Medium 9781780491707

Pioneers of Child Psychoanalysis

Views: 1461
Ratings: (0)

In Pioneers of Child Psychoanalysis Beatriz Markman Reubins presents the lives and theories of the early innovators of psychoanalytic theory as it is applied to child development - Sigmund Freud, Anna Freud, Melanie Klein, D.W. Winnicott, Margaret Mahler and John Bowlby. The creative thinking Markman Reubins shows lies in her unique weaving of personal history and theoretical application. This insightful elaboration of the thoughts of influential thinkers flows seamlessly from the early twentieth century to the present time. The author's unique approach of preceding theory with the personal history of the analytic thinkers amplifies and gives texture to the unfolding of their understanding of psychological development and its analytic implications for child development. She describes difficult concepts with a balanced and thoughtful approach, which sheds light and understanding for both the student and experienced clinician. By comparing and contrasting these theoretical approaches the author suggests their interrelationships and how, rather than opposing each other, they augment one another and help the reader to understand the broad depth of analytic insight which flowed from the enormous creativity of the analysts from the twentieth century. While this is a "must read" for students of child psychoanalysis, it is also enormously beneficial for parents who want to understand the fundamentals of best parenting practices.

List price: $26.99

Your Price: $21.59

You Save: 20%

Remix
Remove
 

9 Chapters

Format Buy Remix

Chapter One: Sigmund Freud

ePub

Volumes have been written concerning the subject of Freud's life and work. In this chapter, the focus is narrowed to Freud's immediate family, his parents, siblings, children, and grandchildren. The history of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, Freud's circle of friends and the pioneers of what became the International Psychoanalytic Society, is also highlighted.

Freud and his siblings

Sigmund Freud was born on 6 May 1856, in the Moravian town of Freiberg (now known as Píbor, in the Czech Republic), during the era of the Austrian Empire. His parents were of Jewish Galitzian descent. His father, Jacob Freud (1815–1896), was born in Tysmenitz, Galitzia, a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1886, at the age of forty-one, Jacob married his second (or possibly third) wife and Sigmund Freud's mother, Amalia Malka Nathansohn, a woman twenty-one years her husband's junior. Sigmund was their first child.

Jacob Freud had two children from his first marriage to Sally Kanner (1829–1852), Emanuel (1833–1914) and Philipp (1836–1911). Both children were born in Tysmenitz in Galitzia. It is not known and questionable whether Jacob had a second wife, Rebecca, who died after three years of marriage (1852–1855).

 

Chapter Two: Freud's Papers Concerning Child Psychoanalysis

ePub

Freud, through his many publications related to child analysis, was an early influence in the development of child analytic thinking. He was able to be in close contact with symptomatic children and applied his theory to them, keenly aware of the importance of having direct observation of the child to corroborate what he was discovering in his adult patients.

The following papers represent Freud's thoughts on the children he observed. Among them is “Little Hans”, the five-year-old son of one of his close friends, and another is about the eighteen-month-old boy who was the son of one of his daughters.

“Symptomatic and Chance Actions” (1901)

In his 1901 book The Psychopathology of Everyday Life, Freud dedicated a section to the explanation of “symptomatic and chance actions”. These apparently insignificant occurrences, with no clear explanation, both play a part in symptoms and give expression to something that the person has otherwise not suspected.

Freud observed that such symptomatic and chance actions can either occur habitually, regularly under certain conditions, or occur only sporadically or rarely. He added that symbolism plays a greater role in the childhood of normal people than he had thought earlier. Furthermore, Freud said that the symptomatic acts that can be observed in healthy and sick people are important to take into account in the analytic process. After describing numerous clinical examples, Freud concluded that such symptomatic acts often offer the best understanding of peoples’ intimate mental lives.

 

Chapter Three: Anna Freud

ePub

Biography

The youngest daughter of Sigmund and Martha Bernays Freud, Anna Freud was born in Vienna, Austria, on 3 December 1895, and died in London on 8 October 1982 at eighty-six years of age.

