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Gulf of Mexico Origin, Waters, and Biota: Volume 4, Ecosystem-Based Management

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The fourth volume in the Harte Research Institute’s landmark scientific series on the Gulf of Mexico provides a comprehensive study of ecosystem-based management, analyzing key coastal ecosystems in eleven Gulf Coast states from Florida to Quintana Roo and presenting case studies in which this integrated approach was tested in both the US and in Mexico. Two overview chapters cover related information on Cuba and on coastal zone management in Mexico. The comprehensive data on management policies and practices in this volume give researchers, policy makers, and other concerned parties the most up-to-date information available, supporting and informing initiatives to sustain healthy ecosystems so that they can, in turn, sustain human social and economic systems in this important transnational region.

Combined with the second volume in this series, which examines the coastal and ocean-based economy of the Gulf region, Ecosystem-Based Management provides pivotal empirical information on how human activity can be managed in an environmentally sustainable way. This important research points the way to better stewardship of the Gulf’s valuable natural resources, ensuring their availability for future generations.

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1. The Salinity Transition Zone Between the Southern Everglades and Florida Bay: System Functioning and Implications for Coastal Zone Management

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System Functioning and Implications for Coastal Zone Management

John W. Day, Fred Sklar, Jaye E. Cable, Daniel L. Childers, Carlos Coronado-Molina, Steve E. Davis, Steve Kelly, Christopher J. Madden, Brian Perez, Enrique Reyes, David T. Rudnick, and Martha A. Sutula

Like many ecosystems around the world, the Florida Everglades is threatened by global change. One of the world’s largest wetlands, it was described at one time as a vast, free-flowing “river of grass” extending from the Kissimmee chain of lakes to the Gulf of Mexico and Florida Bay (Douglas 1988). These subtropical wetlands support a rich diversity of plants, fish, and animals, including prolific populations of alligators, deer, panthers, manatees, wading and migratory birds, and mosquitoes. The historical Everglades encompassed a broad area of “ridge and slough” landscape (freshwater sloughs with periphyton mats, sawgrass ridges, and tree islands), marl-forming prairies on adjacent higher ground, and to the south, mangrove forests and saline tidal flats of Florida Bay (Fig. 1.1). Additionally, the very health and nature of the Everglades is closely tied to the volume, periodicity, and distribution of water entering the wetlands from Lake Okeechobee overflow. Over the past 100 years, however, the hydrology, chemistry, and biology of this ecosystem were altered dramatically to accommodate rapidly growing urban populations and industrial agriculture in south Florida. Two major effects on the ecosystem include large-scale diversions of freshwater from the Everglades to the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico and the conversion of large areas of wetlands for agricultural and urban uses. Now this dynamic relationship between the upstream freshwater lake system and the downstream “river of grass” is fundamentally altered by encroaching anthropogenic pressures.

 

2. Use of Models in Ecosystem-Based Management of the Southern Everglades and Florida Bay, Florida

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Christopher J. Madden

The trend toward comprehensive ecosystem management of coastal ecosystems throughout the United States is accelerating. In June 2003, the Pew Oceans Commission released the report America’s Living Oceans: Charting a Course for Sea Change, which asserted that on a national scale, comprehensive ecosystem-based management (EBM) strategies must be implemented for management and stewardship of our coastal marine ecosystems: “Ecosystem-based management entails developing a new perspective that acknowledges and understands that there are limits to our knowledge; marine ecosystems are inherently unpredictable; ecosystems have functional, historical, and evolutionary limits that constrain human exploitation. . . . Flexible, adaptive management that incorporates new knowledge and provides some level of insurance for unpredictable and uncontrollable events embodies ecosystem-based management.” (Pew Oceans Commission 2003).

The US Commission on Ocean Policy (2004) stated that an EBM perspective is necessary “to address the pervasive scientific uncertainty inherent in natural systems and the failures of single species management approaches to adequately address that uncertainty. . . . US ocean and coastal resources should be managed to reflect the relationships among all ecosystem components, including human and nonhuman species and the environments in which they live. Applying this principle will require defining relevant geographic management areas based on ecosystem, rather than political, boundaries.” (US Commission on Ocean Policy 2004).

