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Art and Analysis

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This edition is an introductory selection from the writings of Adrian Stokes (1902-1972), the Kleinian aesthete who created a unique vision of the relation between psychoanalysis, art, and aesthetic experience in general. His approach was founded initially on his travels in Italy which then acquired a more formal theoretical foundation during his analysis with Melanie Klein. Stokes was a close friend of leading figures in both psychoanalytic and artistic-literary circles, including Richard Wollheim who organised a previous edition of extracts, The Image in Form. The present edition concentrates specifically on the writing that demonstrates the parallels between art and psychoanalysis.

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CHAPTER ONE The quest for sanity



The quest for sanity

One day men will learn to think of sanity as an aesthetic achievement.

(“Living in Ticino”, 1964)

The arts of life i


hile I might welcome the accusation of being continuously in touch with the quality of psychoanalytic thought, I should find it uncomfortable were my abstractions or my method laid at the door of that science; if only because I bring non-clinical material to bear: and again, the use I have made of my own experience is effected with little particularization except in the outside world. But more than that: the kind of mirroring I attempt is unconnected with a scientific procedure; is undivorced from an even longer preoccupation with the arts.

I do not find that these two angles of focus for existence are at variance. From the angle of the arts of life, it is at first disquieting

i From the foreword, Smooth and Rough, 1951, pp. 11-12; Critical Writings

II, pp. 215-216.




CHAPTER TWO Art and the inner world



Art and the inner world

Painting and the inner world i


t seems desirable that I give a precise account of what I mean by the inner world, the one of Freud and Melanie

Klein. Apart from the fact that I claim no precise picture, there is always the difficulty that the concepts of psychoanalysis are little known and far less understood, yet it is impossible to interpolate several treatises available elsewhere.

The aspect of the psyche that most concerns our context is the potential chaos and the attempts to achieve stability whether predominantly through defences of splitting such as getting rid of parts of the psyche on to other people, or through denial, omnipotence, idealization, or whether predominantly by the less excluding method, the prerogative of the truly adult being, that entails recognition of great diversity in the psyche under the aegis of trust in a good object. The word “object” may seem obscure but it is used with determination. By means of introjection, the i From Painting and the Inner World, 1963, pp. 5-9; Critical Writings III, pp. 210-213.



CHAPTER THREE Modes of art and modes of being



Modes of art and modes of being

Carving and modelling i


o we shall now attack the vital though confused aesthetic distinction between carving and modelling.

There must be a profound aesthetic distinction between them. As everyone knows, carving is a cutting away, while modelling or moulding is a building up. Agostino’s virtue will shed new light upon the high imaginative constructions which common fantasy has placed around each of these antithetical processes (imagination itself is a plastic agency, fashioning its products with fragments). Agostino’s virtue will illumine afresh the field of visual art. For the distinction between carving and modelling proves to be most suggestive in relation to all visual art.


i From “Carving, modelling and Agostino”, Stones of Rimini, 1934, pp.

108-109; Critical Writings I, pp. 229-230)




That distinction between carving and modellingii is for me one of the most fruitful in the visual arts: it applies to all of those arts. I enlarged in this distinction in Stones of Rimini. I showed that in the early Renaissance there was an architecture and sculpture that is the epitome of carving conception. Also in The Quattro Cento I showed that there is constancy of life in early Renaissance stone ornaments, a tense communion with the plane from which they were cut. These ornaments do not give the effect of having been stuck there. On the contrary they are integral with their background plane. They appear to be more than decoration: for through them we witness powers in the wall on which they lie, just as his face shows the man. Whatever its plastic value, a figure carved in stone is fine carving when one feels that not the figure, but the stone through the medium of the figure, has come to life. Plastic conception, on the other hand, is uppermost when the material with which, or from which, a figure has been made appears no more than so much suitable stuff for this creation [… ].





Mother art

Integrity of the outward object i


rchitecture, it has often been said, is the Mother of the

Arts. I hope to intensify the meaning of this phrase although architecture is usually subject to urgent practical requirements, and always to climate. Such considerations, and much else – for instance, the intellectual pleasures of coherence, the bodily references imputed to mass – are regarded here as the conditions, or in the latter cases, the modes, of an aesthetic aim which cannot itself, of course, be confined, as is so often done, to the terms of modes and media.