Anna had a very close relationship with her father, but not with her mother or her siblings. Anna was emotionally and psychologically attached to her Catholic nursemaid, Josephine Cihlarz, who was hired when Anna was born. Josephine took care of Anna and the younger children, Ernst and Sophie, and remained with the Freud family until Anna completed her first year of elementary school, when she left to marry and have a family of her own. Anna was twenty-nine years old when Josephine died in Vienna, and Anna attended her funeral.

Anna Freud became a teacher in 1914, working as an elementary school teacher from 1917 to 1920. While her professional life was centred on childhood education, her home environment provided unique intellectual stimulation that would shape the rest of her life. Anna was frequently present at psychoanalytic discussions held in her home by her father and his colleagues.

 

Chapter Four: Melanie Klein

ePub

Biography

Melanie Reizes Klein was born in Vienna, Austria, on 30 March 1882, and died in London on 22 September 1960 at the age of seventy-eight. Her father, Moriz Reizes, was a Jewish doctor of Polish origin who came from a traditional Jewish religious background. Born in Lember, Galitzia (now Lvov, Ukraine), Dr Reizes had an early first marriage which ended in divorce. When he was forty-four, he met Libussa Deutsch, who was then twenty-five. At the time Dr Reizes married Libussa, who was from Warkotz, Slovakia, he was forty-seven.

After the marriage, the couple settled in Deutschkreutz, Hungary (now Bergenland, Austria), but in 1882 they decided to move to Vienna, where Melanie Klein was born. The couple had four children, of whom Melanie was the youngest:

Dr Reizes was in his fifties at the time of Melanie's birth. Melanie's mother, Libussa, was young and energetic. This may explain why Melanie felt closer to her mother and more distant from her father; nevertheless, Melanie remembered that her family life was surrounded by love and togetherness, although with three tragic moments: the death of her father, her sister, and her brother Emmanuel. Emmanuel was the “genius” of the family, Emily was her father's favourite, and Sidonie was the best-looking of the children and her mother's favourite.

 

Chapter Five: Donald Woods Winnicott

ePub

Biography

Donald Woods Winnicott was born in Plymouth, England, on 7 April 1896. He died in London, England, on 28 January 1971, when he was seventy-five years old. In the last years of his life, he suffered from a lung and heart condition but continued working.

Donald was the younger child of three, he had two older sisters. His father was a successful merchant who became the mayor of Plymouth. Winnicott's mother died in 1925 when he was twenty-nine years old. His mother was described as a vivacious and highly intelligent woman with good judgement and a sense of humour.

Donald Winnicott's first marriage ended in divorce. The couple did not have children. Winnicott met his second wife, Clare Britton, a psychiatric social worker, when he was working at the Evacuation Project. They were married in 1951, and they had an excellent marriage. They always interacted with love and companionship, sharing work and ideas, but not children.

He attended medical school in Cambridge, England, and in 1918, at the end of the First World War, he finished his medical training at St Bartholomew Hospital in London. In 1920, he qualified as a paediatrician. When he was twenty-three, he became familiar with Freud's ideas. In 1923, Winnicott began his own psychoanalytic treatment with James Strachey (Freud's translator of the Standard Edition), which lasted ten years.

 

Chapter Six: Clinical Case Presentation: Melanie Klein, Anna Freud, And Donald Woods Winnicott in Perspective

ePub

Alice

History

Alice was a five-year-old girl who lived with her parents and her ten-year-old brother. Her mother was a teacher and her father a civil engineer. Her father was frequently absent from home due to his work. Her older brother did not exhibit psychological problems at the time of the consultation.

Alice's parents consulted me for their five years old girl who was enuretic as returned wet daily from nursery school. She was shy, insecure, and not trusting. Alice was frequently sad and spent time by herself. She had difficulties with aggression and avoided contact with other children, she was afraid that she would attack and hurt other children. She did not have friends and avoided birthday parties.

Alice exhibited oppositional behaviour, especially with her mother, but she fought with her father as well. At times, she communicated using baby talk which was difficult to understand.

She was stubborn, had temper tantrums, sleeping disturbances, and she needed a night light because she was afraid of the dark.

