part of food and nutrition security. These programmes utilized various approaches and were all in some way successful though, as usual, valuable lessons often come from dealing with unexpected difficulties that frequently arise, especially in such large-scale programmes as most of these were.

Although some of these programmes are no longer in operation, the lessons they taught are still valuable and are reported here because they are generally not among the better known projects that have been repeatedly reported at international meetings. The chapter also reports on research illuminating why foodbased approaches commonly do not seem to work well to improve human nutrient status and what can be done to improve such projects. Carotenes, by far the main source of vitamin A in low-income diets, tend to be poorly absorbed, but adding small amounts of fat and doing routine deworming will correct much of this problem; both of these options are very low in cost and convey additional benefits. Similarly, consuming vitamin C-rich foods at or close to meal times is a feasible way to improve iron absorption from plant foods.

 

5 Critical Issues to Consider in the Selection of Crops in a Food-based Approach to Improve Vitamin A Status – Based on a South African Experience

PDF

5

Critical Issues to Consider in the Selection of Crops in a Food-based Approach to

Improve Vitamin A Status – Based on a

South African Experience

1

Mieke Faber,1* Sunette M. Laurie2 and Paul J. van Jaarsveld1

Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; 2Agricultural

Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa

Summary

Vitamin A deficiency is of public health significance in the developing world. Household food production of b-carotene-rich vegetables and fruits is a long-term strategy that can contribute to combating vitamin A deficiency. It is, however, important to grow food crops to meet the nutritional needs of vulnerable populations taking into consideration the b-carotene content of these foods and their potential contribution towards the vitamin A requirements of the target population. Although the focus here is on vitamin A, b-carotene-rich vegetables and fruits do have the potential to contribute significantly towards the dietary intake of various micronutrients other than vitamin A. Seasonality affects the availability of vegetables and fruits, and a variety of both warm-weather and cool-weather crops should be planted to ensure year-round availability of b-carotene-rich vegetables and fruits. A focus on both indigenous and exotic vegetables will further help to ensure year-round availability, particularly in terms of dark-green leafy vegetables. When promoting increased consumption of indigenous vegetables, it is important that the promotion campaign is appropriate for the setting. When introducing new crops, such as the orange-fleshed sweet potato, both the nutrient content and the sensory attributes of the food need to be considered so as to ensure consumer acceptance. The chapter discusses the above-mentioned issues, using published and unpublished South African case studies as examples.

 

6 Contribution of Homestead Food Production to Improved Household Food Security and Nutrition Status – Lessons Learned from Bangladesh, Cambodia, Nepal and the Philippines

PDF

6

Contribution of Homestead

Food Production to Improved Household

Food Security and Nutrition Status – Lessons

Learned from Bangladesh, Cambodia, Nepal and the Philippines

Aminuzzaman Talukder,1* Akoto K. Osei,1 Nancy J. Haselow,1

Hou Kroeun,1 Amin Uddin2 and Victoria Quinn3

1

Helen Keller International (HKI), Phnom Penh, Cambodia;

2

Helen Keller International (HKI), Dhaka, Bangladesh;

3

Helen Keller International (HKI), Washington, DC, USA

Summary

Malnutrition is a serious public health problem in Asia. Since 2003, Helen Keller International (HKI) has been implementing homestead food production (HFP) programmes to increase and ensure year-round availability and intake of micronutrient-rich foods in the poor households of Asia. The aim of this chapter is to review the impact of HFP programmes and identify lessons learned for adaptation, replication and potential scale up. Impact evaluation data were reviewed that had been collected from a representative sample (10–20% of ~30,000 households) in HFP programme villages, and from similar numbers of comparison non-HFP programme villages, in Bangladesh, Cambodia, Nepal and the Philippines. The information assessed included household garden practices, dietary intake, income and prevalence of anaemia and night blindness among children (6–59 months) and non-pregnant women. A review of the implementation process was also undertaken. The HFP programme improved household garden practices, food production and consumption, and dietary diversity. The number of crop varieties consumed was significantly increased from a range of 2–3 to 8–9 between baseline and end line among programme households. The change in proportion of households consuming eggs and/or liver was higher among programme (24–46%) than comparison (12–18%) households. The median income earned from selling surplus HFP produce in the month before the assessment increased from US$1 to US$7 in all programmes. Anaemia prevalence was lower among children in the programme households at end line compared with baseline, although the decrease was only significant in Bangladesh (from 63.9% to