 

3. Ecosystem-Based Management of the Apalachicola River–Apalachicola Bay System, Florida

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Robert J. Livingston

Temperate, river-dominated estuaries are among the most productive and economically valuable aquatic resources in the world. However, alluvial systems have been seriously damaged by various human activities. Estuarine primary production, based on loading of nutrients and organic compounds from associated rivers, is one of the most important processes in river-dominated estuaries (Howarth 1988; Baird and Ulanowicz 1989; Livingston et al. 2000). Nutrient input from river sources has been closely associated with autochthonous phytoplankton production. River-driven allochthonous particulate organic matter maintains detritivorous food webs in estuaries (Livingston 1983, 1984, 1985a). However, the relative importance of various sources of both inorganic nutrients and organic carbon (dissolved and particulate) can vary from estuary to estuary (Peterson and Howarth 1987). These differences can be related to the specific tidal and hydrological attributes of a given system (Odum et al. 1979). Human sources of such compounds often have the exact opposite effect leading to hypereutrophication, plankton blooms, deterioration of the estuarine food webs, and loss of secondary production (Livingston 2000, 2002, 2005).

 

4. Ecosystem-Based Management of Mobile Bay, Alabama

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John F. Valentine, Kenneth L. Heck Jr., Michael R. Dardeau, and Hank Burch

Most marine communities are inextricably linked with other communities by both the passive and active transport of materials and organisms via currents, larval drift, and active migrations. Cross-habitat movement of nutrients, detritus, prey, and consumers (i.e., spatial subsidies) all exert major effects on populations and food webs (for example, Vetter 1994, 1995; Persson et al. 1996; Polis and Hurd 1996, Polis and Strong 1996; Harrold et al. 1998; Rose and Polis 1998; Vetter 1998). The ecological productivity of most estuaries is driven by inputs of energy, in the form of detritus and/or drifting and migrating organisms, and nutrients from upstream watersheds (for example, Day et al. 1989; Deegan et al. 1990; Deegan 1993; Deegan et al. 1995; Rabalais et al. 1996; Deegan and Garritt 1997). Conversely, a number of marine organisms migrate upstream into such watersheds to feed and reproduce. Oddly, despite the well-documented importance of such geographically broad trophic linkages, estuarine environmental management is frequently focused on ecologically irrelevant small-scale, permit-based activities that overlook the cumulative effects of chronic anthropogenic activities within physically dynamic and highly linked watersheds. Such is certainly the case in coastal Alabama where ecosystem-based management is lacking.

 

5. Integrated Coastal Management in the Mississippi Delta: System Functioning as the Basis of Sustainable Management

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System Functioning as the Basis of Sustainable Management

John W. Day, John Barras, G. Paul Kemp, Robert Lane, William J. Mitsch, and Paul H. Templet

The Mississippi Delta is one of the largest and most important coastal ecosystems of the Gulf of Mexico and one of the most important natural habitats in North America. It is very important, ecologically and economically, to both the state of Louisiana and to the nation. The coastal ecosystems of the delta provide habitat for fish and wildlife, produce food, regulate chemical transformations, maintain water quality, store and release water, and buffer storm energy (Day et al. 1997; Day et al. 2000; Day et al. 2007). These processes support a diversity of economic activities vital to the state and national economies. Louisiana has the largest fishery by volume in the contiguous United States. Other wetland-related activities include ecotourism, hunting, and fur and alligator harvest. Those natural resource dependent activities generate several billions of dollars in economic activity when associated goods and services are incorporated (Day et al. 1997). In addition, port activities on the lower Mississippi River are first in the nation by tonnage, and about a third of oil and natural gas used in the United States is either produced in the north-central Gulf or transshipped through the delta.

 

6. Ecosystem-Based Management of Galveston Bay, Texas

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L. James Lester, Lisa A. González, and Priscilla A. Weeks

Our objectives are to describe the ecosystem of the Galveston Bay estuary, before significant modification, on the basis of historical maps and reports; to explain the modifications to the original ecosystem in support of consumptive and extractive uses and their impacts on the original ecosystem, and to suggest changes that must occur in current management systems to implement ecosystem-based management for this bay. The time frame for the analysis of human–estuary interactions in this chapter is approximately 150 years. For historical reference, a map from 1851 is included (Fig. 6.1), and records are compiled dating back to the late 1800s. Figure 6.2 displays a map of the Lower Galveston Bay watershed.

