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Advertising Management: Theory & Practice

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The book titled Advertising Management: Theory and Practice is a thorough and broad text that features the many complexities facing advertisers in India. The deep insight into the psychology and demographics of consumer that make up the 'Indian Context' provides a sound background for learning the core of advertising and marketing mix at play in this country. By combining a rigor with relevance, the book has made an important contribution to advertising literature.

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2.12

2.13

2.14

2.15

2.16

2.17

2.18

2.19

2.20

2.21

Media Selection for Advertising

Need and Importance of Media Planning

Media Selection

Media Research

Print Media and Advertising

Broadcast Media and Advertising

Creativity in Advertising

Creativity in Communication

Advertising Appeals

Creating and Producing an Advertisement

Summary

3. Socio-Economic Implications of Advertising

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Economic Effects of Advertising

3.3 Explicit Role of Advertising

3.4 Indirect Role of Advertising

3.5 Critical Analysis of Advertising

3.6 Social Issues in Advertising

3.7 Controversial Effects of Advertising

3.8 Concluding Comments

4. Advertising: Truth, Ethics and Social Responsibility

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Ethics and Morality

4.3 Advertising and Social Responsibility

4.4 Obligation to Value System and Lifestyle

4.5 Legal Aspects of Advertising

Summary

5. Advertising and Consumer Behaviour Research

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Consumer Behaviour

5.3 Consumer Research

5.4 Motivation and Consumer Behaviour

5.5 Social Class Lifestyle and its Influence on Consumer Behaviour

 

CH1-1.pdf

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Chapter

1

INTRODUCTION

PART�A

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY

1.1

INTRODUCTION

Advertising today is a worldwide phenomenon. The modern world without advertising is something virtually inconceivable. Advertising is a measure of the growth of civilisation and an indication of the striving of the human race for betterment and perfection. Advertising has both forward and backward linkages in the process of satisfaction across the entire spectrum of needs.

The explicit function of advertising is to make the potential audience aware of the existence of the product, service or idea which would help them fulfil their felt needs and spell-out the differential benefits in a competitive situation. Advertising is the best and the most convenient route to reach the consumer’s mind. To make their ventures successful, advertisers spend money, time and resources at their disposal in order to dissect the intricacies of the human mind and to understand where the individual vulnerability lies.

Advertising is an inescapable part of our social lives. This is because it is rooted in the activity of persuasion, which is fundamental to the way in which we communicate with and relate to others in society. In the contemporary world, advertising has gained further significance because it provides us with a major cultural need—the need for images, icons and simulacra. We are surrounded by images in print, photographs, films, television and finally multimedia.

 

CH2-1.pdf

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Chapter

2.1

2

ADVERTISING: A CONCEPTUAL

FRAMEWORK

INTRODUCTION

Manufacturing of products and creation of services are of little use unless it reaches the persons for whom it is meant. However, the demand from the population for whom it is meant is not automatically generated. It has to be created because goods and services are manufactured and created in anticipation of demand. Such a creation of demand basically requires the development of considerable awareness among the prospective buyers about the availability of various products and services and the utilities and benefits thereof. Out of the various tools and techniques available for the marketer, advertising is one of the oldest, most popular and potent means of creating such awareness about products, services and ideas. As a matter of fact, advertising is the first and foremost tool of marketing products and services. It facilitates the introduction of products and services in the market through persuasion of the potential consumers in favour of such products/ services. Advertising also increases the familiarity of the consumers with the products and services as a result of which, the consumers feel more about the same while making their purchases.

 

CH3-1.pdf

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Chapter

3.1

3

SOCIO-ECONOMIC

IMPLICATIONS OF ADVERTISING

INTRODUCTION

In the previous chapter, advertising in general has been discussed. The present chapter is devoted to a description of economic and social implications of advertising. It includes descriptions on business environment and advertising, explicit role of advertising, effects of advertising on product quality, and increase in economic activity and employment.

The role of advertising in society has often been a subject of much debate. Advertising may be useful for consumers, considering that dissemination of information is necessary when buyers have to make a choice from the various products and services or from the different brands of a product. The opposite view is based on the contention that consumers are duped by misleading advertising and hence advertising should either be eliminated or strictly regulated. It will be fallacious to draw any conclusion without considering the various aspects of interface of advertising with individual and institutional buyers and society. It may be useful to look separately into the economic and social effects of advertising. Economic implications of advertising may arise from its role vis-àvis the overall business environment and also with respect to various macro and micro situations.