 

7 The Underestimated Impact of Food-based Interventions

PDF

7

The Underestimated Impact of Food-based Interventions

Ian Darnton-Hill*

Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA and

University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

Summary

With the exception of iodine in certain ecological settings, micronutrients are found abundantly in plant and animal foods. Nevertheless, the diets of families in low-income environments are frequently of poor micronutrient quality. Foods rich in vitamins and minerals and other health-protecting dietary components are usually both more expensive and less accessible, aggravated by a bioavailability that is often low. Sufficiently diversified diets are adequate for the prevention of micronutrient deficiencies in very young children and in pregnancy, but can be a challenge for correcting some deficiencies, especially in the face of repeated infectious disease or prematurity. Food-based approaches to address micronutrient deficiencies have long experience and documented success, but have often been inadequately evaluated and thus have failed to gain scientific acceptance and adequate funding. They have acquired more urgency for adoption and proper evaluation in recent years due to environmental considerations, increasing disparities, the global financial crises and severe rises in food prices. Programmes such as home gardening in Bangladesh, now scaled up to over 800,000 households, and expanded into African and other Asian countries, have demonstrated successful impact on micronutrient deficiencies, and biofortification is looking promising. However, measuring the effectiveness of food-based programmes should use indicators of outcomes that go beyond biological levels of micronutrients to clinical outcomes (e.g. reduction in night blindness) and social outcomes, and to longer term more indirect benefits, such as likely increased women’s empowerment and strengthening of local capacity and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), all of which have been documented. Any evaluation of interventions and their cost-effectiveness needs to attempt to capture these outcomes.

 

8 The Current Nutritional Status in China

PDF

8

The Current Nutritional Status in China

Chunming Chen*

International Life Science Institute Focal Point in China, Chinese

Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China

Summary

Based on data collected in China by the Food and Nutrition Surveillance System in 1990–2010, the National

Survey on Fitness of Students in 1985, 2000 and 2005, and the 2002 National Nutrition And Health Survey, this chapter demonstrates the dramatic improvement in the nutrition of children under 5 and the growth of school-aged children and adolescents during the period of rapid economic growth in China. Now, there is no longer undernutrition in urban areas and the prevalence of stunting in the countryside has declined from 40.3% in 1990 to 12.6% in 2009. The median height of various age groups of school-aged children and adolescents in cities are close to the reference used by the World Health Organization (WHO). Overall, the study showed an evident reduction in undernutrition in line with the rapid economic development in

 

9 Integrating Nutrition into Agricultural and Rural Development Policies: The Brazilian Experience of Building an Innovative Food and Nutrition Security Approach

PDF

9

Integrating Nutrition into Agricultural and Rural Development Policies: The Brazilian

Experience of Building an Innovative Food and Nutrition Security Approach

Luciene Burlandy,1* Cecilia Rocha2 and Renato Maluf 3

Universidade Federal Fluminense, National Council of Food and Nutrition Security

(CONSEA), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada;

3

Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro and National Council of Food and Nutrition Security, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

1

Summary

Established in 2006, Brazil’s National System of Food and Nutrition Security is made up of representatives of civil society organizations and different governmental sectors. Innovative programmes have emerged as a consequence of this institutional framework. Effective connections made at programme design and implementation level have generated concrete results, such as the convergence of different programmes geared to the poorest groups. This chapter analyses different assessments of the Family

 

10 The Gender Informed Nutrition and Agriculture (GINA) Alliance and the Nutrition Collaborative Research Support Program (NCRSP)

PDF

10

The Gender Informed Nutrition and Agriculture (GINA) Alliance and the

Nutrition Collaborative Research Support

Program (NCRSP)