All of the government agencies managing Galveston Bay today were created with missions supporting consumptive use of natural resources. Regulation of consumptive use dates back to the 1800s. The first public navigation projects were begun in the 1850s (Gallaway 2002). The first state government agency empowered to regulate consumptive use of Texas bay resources was the Texas Fish and Oyster Commission established in 1895. An extractive approach to bay management was the norm until recently when nonconsumptive uses emerged as major policy considerations.

 

7. Ecosystem-Based Management in the Laguna Madre, Western Gulf of Mexico

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Elizabeth H. Smith, Alfonso Banda, John W. Tunnell Jr., and Kim Withers

The unique geomorphic setting of the Laguna Madre ecosystem was first described by Enriquez Barroto when, on 8 March 1867, he sailed into the Río de las Palmas (now Soto La Marina, Tamaulipas). Three days later, he rowed into a water body he named Laguna de Ysmuth and described it as a river that paralleled the coast. He continued to refer to this “river” as he traveled northward along Padre Island, Texas (Bartlett 2002). In actuality, he had documented one of the most distinctive features along the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, the hypersaline lagoon system created and protected by Gulf barrier islands. In turn, Laguna Madre of Texas and Tamaulipas provides a protective buffer for the mainland as well as productive resources for its people. Human alterations have cumulatively impaired certain ecological functions of this Tamaulipan thornscrub, Gulf coastal plain, and hypersaline estuarine system. In this chapter we describe the physical, chemical, and biological features of the Laguna Madre ecosystem; review alterations applied to the system; and provide recommendations for future conservation and management.

 

8. México-United States Shared Environmental Problems in the Rio Grande/Río Bravo Basin Ecosystem

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Sergio Jiménez-Hernández and Gary L. Powell

The Rio Grande/Río Bravo is a troubled source of life for the environment and the people that its ecosystems support. The United States and Mexico share many common problems along this legendary river, and the extent to which they work together will determine not only the future of the river but the future of the inhabitants of the river basin as well. The environmental stressors are a list too familiar: dewatering of the river through increasing impoundment and diversion activities; water pollution from municipalities and industry, agricultural inputs of salts, nutrients, raw sewage, toxic pesticides, herbicides, and other chemicals and heavy metals; introduced exotic plants and animals; habitat loss through deforestation and other land-use changes; climate change that could be making the basin more inhospitable and difficult to manage; and a burgeoning human population that is creating its own tidal wave of crisis.

Added to the management issues are important socioeconomic, cultural, technical, and agricultural differences between both nations sharing this international border. The aim of this chapter is to present a new starting point for focusing environmental policies on mitigating these negative effects throughout the socioeconomic and ecological systems dominating this region.

 

9. Ecosystem Functioning: The Basis for Sustainable Management of Terminos Lagoon, Campeche Mexico

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The Basis for Sustainable Management of Terminos Lagoon, Campeche Mexico

Alejandro Yáñez-Arancibia, John W. Day, Ana L. Lara-Domínguez, Patricia Sánchez-Gil, Guillermo J. Villalobos, and Jorge A. Herrera-Silveira

Terminos Lagoon (Laguna de Términos) is one of the key ecosystems for tropical estuarine and coastal ecology, and over the last 35 years, this ecosystem in the southern Gulf of Mexico has been the focus of national and international attention because of its ecological and economic importance and the actual and potential effects of human activities (Day et al. 2003; Yáñez-Arancibia and Day 2004a, 2004b). Human activities include urban development in sensitive areas, permanent and seasonal agricultural activities in the lowland wetlands, oil and gas activities including dredging and channels, overfishing, deforestation of both freshwater and brackish wetland forests and mangroves, and a shortage of freshwater. Regional location in the southern Gulf of Mexico is indicated in Figure 9.1.

