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Group Psychotherapy

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A special limited-edition facsimile of the original paperback edition of this classic work, which attempts to present a comprehensive account for the lay reader of the principles and methods of group psychotherapy, as patients and students join in a common quest for the solution of mental and emotional problems.

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1: Introductory Survey (E. J. A.)

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PART ONE

CHAPTER ONE

Introductory Survey

Introductory:

The dichotomy between inner and outer standards.

The Freudian approach: its concept of' transference'.

The dynamics of the group: various views of psycho-analytically oriented authors:

S. R. Slavson's theory: psycho-analytically oriented group psychotherapy.

A. Wolf's 'psycho-analysis' ofgroups.

J. D. Sutherland's and H. Ezrlel's work: emphasis on the

'here and now' aspects of the transference between group and therapist.

S. H. Foulkes' group-analytic psychotherapy: spontaneous communications by individual me,mbers treated as 'group associations'; all members active participants in the total therapeutic process; the group-analytic situation as a transference situation analyzed in terms of structure, process and content.

Historical developments of group-analysis:

The concept of'social neurosis'.

Trigant Burrow's nation of the neurotic social order.

 

2: Significant Features of the Group-Analytic Group, in Relation to other Types of Human Groups (S. H. F.)

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CHAPTER TWO

Significant Features of the Group-Analytic

Group, in Relation to Other Types of

Human Groups

Groups in general.

Activity groups: their manifest 'occupation', and latent 'preoccupation'.

The 'occupation' acts as a defence against personal interaction.

Therapeutic groups: No specific 'occupation' necessary, the fact of participation becomes the centre of interest.

Psychotherapeutic groups: three preconditions(i) Verbal communication;

(ii) The individual is the object of treatment;

(iii) The group itself is the chief therapeutic agent.

The group-analytic psychotherapeutic group: differentiated by the following main points (i) The use of 'free-floating discussion', 'free-group association' corresponding to 'free-association' of psycho-analysis;

(ii) The material produced is analyzed;

(iii) The 'latent' content of the discussion is treated as important.

A brief outline of the individual psycho-analytic situation.

 

3: Patients and their Background, and the Group-Analytic Process (S. H. F.)

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CHAPTER THREE

Patients and their Background, and the

Group-Analytic Process

Patients and their complaints.

The underlying neurotic suffering is always mental conflict.

Therapy involves creating a better balance from disequilibrium.

Social hostility to neurosis.

The real underlying causes are usually hidden. The need for

'translation •.

Psychological illness just as real as organic disease.

Psychogenetic disturbances arise from childhood conflicts.

Summary of individual analysis.

The group-analytic parallels: a network of horizontal transferences instead of a vertical transference.

The complex nature of the Iota/field of inter-personal relationships in which a disturbance arises. The patient's unawareness of this. The less change he wants, the more he needs it.

The group situation must allow for(i) 'Translation •;

(ii) An approach to the 'social unconscious';

(ill) Participation of the members themselves.

 

4: Some Technical and Practical Aspects of the Group-Analytic Situation (E.J.A.)

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CHAl'TER FOUR

Some Technical and Practical Aspects of the Group-Analytic Situation

Therapy and research go on simultaneously: the group as an instrument for both

The Group-analytic Situation

Material arrangements:

The circle

Seating arrangements

Numbers

Morphology of the group

Principles of selection: (a) general, (b) specific

Heterogeneous, intermediate, and homogeneous groups

Open and closed groups

Group selection by the group

Combined treatment

Time and duration, frequency

The general management of the T-situation

Fears about group treatment

Psychological aspects:

Supportive factors

Group-analytic factors

Patterns of communication and relationship

Illustration from serial record

87

CHAPTER FOUR

Some Technical and Practical Aspects of the

Group-Analytic Situation

EvERY therapeutic episode can be regarded somewhat loosely as an experiment or essay in research. This concomitance of treatment and research is now a commonplace in medicine and is largely responsible for advances in the field of therapy. For many psychotherapists, h<;>wever, even this moderate scientific attitude is felt to interpose an emotional distance between the therapist and his patient. Research is interpreted as an active interference with the spontaneous evolution of the therapeutic relationship.

 

Part: II

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PART TWO

CHAPTER FIVE

Clinical Illustrations with Commentary

107

CHAPTER FIVE

Clinical Illustrations with Commentary

by way of introduction, a letter from a young woman, stimulated by reading my introductory book.* It is a good example of someone who is well motivated for participation in a group-analytic group.

FIRST,

Why I want to join a therapeutic group, and what I expect from it.