Cheryl Jackson Lewis*

US Agency for International Development, Washington, DC, USA

Summary

The US Agency for International Development’s (USAID) Gender Informed Nutrition and Agriculture

(GINA) Alliance, piloted in Uganda, Mozambique and Nigeria, has proven effective in reducing hunger and poverty. The programme employed a gender-focused, community-based approach to improving household food and nutrition security in sub-Saharan African communities, with a particular emphasis on the nutritional status of children under 5 years. Overall, the GINA programmes in the three countries were able to reduce inadequate weight-for-age of 3000 children under 5 years during the period from the programme baseline to follow-up evaluation. Additionally, GINA resulted in increased availability of nutritious foods in participating households; increased awareness and understanding of the basic causes of malnutrition; increased food production, leading to greater consumption of nutritious foods and increases in income; a link between markets and GINA farmer groups; and the development of gender-diverse farmer groups complete with a well-functioning organizational structure. GINA’s focus on gender roles led to an upgrading in the status of women and recognition of them as producers and processors of food. As a result, women’s control over their assets, as well as the size of their assets, increased. As a result of the successful pilot, USAID is now scaling up the GINA model through a new US$15 million Nutrition Collaborative Research Support Program

 

11 Guyana’s Hinterland Community-based School Feeding Program (SFP)

PDF

11

Guyana’s Hinterland Community-based

School Feeding Program (SFP)

Suraiya J. Ismail,1* Edward A. Jarvis2 and Christian Borja-Vega3

Social Development Inc, Georgetown, Guyana; 2Ministry of Education,

Georgetown, Guyana; 3The World Bank, Washington, DC, USA

1

Summary

Four of Guyana’s ten administrative regions are inhabited largely by its indigenous peoples, the

Amerindians, often in remote communities where poverty and food insecurity are common and access to basic services is limited. Food supplies come from subsistence agriculture, hunting, fishing and costly imports from coastal regions. The diet lacks diversity, chronic undernutrition levels are high and school attendance is poor. In 2006, the Ministry of Education established the Hinterland Community-based

School Feeding Program (SFP), whose objectives include raising community participation in schools, increasing student attendance and academic performance, and improving the nutrition of primary schoolchildren. The impact evaluation of the SFP (2007–2009) covered 20 intervention schools and 44 control schools. Stunting rose by 3% in the control group but fell by 3% in the intervention group. The SFP increased attendance by 4.3%. Participation in learning activities improved in intervention schools but declined in control schools. Children in intervention schools performed better in national academic assessment tests. The SFP conferred the greatest benefit on children who had the poorest nutritional status at baseline. Parents participated fully in food production and meal delivery activities. Households benefited through increased employment and a more varied food supply. The SFP also contributed to preserving food security through a period of food price volatility, has a low cost per child relative to other programmes and has reduced dependence on imports. Outstanding challenges include increasing access to agricultural inputs and safe water, and reaching the most remote communities. Preliminary discussions indicate that communities are keen to continue the SFP, and can suggest ways to reduce the cost to the Ministry.

 

12 The Impact of School Food Standards on Children’s Eating Habits in England

PDF

12

The Impact of School Food Standards on

Children’s Eating Habits in England

Michael Nelson,1* Jo Nicholas,2 Dalia Haroun,3 Clare Harper,4

Lesley Wood,2 Claire Storey5 and Jo Pearce6

1

Public Health Nutrition Research, London, UK (former Director of Research and Nutrition, Children’s Food Trust); 2Children’s Food Trust (formerly the School

Food Trust), Sheffield, UK; 3Zayed University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates;

4

ISS Education, Northolt, UK; 5formerly of the School Food Trust, Sheffield, UK;

6

University of Nottingham, UK

Summary

School food has been provided to pupils in England for many decades. From the mid-1970s, however, both the number of meals provided and the quality of the food declined. Legislation was introduced in 2001 to ensure that school catering services provided healthy options, but surveys of consumption in 1997 and

2004–2005 showed that the improved availability of healthy options in school had little or no impact on children’s eating habits. In February 2005, Jamie Oliver presented a series of television programmes highlighting the poor quality of school food. The UK government responded by setting up the School Meals