 

10. The Role of Participation in Ecosystem-Based Management: Insight from the Usumacinta Watershed and Terminos Lagoon, Mexico

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Insight from the Usumacinta Watershed and Terminos Lagoon, Mexico

Bruce Currie-Alder

This volume argues that the future management in the Gulf of Mexico should be directed toward a combination of integrated coastal management with large marine ecosystem management, and the system approach for coastal ecosystem-based management (Yáñez-Arancibia and Day 2004a; Yáñez-Arancibia et al. Chapter 9 of this volume). Such a focus emphasizes ecosystem functioning, and the biophysical processes that give rise to ecological subregions, including the interactions of geomorphology, oceanography, climate, physical chemistry, wildlife, and fisheries. Yet, adopting such an approach risks neglecting the complex ways in which people relate to ecosystems and utilize ecosystem services. In calling for attention to collaborative efforts, the human factor can help to understand how the Gulf ecosystems are changing and enable people to participate in their future stewardship. Indeed, Article 157 of Mexico’s environmental protection law (Ley General del Equilibrio Ecológico y la Protección al Ambiente) states that “government must promote the co-responsible participation of society in . . . environmental policy and natural resources.” Legislation has opened the doors to various initiatives in Mexico that attempt to get people involved in managing ecosystems. Rather than building a system for ecosystem-based management from scratch, existing initiatives can offer insights into how to implement a new generation of efforts to steward the Gulf of Mexico.

 

11. Ecosystem Approach Based on Environmental Units for Management of the Centla Wetlands Biosphere Reserve: A Critical Review for its Future Protection

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A Critical Review for its Future Protection

Ana Laura Lara-Domínguez, Enrique Reyes, Mario A. Ortiz Pérez, Patricia Méndez-Linares, Patricia Sánchez-Gil, David Zárate Lomelí, John W. Day, Alejandro Yáñez-Arancibia, and Eduardo Sáinz Hernández

After the official decree that established the Centla Wetlands Biosphere Reserve (CWBR) (Diario Oficial de la Federación 1992), and the publication of its management program by the National Institute of Ecology (Instituto Nacional de Ecología, INE), a subsidiary body of the Secretariat of the Environment, Natural Resources, and Fisheries (Secretaria del Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca, SEMARNAP) in Mexico (INE-SEMARNAP 2000), it was clearly necessary to incorporate approaches and management tools to protect the Centla ecosystem. In our opinion, it was necessary to create new management units because the original units were not developed using the ecosystem approach and were developed without the perspective of ecosystem functioning. These are key concerns for ecosystem-based management, and in particular, the definition of environmental management units as a management tool.

 

12. Landscape, Land Use, and Management in the Coastal Zone of Yucatan Peninsula

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Jorge A. Herrera-Silveira, Francisco A. Comin, and Luis Capurro Filograsso

To reach the sustainable use of aquatic ecosystems, we must first understand the interrelationship between different physical and biological components controlling the functioning and dynamics that regulate the systems. This ecosystem approach is especially applicable in coastal environments because they are the final destination of all drainage basins regardless of whether the basins are superficial or underground; the hydrological connectivity between inland and coastal marine ecosystems is strong. This connectivity must be acknowledged in all coastal environments analyzed using the ecosystem approach.

In contrast, coastal environments, in addition to the human problem of drinking water supply, have other problems such as rapid urbanization, destruction of wetlands (including salt marshes, sandy beaches, and mangroves), and health issues caused by pollution, collapsing artisanal and industrial fisheries, salinization and pollution of aquifers, siltation and hindrance navigation, increasing muddiness of waters, and decreased biological productivity. All these problems result in coasts that are inhospitable and where sustainable activities are impossible, especially tourism and enjoyment of life.