 

CH4-1.pdf

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Chapter

4.1

4

ADVERTISING: TRUTH, ETHICS

AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

INTRODUCTION

In the previous chapter, the economic and social implications of advertising have been discussed candidly. The present chapter focuses on truth and ethics of advertising and its social responsibilities in detail. It includes discussions on ethics and morality, need for creative imagination, obligations of advertising, responsibilities of advertising men, sex and advertising and its various legal aspects.

“The objectives of advertising are mainly long-range to assure the firm eternal life and a place in the sun… The purpose of advertising is to increase demand for the company’s product above what it would otherwise be.”1

4.2

ETHICS AND MORALITY

Ethics means a set of moral principles and values. Morality means set of principles of right and wrong behaviour. Morality is broader in meaning than ethics, and is concerned with the right type of conduct. Ethics refers to a system of certain values that govern the conduct of individuals or groups in a community. Morality is a dynamic system.

 

CH5-1.pdf

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Chapter

5.1

5

ADVERTISING AND CONSUMER

BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH

INTRODUCTION

Media impact on consumer behaviour can be better understood only when consumer behaviour itself is well understood. In the earlier chapter, truth and ethics in advertising has been discussed in detail. In the present chapter, we talk about consumer behaviour because the actual purchase is the result of that; and the behaviour of the consumer is very much influenced by advertisement. It is said that to understand the act of purchasing, it is necessary to probe the events that precede and follow the purchase. This maxim entails an in-depth study of consumer behaviour and how advertisement affects a purchase as an event preceding the purchase and an event following the purchase to condition subsequent purchases of purchasing behaviour.

Consumer Behaviour research is a very important aspect of marketing research since consumers together only form the market. To effectively perform the business activities that direct the flow of goods and services from producer to the ultimate consumer or user, the needs, motives and desires of the consumer must be understood well. These are the areas, which form the bulk of the domain of consumer behaviour research. These are the factors of ‘Attention’, ‘Brand

 

CH6-1.pdf

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Chapter

6.1

6

ADVERTISING AND LIFESTYLE

COMMUNICATION

INTRODUCTION

In the previous chapter, consumer behaviour, advertising and social-class lifestyle has been discussed in detail. The present chapter focuses on advertising and lifestyle communication in particular. It includes discussions on lifestyle communication, lifestyle marketing, lifestyle segmentation, social class lifestyles, social class and income related to lifestyle pattern, lifestyle advertising, application of lifestyle marketing; communication, types of communication and mass communication research.

The concept of lifestyles is, to a great extent, related to consumers' values and personality that represent internal states or characteristics. Lifestyles are manifestations or actual patterns of behaviour. In particular, they are represented by a consumer's activities, interests and opinions

(AIOs). What one does in one's spare time is often a good indicator of one's lifestyles. One consumer might like to engage in activities such as camping or driving, whereas another might prefer to stay at home, read and listen to music. The basic idea in lifestyle is that consumers who engage in different activities and have different opinions and interests may represent distinct lifestyle segments.

 

CH7-1.pdf

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Chapter

7.1

7

IMPACT OF ADVERTISING ON

CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

INTRODUCTION

The present chapter attempts to examine the impact of media advertisement on consumer behaviour. It deals with effectiveness of media advertising, its influence on consumer behaviour and how it has succeeded in changing consumer's lifestyle pattern. For the purpose of analysis, a random sample of 252 respondents have been taken and information from them collected through administration of a well structured as well as pre-tested questionnaire, that have been analysed here question by question to study vividly.

7.2

MAGAZINE/NEWSPAPER READERSHIP

The respondents were asked to indicate their views towards magazine/newspaper reading.

Table 7.1 summarises the respondents’ opinion in this matter.

Table 7.1. Magazine/Newspaper Readership

Response

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

252

100

No

Nil

Nil

Total

252

100.00

The above table reveals that all the respondents favour reading magazines/newspapers.