 

13 Animal Source Foods as a Food-based Approach to Improve Diet and Nutrition Outcomes

PDF

13

Animal Source Foods as a Food-based

Approach to Improve Diet and

Nutrition Outcomes

Charlotte G. Neumann,1* Nimrod O. Bwibo,2 Constance A. Gewa3 and Natalie Drorbaugh4

1

University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), California, USA; 2University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya; 3George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, USA;

4

Public Health Nutrition Consultant, Los Angeles, California, USA

Summary

Animal source foods (ASFs), particularly meat of a wide variety, fish, fowl meat, milk, eggs, snails, worms and other small animals supply not only high-quality and readily digested protein and energy, but also readily absorbable and bioavailable micronutrients. The inclusion of ASFs in the diet promotes growth, cognitive function, physical activity and health, and is particularly important for children and pregnant women. The importance of ASF consumption for health and nutritional outcomes has been documented in observational settings and, more recently, in intervention studies. A recent Kenyan study provides causal evidence that adding even a modest amount of meat to the diet of schoolchildren improves cognitive function and school performance, physical activity, growth (increased lean body mass), micronutrient status and morbidity. Outcomes from several nutrition interventions promoting ASF production and consumption have also demonstrated improvements in nutritional outcomes. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have played a key role in promoting ASFs in the diets of populations in low-income countries and in addressing issues that constrain household production and utilization of ASFs, and the chapter provides examples of the activities of several NGOs operating in Africa. In addition to current strategies, small freshwater fish and rabbits are two ASF sources with great potential for addressing nutritional deficiencies that have not received sufficient attention. Even modest amounts of meat and other ASFs in the diet from a variety of sources can greatly improve the overall nutrition and micronutrient status, health and function of rural populations.

 

14 Adapting Food-based Strategies to Improve the Nutrition of the Landless: A Review of HKI’s Homestead Food Production Program in Bangladesh

PDF

14

Adapting Food-based Strategies to Improve the Nutrition of the Landless:

A Review of HKI’s Homestead Food

Production Program in Bangladesh

Emily P. Hillenbrand1* and Jillian L. Waid2

Helen Keller International (HKI), Asia-Pacific Regional Office, Phnom Penh,

Cambodia; 2HKI, Bangladesh Country Office, Dhaka, Bangladesh

1

Summary

Helen Keller International’s (HKI) homestead food production (HFP) model is a food-based strategy to increase the micronutrient intake of individuals, improve household food security and advance women’s empowerment. The standard HFP intervention includes gardening, poultry production, group marketing, and nutrition behaviour change communication (BCC). The model has historically been implemented with smallholder households that have a minimal amount of land. However, individuals in ultra-poor households with minimal land access are among the most food-insecure and malnourished in Bangladesh, and they require food-based interventions targeted to their unique capabilities. Recognizing the urgent nutritional needs of the growing number of landless households in Bangladesh, HKI has been adapting its

 

15 The Growing Connection Project – With a Mexico Case Study

PDF

15

The Growing Connection Project –

With a Mexico Case Study

Bob Patterson1* and Margarita Álvarez Oyarzábal2

Former Liaison Office for North America, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Washington, DC, USA; 2Former Coordinator in Mexico for The Growing Connection, Guadalajara, Mexico

1

This chapter does not fall into the mainstream of detailed research or knowledge-shifting papers that have been presented at this symposium. We would particularly like to thank Brian Thompson and his colleagues in the Nutrition Division of FAO for inviting our low-key, low-budget and ‘unofficial’ initiative – ‘The Growing Connection’ to participate in this symposium.