In front of a fine building it would no doubt seem irrelevant to think as follows: we were first one with our mothers; then, during early infancy we found repeatedly (and feared the loss of, mourned) our guardians as whole people whose composite separateness in large measure defined the unity of our own . . .

But classical architecture, we shall see, essays the reconstruction


CHAPTER FIVE Close looking



Close looking

Piero’s perspective: art and science i


iero [della Francesca] achieved equation between true science and a majestic rapture from the earth. We sense geometry and number expressing the amplitude of love: we witness an untorn naturalism: a universal myth that is apart.

Love and the love of perspective were one, the perspective, for instance, of tilted circular shapes expressed with the slow piety of very exact drawing. Yes, piety, but more than piety, far more than the Gothic bent for the encrusted curve of a gold nimbus, inspired the correspondence that is broad and temperate between his volumes. We have from him the widest vistas and therein the equal simultaneous constancy of things; a stillness that is not archaic, a fullness without boast, a massive selfcontentment in the very stream of adult life. But he delighted also to show the virtuosity, as it were, of his rooted shapes in his fondness of temporary structures or of any such apparatus to whose related forms he could, like the dying sun on an autumn


CHAPTER SIX Construction of the good mother



Construction of the good mother

Inside out: an autobiographical narrative i

This is not a book about childhood, except for a little of my own. The “working-out”, as the title suggests, a certain relation to the external world, provides the subject.

(From the preface to Inside Out, 1947)


oing down the hill one morning towards Lancaster

Gate, my eldest brother remarked on an orange cloud in a dark sky: a thundercloud, he said. And sure enough, that afternoon there was a thunderstorm.

At nearby Stanhope Gate, an old woman sold coloured balloons. It was as if the lot had burst. I think I remember well this small event since it symbolizes an exceptional happening. For once the glowering suspense, the feeling of things hardly redeemed, was contradicted by a menace that came to violent fruition. The thing was done and finished with: the storm happened and passed, and the small orange i From Inside Out, 1947, 7-32; Critical Writings II, 142-158.



APPENDIX ONE Donald Meltzer



Donald Meltzeri


n 15 December 1972, in a lovely terraced Georgian house in Church Row, the most beautiful street in

Hampstead, the country playground of eighteenthcentury London, Adrian Stokes (1902–1972) died quietly and with great dignity, painting to the very last despite the impairment from brain metastases of a rectal carcinoma. His life was both a private and a public one of unflagging devotion to art and to psychoanalysis – and to building a bridge between the two that will stand for generations.

He was born in London and educated at Rugby and

Magdalen College, Oxford. Handsome and sociable, a superb tennis player and gifted speaker, his life was equally divided between the scholarship of art history, painting, and participation in the worlds of art and psychoanalysis. He numbered many of the most distinguished figures of both worlds among his personal friends: Ezra Pound, Naum Gabo, D.

H. Lawrence, Roger Money-Kyrle, Ben Nicholson, Barbara





Eric Rhodei


ar from being Olympian, Adrian Stokes was among the most hospitable of men: alert to distress in others and willing, at considerable cost to himself, to be of help; both receptive to ideas and able to enjoy the pleasures of small talk. But even on a first meeting with him it became clear that the essential Stokes was a very private person. He was involved in some communion with himself that could not be intruded into; at the same time, and in no manner, could this communion be ignored. It shone forth in his aspect: in crowded rooms his look of vulnerable nobility set him apart.

And its richness spilled out in conversation, as in his sometimes obscure stating of a viewpoint that fascinated by the breadth of its connections, or in the lucid, casual remark that could cut to the quick of an argument. He had nothing to do with what he describes in one of these papers as the “unceasing expostulation” of polite society.

It would be natural, yet too limited, to see the content of his thought in terms of his life-long allegiance to the arts or, more i “Introduction” to A Game That Must Be Lost (Stokes, 1973), pp. 1-5.




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