 

Chapter Seven: Margaret Mahler

ePub

Biography

Margaret Mahler (1897–1985) was born in Sopron, Hungary, she emigrated to New York in 1938, where she spend the rest of her of life. She died in New York City at eighty-eight years old.

Her father was a general practitioner, her mother was nineteen years old when she married Margaret's father. Margaret was the first-born child of an unhappy marriage. Her mother resented having a child at such a young age, so it was mainly her father who was her caretaker. She grew increasingly more distant from her mother. The definitive moment of rejection was when she overheard her mother telling her sister, four years her junior, that she was her favourite and that she loved and adored her more than anything.

Margaret's situation was a sad example of emotional devastation caused by parental favouritism. She compensated her loveless home atmosphere with an extraordinary success in school, where she excelled in mathematics and science. Margaret Mahler believed that the reason she became interested in paediatrics and psychoanalysis was because of her mother's rejection. She grew up unhappy, with low self-esteem, and deeply jealous of her sister. Her father was very supportive and encouraged her to excel in her intellectual growth. She was the second woman in Sopron to receive higher education, at sixteen years old she went to Budapest and lived with an unkind aunt.

 

Chapter Eight: John Bowlby

ePub

Biography

Edward John Mostyn Bowlby was born in London, England, on 26 February 1907. He died on 2 September 1990 at his summer home on the Isle of Skye, Scotland, at eighty-three years old. The fourth of six children of an upper middle-class family, Edward John Mostyn Bowlby was raised by a nanny. John saw his mother only one hour a day after tea time, as she considered that parental attention and affection would lead to detrimental spoiling of children. When he was four years old, his nanny and primary caretaker left the family. Later, he described this loss as tragic and no different than losing a mother.

His father, Anthony Bowlby, was a surgeon to the king's household. At age seven, he was sent off to boarding school, as was common for boys of his social status. He later said that he wouldn't send a dog away to boarding school at age seven. Due to these traumatic childhood events he developed empathy for children's suffering.

In April 1938, he married Ursula Longstaff, also the daughter of a surgeon. They had four children. Mary, born 1939; Richard, born 1941; Pia, born 1945; and Robert, born 1948. After the Second World War (1946–1947), Bowlby bought his house in Hampstead, London, where he lived the rest of his life.

 

Chapter Nine: Pioneers around the World

ePub

Hermine Hug-Hellmuth

Hermine Hug Hellmuth (1871–1924) was an Austrian Psychoanalyst who was considered the first child psychoanalyst in Vienna. From a Catholic background, she was the second daughter of Hugo Hug von Hugenstein, who served in the Austrian war as a military officer and civilian. Her mother, Ludovika Achelpohl, was a highly educated woman who mother tutored Hermine at home, but suffered from tuberculosis and died when Hermine was twelve.

Following her mother's death, Hermine attended public school and became a teacher. She taught in public and private schools before entering the University of Vienna in 1897, where she studied the physical sciences and in 1909 obtained a doctorate in physics. She became interested in psychoanalysis and started her own psychoanalytic treatment with the Viennese analyst Isidor Sadger. Her interest in psychoanalytic theory grew, and she decided to apply the new theory to children having problems. In 1910, she chose to concentrate in the field of child analysis and resigned her teaching position. The following year, Hermine published her first paper on psychoanalysis, “The Analysis of a Dream of a Five-Year-Old Boy”, and in 1913 she published “The Nature of the Child's Soul”. That same year she was accepted as a member of the Wednesday Meetings, which later became the Vienna society. She was the third woman analyst to be accepted as a member of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Association. The first two women were Margarete Hilferding (1871–1942) and Sabina Spielrein (1885–1941). Freud respected Hermine's ideas and psychoanalytic contributions and gave her the official position of representing child psychoanalysis.

 

Details

Print Book
E-Books
Chapters

Format name
ePub
Encrypted
No
Sku
B000000021187
Isbn
9781781813102
File size
464 KB
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Format name
ePub
Encrypted
No
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Sku
In metadata
Isbn
In metadata
File size
In metadata