 

13. Biogeochemistry of Gulf of Mexico Estuaries: Implications for Management

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Implications for Management

Thomas S. Bianchi, Jonathan R. Pennock, and Robert R. Twilley

The field of biogeochemistry involves the study of how biological, chemical, and geological processes interact to determine the fate and effects of materials that influence the metabolism of ecosystems. An understanding of the role that biogeochemical and physical processes play in regulating the chemistry and biology of estuaries is fundamental to evaluating complex management issues such as those found in the Gulf of Mexico. As we have described (Bianchi et al. 1999), biogeochemistry links the processes that control the fate of sediments, nutrients, organic matter, and trace metals in estuarine ecosystems. Therefore, this discipline requires an integrated perspective of estuarine dynamics associated with the introduction, transport, and either accumulation or export of materials that largely control primary productivity. The metabolism of in situ primary production, and indirectly the utilization of allochthonous organic matter, is also linked to patterns of secondary productivity and fishery yields in estuaries in the Gulf of Mexico. As humans alter the way regional watersheds and local landscapes of estuaries produce and process natural and synthetic chemicals, principles of biogeochemistry will continue to influence how we manage these unique coastal ecosystems.

 

14. Global Climate Change Impacts on Coastal Ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico: Considerations for Integrated Coastal Management

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Considerations for Integrated Coastal Management

John W. Day, Alejandro Yáñez-Arancibia, James H. Cowan, Richard H. Day, Robert R. Twilley, and John R. Rybczyk

Global climate change is important in considerations of integrated coastal management in the Gulf of Mexico. This is true for a number of reasons. Climate in the Gulf spans the range from tropical to the lower part of the temperate zone. Thus, as climate warms, the tropical–temperate interface, which is currently mostly offshore in the Gulf of Mexico, will increasingly move over the coastal zone of the northern and eastern parts of the Gulf. Currently, this interface is located in South Florida and around the US–Mexico border in the Texas–Tamaulipas region (Figs. 14.1 and 14.2) (Yáñez-Arancibia and Day 2004).

Within this general temperature gradient, rainfall is important (Day et al. 1989). The climate around the Gulf ranges from arid to super humid (Fig. 14.1). In parts of the southern Gulf, especially in the drainage basin of the Grijalva and Usumacinta rivers that discharge to Campeche Sound, rainfall is >3000 mm/yr. Rainfall averages between 1500 and 2000 mm/yr in the north-central Gulf from Pensacola, Florida, to the Louisiana deltaic plain, and in the southwestern Gulf in the state of Veracruz. In most of the Florida and Yucatan peninsulas and in the northwestern Gulf, rainfall is between 1000 and 1500 mm/yr. Arid areas with less than 1000 mm occur in the northwestern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula near Progreso and in the western Gulf coast between Tampico, Tamaulipas, and Corpus Christi, Texas. At this broad geographic scale, temperature and rainfall are two of the principal determinants of coastal wetland distribution (Day et al. 1989; Yáñez-Arancibia and Day 2004).

 

15. Sea-Level Rise and Vulnerability of Coastal Lowlands in the Mexican Areas of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea

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Mario A. Ortiz Pérez, Ana P. Méndez Linares, and José R. Hernández Santana

A number of coastal settings are present in Mexico, both in the Pacific Ocean, to the west, and in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea to the east, comprising a total length of 10,554 km of frontal coast open to the sea. With the coastal lagoons and islands, this totals about 24,945 km of coastline (Ortiz Pérez and De La Lanza 2006). These shorelines, to a greater or lesser extent, are subject to the rise in mean sea level, which will cause mostly irreversible modifications in coastal genesis and morphology, the expression of natural ecosystem landscapes, and substantial socioeconomic effects in local populations.

Mexico’s Gulf of Mexico coastline extends approximately 2775 km with an additional 4900 km of shoreline along inland water bodies that are protected by low sandy barriers. The coastal plain varies from 15 to 30 km wide and is cut by more than 25 important rivers and 23 lagoons of variable size. The terrestrial geomorphic processes, mainly fluvial, lacustrine, and swamp, as well as the littoral morphodynamics, have resulted in a complex interactive system of different transitional types among barrier islands, fluvial mouths, deltas, and estuaries that are closely linked to flood plains, lagoons, salt marshes associated with mangroves, marshes, and mangrove forests (Ortiz Pérez et al. 1996).