Alii know at present of what goes on at a therapeutic group session is secondhand and theoretical. When I first came across Dr Foulkes' book on group-analysis I was fascinated by it to such an extent that I read it through at one sitting. Here, at last, was a 'natural' way of working out one's difficulties and problems!

When a little while before I had considered undergoing psychoanalytic treatment I had rationalized my general repugnance to having my true self laid bare by expressing doubts whether psycho-analysis was not too special, too artificial a method for me. I hardly liked the idea of being so ill that I needed the attention - hour after hour, week after week, month after month, and year after year-of a highly skilled therapist as required for full psycho-analysis. It just seemed out of proportion. I had not understood the idea that psycho-analysis aims at really changing a person. All I expected was perhaps the disentangling of a few strands in my early emotional life, and having them neatly rearranged.

 

6: The Natural History of the Therapeutic Group (E.J .A.)

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PART THREE

CHAPTER SIX

The Natural History of the Therapeutic

Group

The genesi! of conflict

Specific conflicts

Some hypothetical stages

The natural history (i) Initial phase

(ii) Intermediate phase

(iii) Terminal phase

Children's groups(i) The Nursery group

(ii) The Latency group: Discussion phase and Activity phase

(iii) The Adolescent group

Studies in psychapathology

Group exploration in psychopathology

151

CHAPTER SIX

The Natural History of the Therapeutic Group

psychotherapeutic group is a mirror not only for the patient but also for the analytic theorist, who can look in on this complex scene and note what he will. There are no limits to the possible descriptive subtleties open to him, and he may find himself exhibiting surprisingly different group models from those of his colleagues. Conceptions -will alter with preconceptions. Certain aspects of these conceptual models, however, tend to repeat themselves.

 

7: The Phenomenology of the Group Situation (E.J.A.)

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CHAPTER SEVEN

The Phenomenology of the Group Situation

The phenomenology of the group situation; therapy and research

The group specific factors (i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

Socialization through the group

The mirror phenomena

The 'condenser' phenomena

Chain phenomena

'Resonance'

The dialectic of theorizing

The nature of group support

Subgrouping

Silences

The scapegoat

The stranger in the group

The groitp historian

The rhythm of the group and its tensions

0

193

CHAPTER SEVEN

The Phenomenology of the Group Situation

THE data for theorizing on group dynamics are present in all types of groups. Its availability varies from group to group. In some it is cloaked in convention and formalism resistant to any enquiry, whereas in certain mass demonstrations, spontaneous phenomena may be evoked in a profusion that is equally apt to defeat analysis.

 

8: General Dynamic Theory (S.H.F.)

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CHAPTER EIGHT

General D.vnamic Theory

General basic premises:

Man a social being, the group a fundamenral unit. Interaction as a basic human force

Psychiatric application:

The psychoneurotic (too isolated from society, too fixated on family group)

Relatedness

The group as a matrix

Social relationships

Group structure and dynamics:

Configuration of disturbances

Location

'Band' Example

Oedipus Tyrannus

Communication

Scale

Language- the instrumellf of communication

Symptom: as ( ompromise.formation. needs translation

Problem communicated and shared

Verbalization

Summing-up:

Essential relatedness of indil·idual in a group

Location or configuration of disturbance

Nature of communication

Formulations by Erikson and Wemicke

Transference relationship in groups

Needfor theoretical concepts in group terms

211

CHAPTER EIGHT

General Dynamic Theory

 

9: Metatheory Speculations on Theoretical and Practical Developments (S.H.F.)

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CHAPTER NINE

Meta theory

Speculations on Theoretical and

Practical Developments

Group analysis touches on other social sciences and philosophy, e.g. the general question of communication.

The evaluation of communication in a group.

The group network or matrix.

The work towards communication proceeds as in psychoanalysis.

Communication is developed upwards and also downwards, to auunderstauding of more primitive forms.

Diagrammatic representation ofnormal, psychotic, and neurotic states.

The group equivalent ofpsycho-analytic processes.

Some practical considerations.

Conclusion: emphasis on the present state rather than on the case history.

233

CHAPTER NINE

Metatheory

Speculations on Theoretical and Practical Developments

THERE remain a number of speculative comments, both on the logic and theory of group-analysis, and on the actual development of therapeutic methods. Group-analysis touches on many different fields and raises questions of interest to philosophy, semantics, therapy, education, and social organization. To these questions, as well as to the problems of a new social psychopathology and of a dynamic science of psychotherapy, the analytic group, used as an instrument of treatment and research, i3 relevant. In this way we may be able to indicate possible developments in group-analysis, and offer some suggestions towards a group metapsychology.

 

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