Table 7.2. Choice of Magazine/Newspaper Readership

 

CH8-1.pdf

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Chapter

8

LIFESTYLE COMMUNICATIONS

THROUGH PRINT AND

ELECTRONIC ADVERTISEMENTS

PART�A

PRINT PRESENTATION OF LIFESTYLE

8.1

INTRODUCTION

The present chapter explains print presentation of lifestyle advertisements. Twenty-five print advertisements were collected and analysed from different magazines. For advertisement copy, please see Appendix I.

Gone are those days, when goods and services were advertised in terms of their quality only.

There is a sea change in the present day advertising market scenario. Most of the present day advertisements, besides communicating product quality, disseminate lifestyle elements.

Advertisements are an integral part of the commodity culture, which in turn has become an important sign of modernity. They signify for the viewer a ‘modern’ self marked by consumerism, such that the purchase and consumption of commodities constitute in itself a value. This is what

Stuart Ewen in all-consuming images calls the “commodity self ”, a selfhood or identity mediated and constructed through the use of consumption of commodities. This is how advertisements succeed in producing or at least influencing changes in lifestyle, so much so that cultural theorists have argued that they promote not products but lifestyles. The advertisements below clearly demonstrate this through the human subjects that they present.

 

CH9-1.pdf

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Chapter

9.1

9

ADVERTISING IN THE

AGE OF E CONOMIC

LIBERALIZATION

INTRODUCTION

Economic Liberalization is a broad term that usually refers to fewer government regulations and restrictions in the economy in exchange for greater participation of private parties. The arguments for economic liberalization include greater efficiency and effectiveness that would translate to a bigger pie for everybody.

Liberalization is a concept with many differing definitions. It is a process which entails the free movement of capital, goods, services and labor around the world. Economic Liberalization is the massive control of the world's economy by big business, this control transcends the boundaries of state and country.

At political and economic level, liberalization is the process of denationalization of markets, politics and legal systems, it is the rise of global economy. Many international organizations, governmental institutions and the whole academic world discuss the consequences of this political and economic restructuring on local economies, human welfare and environment. It is one of the most important features of present world. At a business level, the process of globalization is when companies decide to take part in the emerging global economy and establish themselves in foreign markets. They adapt their products or services to the linguistic and cultural requirements of different nations. Then, they might take advantage of the Internet revolution and establish a virtual presence on the international marketplace. More and more companies do their business online. E-commerce has changed traditional business practices by providing direct international access to information and products.

 

CH10-1.pdf

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Chapter

10.1

10

CONCLUSIONS, MAJOR

FINDINGS AND

RECOMMENDATIONS

INTRODUCTION

The present study titled “Advertising and Lifestyle Communication: An Assessment of Media

Impact on Consumer Behaviour” is an attempt to explore the usefulness of advertising, measure the effectiveness of various media of advertising, show the lifestyle communication through advertisement and specially to assess the impact of advertising on consumer behaviour. The summary of the findings of the study is presented in the following paragraphs.

10.2

MAJOR FINDINGS OF THE STUDY

It has been observed from the analysis undertaken in the earlier chapter that advertising as such is found to be quite useful for all the respondents while buying products/services in the modern day competitive market. A preponderant majority of the respondents in fact, accepted advertising as an important tool in guiding and helping the prospective buyers in the market place while choosing product/service.

Though advertisement is commercial in nature, it is supposed to present a true and fair picture of the products or services. This enables to earn the consumers’ confidence with the advertised product/service. In the present survey it is surprising to see that more than half of the respondents have agreed that advertising presents a true picture of the product/service in spite of its dramatised presentation. This proves product credibility and its truthful presentation.

 

CASE.pdf

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CASE STUDIES

1.

LAKME GIRL

Revlon—the cosmetic giant in the West created a breakthrough in advertising by featuring

Revlon girl. Cindy Crawford, the well-known super model, is now te Revlon girl. The face for many years was of a model, Lauren Hutton. In 1987, they created a new campaign titled” the most

Unforgettable Women in the World. Renowned beauties like Imam were featured with Jerry Hall.