 

16. Southwestern Gulf of Mexico Reefs: Connectivity, Biogeographical Relationships, and Management Implications

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Connectivity, Biogeographical Relationships, and Management Implications

Hector Reyes-Bonilla and Eric Jordán-Dahlgren

Coral reefs in the Gulf of Mexico are found not along the continental shelves, but rather in restricted locations where environmental conditions have been adequate for the coral biota to build up the reefs. Because coral reefs are determined by the environmental particularities of the location where they are formed, the formations in the southwestern Gulf are quite different from the ones located in the northern Gulf. Reefs in the latter region are generally well developed, but they are clustered in a few distant localities and therefore are relatively isolated. Because of this spatial layout, understanding how these reefs might be ecologically connected is of great scientific and practical interest, and this is now possible because scleractinian species composition of most reefs was well characterized between the 1960s and 1980s (see review in Jordán-Dahlgren and Rodríguez-Martínez 2003). Gorgonian fauna analyses of the ecological connectivity among southwestern reefs suggest a variable and sporadic process (Jordán-Dahlgren 2002), whether this is also true for all or some scleractinian corals is unknown at present because ecological connectivity is taxon dependent. The first comparisons of coral species composition between reefs in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean were published in the 1970s and 1980s (Glynn 1973; Chávez et al. 1985; Ferre D’Amare 1985). By the late 1980s and 1990s, the information was comprehensive enough to support the first quantitative evaluations (Liddell and Ohlhorst 1988; Gutiérrez et al. 1993; Chiappone et al. 1996), which continued through the last decade (Horta-Puga et al. 2007; Chávez-Hidalgo et al. 2008). About the same time as the first signs of concern for the state of the reefs appeared (Chávez and Hidalgo 1988; Tunnell 1992), a catastrophic demise of the acroporid corals in the western Gulf reefs was reported (Jordán-Dahlgren 1992). This further increased the need to understand the nature of the ecological connectivity among the Gulf of Mexico reefs and between Gulf reefs and reefs in the Caribbean as potential larval sources. The purpose of this contribution is to present an analysis of the biogeography and potential connectivity from scleractinian data, and to discuss briefly the results in terms of coral reef conservation. To do this, a brief characterization of the reef systems involved is necessary.

 

17. Coral Reef Management and Conservation in the Southern Gulf of Mexico

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John W. Tunnell Jr. and Ernesto A. Chávez

Coral reefs are among the most biologically diverse and productive, as well as complex, ecosystems on earth. Additionally, they are important to local, regional, and global economies as sources of food and medicinal products, for protection of fragile shorelines from storm damage and erosion, as a heritage of cultural values and for great natural beauty, and vast revenues in tourism dollars. However, since the late 1970s and early 1980s, global concern over degradation and loss of this ecologically and economically valuable marine habitat has been increasing. Coral reefs are being destroyed at an alarming rate throughout the world, including the Gulf of Mexico. The latest report on the status of coral reefs of the world indicates that “coral reefs are probably the most endangered marine ecosystem on Earth” (Wilkinson 2008). According to the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network in 2008 (Wilkinson 2008), the world has effectively lost 19% of coral reefs, 15% are seriously threatened with loss in the next 10–20 years, and 20% are under threat of loss in 20–40 years.

 

18. Considerations for an Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management in the Southern Gulf of Mexico

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Juan C. Seijo, John F. Caddy, William W. Arzápalo, and Alfonso J. Cuevas

All fishing nations are under international pressure to implement an ecosystem approach in their domestic fisheries and in any international fishery in which they participate. The importance of the ecosystem approach to fisheries was recognized in 1991 by 47 countries participating in the Reykjavik Conference on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem. The signing parties declared “that in an effort to reinforce responsible and sustainable fisheries in the marine ecosystem, we will individually and collectively work in incorporating ecosystem considerations into that management” (FAO 2001, p. 106).

The ideal of an ecosystem approach to fisheries management is summarized by Chapter 17 of Agenda 21: “The marine environment—including oceans and all seas and adjacent coastal areas—forms an integrated whole that is an essential component of the global life-support system and a positive asset that presents opportunities for sustainable development. International law . . . sets forth rights and obligations of States and provides the international basis upon which to pursue the protection and sustainable development of the marine and coastal environment and its resources.” A number of attempts have been made to translate this ideal into a practical and feasible approach (Ward et al. 2002; Cochrane et al. 2004) including those of the US National Research Council (1999), the Convention of Biological Diversity, and the World Wide Fund for Nature.

 

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