The Growing Connection

The Growing Connection (TGC) operates in

12 countries in Latin America, the Caribbean,

Africa, the USA and Canada. There are about

130 garden/production and demonstration sites worldwide, some very small, some very large. The project itself is funded through a registered, tax-exempt non-profit organization (NGO) that we operate out of FAO’s

 

16 Biofortification: A New Tool to Reduce Micronutrient Malnutrition

PDF

16

Biofortification: A New Tool to Reduce

Micronutrient Malnutrition*

Howarth E. Bouis,1† Christine Hotz,2 Bonnie McClafferty,3 J. V. Meenakshi4 and Wolfgang H. Pfeiffer5

1

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, DC, USA;

2

Nutridemics, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 3Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition

(GAIN), Washington, DC, USA; 4Delhi School of Economics, Delhi, India;

5

International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali, Colombia

Summary

The density of minerals and vitamins in food staples eaten widely by the poor may be increased either through conventional plant breeding or through the use of transgenic techniques, a process known as biofortification. HarvestPlus seeks to develop and distribute varieties of food staples (rice, wheat, maize, cassava, pearl millet, beans and sweet potato) that are high in iron, zinc and provitamin A through an interdisciplinary, global alliance of scientific institutions and implementing agencies in developing and developed countries. In broad terms, three things must happen for biofortification to be successful. First, the breeding must be successful – high nutrient density must be combined with high yields and high profitability. Secondly, efficacy must be demonstrated – the micronutrient status of human subjects must be shown to improve when they are consuming the biofortified varieties as compared with what is normally eaten.

 

17 Medium-scale Fortification: A Sustainable Food-based Approach to Improve Diets and Raise Nutrition Levels

PDF

17

Medium-scale Fortification:

A Sustainable Food-based Approach to

Improve Diets and Raise Nutrition Levels

Miriam E. Yiannakis,1* Aimee Webb Girard2 and A. Carolyn MacDonald1

World Vision International, based at World Vision Canada, Mississauga, Ontario,

Canada; 2Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

1

Summary

This chapter examines the success and sustainability potential of medium-scale fortification (MSF) and small-scale fortification (SSF) to increase rural access to and usage of fortified flours within the Canadian

International Development Agency (CIDA)-funded Micronutrient and Health (MICAH) Programme in

Malawi. World Vision implemented the MICAH programme (1996–2005) to address anaemia and micronutrient malnutrition of women and children in Malawi. MICAH consisted of a package of community-based multi-sectoral interventions implemented with multiple partners. SSF and MSF of maize flour consumed by the general population, and a specially formulated local complementary food (likuni phala), were part of an anaemia control package that also included small animal production and consumption, backyard gardens, community-based iron supplementation, deworming of children and malaria control. Project evaluations provided strong evidence of impact over the 9 years of implementation. For example: anaemia in children under 5 years decreased from 86% (1996) to 60% (2004); anaemia in non-pregnant women decreased from

 

18 Optimized Feeding Recommendations and In-home Fortification to Improve Iron Status in Infants and Young Children in the Republic of Tajikistan: A Pilot Project

PDF

18

Optimized Feeding Recommendations and In-home Fortification to Improve Iron

Status in Infants and Young Children in the

Republic of Tajikistan: A Pilot Project

Marina Adrianopoli,1* Paola D’Acapito,1 Marika Ferrari,1 Lorenza Mistura,1

Elisabetta Toti,1 Giuseppe Maiani,1 Ursula Truebswasser,2

Khadichamo Boymatova3 and Santino Severoni4

1

National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition (INRAN), Rome, Italy;

2

World Health Organization (WHO), Harare, Zimbabwe; 3WHO, Dushanbe,

Republic of Tajikistan; 4WHO, Copenhagen, Denmark

Summary

Anaemia is a widespread public health problem that affects particularly infants and young children aged from 6 to 24 months. Nutrition has an important role in addressing this condition, and integrated food-based strategies can be adopted to improve complementary feeding (CF) patterns. The objective of this chapter is to evaluate the efficacy of age-specific Food-Based Complementary Feeding Recommendations (FBCFRs) and the long-term effectiveness and feasibility of an in-home fortification – using micronutrient powders

 

Load more


Details

Print Book
E-Books
Chapters

Format name
PDF
Encrypted
No
Sku
B000000035586
Isbn
9781780643809
File size
3.73 MB
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Format name
PDF
Encrypted
No
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Sku
In metadata
Isbn
In metadata
File size
In metadata