Lakme in India has also featured versatile as well as saleable faces—yasmin (Miss India1966), Purnima Dixit, Maureen Keelan. Lakme’s search for a model gave them a sophisticated face of shyamolie verma in 1981. Shyamolie became a corporate model for all their products for three years. Then followed an assortment of faces, some known, some unknown. However none of these faces could take on the whole gamut of products. Shymalie surprisingly has surpassed all her successors. Once again the search for a Lakme girl is on. Lakme Lever never took an Unknown face.

Besides, Lakme as a brand is bigger than the face. Bipasha Basu was their change in the mid 90’s.

 

APP1.pdf

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APPENDIX�I

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Aaker, David A. and Myers, John G., Advertising Management, Prentice Hall of India Pvt.

Ltd., New Delhi, 1996.

Alderson, W., Dynamic Marketing Behaviour, Homewood III, Irwin, 1965.

Alderson, W., Marketing Behaviour and Executive Action, Homewood III, Irwin, 1957.

Alderson, Wroe, The Productivity of Advertising, 1960.

Alexander, R.S., Marketing Definitions: A Glossary of Marketing Terms, Chicago,

American Marketing Association, 1980.

Alexander, Ralph S. (ed.), Marketing Definitions, American Marketing Association, Chicago,

1964.

Allport, G., "Attitudes", C. Murchison (ed.), Handbook of Social Psychology, Worcester,

Mass., Clark University Press, 1935.

Anderson, Clinton, P., The New York Times, July 13, 1955.

Barden, Neil H. and Marshall, Martin V., Advertising Management—Text and Cases,

Taraporevala, Bombay, 1972.

Barton, R., Advertising Media, New York, McGraw Hill, 1984.

Bauer, R.A., “Consumer Behaviour as Risk Taking”, Robert S. Hancock (ed.), Dynamic

Marketing for a Changing World, Chicago, American Marketing Association, 1960.

 

APP2.pdf

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APP3.pdf

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248

ADVERTISING MANAGEMENT : THEORY

AND

PRACTICE

RESPONSE SHEET

(Please tick wherever required)

PART ONE

1. Do you read Newspaper/Magazines?

Yes/No

If yes, please specify:

(a) More often

(b) Sometimes

(c) Seldom

(d) Always

2. (A) Do you watch Television?

Yes/No

If yes, how much time you devote for TV viewing in a day?

(a) Less than 2 hours

(b) 2 hours to 4 hours

(c) More than 4 hours

(B) Please specify the programmes which you watch most.

(i) _______________________________________

(ii) _______________________________________

(iii) _______________________________________

3. (a) While watching TV or reading magazines/newspapers, do you look at advertisements?

Yes/No

(b) If yes,

(i) You simply ignore them

(ii) Watch/read them

(iii) Watch/read them carefully and Analyse the message content

(iv) Non-response

4. As a consumer, do you feel advertising is useful?

If yes, please specify:

To some extent/Very much

5. Advertising gives:

(a) A true picture of the product/services

(b) An exaggerated picture of product/services

(c) Both facts and fantasies

 

INDEX.pdf

PDF

Index

Symbols

Attitude-oriented Appeals 52

Audience 34

Augmenting of Resources 60

(AIOs) 113

4Ps 20

B

A

A study by Steiner 64

Above-the-line Media 43, 58

Ad agencies 40

Ad Message 41

Advantages of Segmentation 32

Advertising 21

Advertising Age 22

Advertising agency 36

Advertising and Lifestyle

Communication 216

Advertising and Psychology 33

Advertising Appeals 50

Advertising Campaigns 23

Advertising Communication 34

Advertising Creativity 49

Advertising Expenditures 41

Advertising Exposure 45

Advertising Exposure Model 140

Advertising for Mass Consumption 66

Advertising Goals 26

Advertising in Shaping Brand Image 156

Advertising Management 23

Advertising Messages 22

Affective Activity 39

Agencies of Record (AORs) 215

Aggressive Promotional 5

AIDA Model of Hierarchy of Effects 37

American Marketing Association 23

Applications of Lifestyle Marketing 119

255

Barriers to Communication 132

Basic Model for Human Behaviour 101

Below-the-line Media 43, 58

Binocular Rivalry 142

Borden Points Out 62

Boredom Barrier 80

Brand Awareness 32

Brand Opinion 32

 

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