Medium 9781782200000

Ferenczi and Beyond

Views: 953
Ratings: (0)

This book explores how the Budapest School of Psychoanalysis took shape, and in particular examines the role played in it by Sandor Ferenczi, Freud's closest friend and associate. It asks what the significance of this intellectual grouping held for the evolution of modern psychoanalytic theory and practice, and how the defining moments of early twentieth-century Hungarian and European politics impacted on both psychoanalysis and the analysts themselves. It also explores the importance in these pivotal times of the Emergency Committee on Relief and Immigration, an organisation formed in 1938 by the American Psychoanalytic Association. This book raises many questions and demonstrates through the emigration of the Budapest psychoanalysts how the threat of destruction can draw people together from across continents. Indeed, American psychoanalysts had set aside considerations of professional achievement and rivalry to assist their peers forced to flee European Nazism. In collaboration with the International Psychoanalytical Association, the Emergency Committee not only rescued lives, but also enriched our intellectual heritage as it salvaged seminal cultural and scholarly resources, which influenced the development of psychoanalysis in our time.

List price: $25.99

Your Price: $20.79

You Save: 20%

Remix
Remove

18 Chapters

Format Buy Remix

CHAPTER ONE Towards psychoanalysis (1897–1908)

PDF

1

CHAPTER TITLE

CHAPTER ONE

Towards psychoanalysis (1897–1908)2

“Authoritarian arguments carry little weight”

(Ferenczi, 1999a[1899])

ándor Ferenczi’s early writings foreshadow not only Ferenczi’s character and scholarly and therapeutic orientation as a psychoanalyst, but also the unique perspectives that would emerge in the Budapest School. These initial studies speak volumes about the thinking of a young professional in the process of finding his way.

This was the process that virtually predestined him to stake out the fundamental questions of modern psychoanalysis and, at the same time, to become the “wise baby” and even the enfant terrible3 of psychoanalytic history, although this was never his intention— indeed, it is safe to say this ran very much counter to his wishes.

A decade (1897–1908) of publications by Ferenczi—spanning both clinical topics and broader issues in healthcare—provide an insight into his early way of thinking and medical approach. Directions took shape that would become defining elements in his later writing on psychoanalysis. First and foremost, we see his constant need to experiment and to maintain a critical attitude of self-reflection—both in

 

Chapter One - Towards Psychoanalysis (1897–1908)

ePub

“Authoritarian arguments carry little weight”

(Ferenczi, 1999a[1899])

Sándor Ferenczi's early writings foreshadow not only Ferenczi's character and scholarly and therapeutic orientation as a psychoanalyst, but also the unique perspectives that would emerge in the Budapest School. These initial studies speak volumes about the thinking of a young professional in the process of finding his way. This was the process that virtually predestined him to stake out the fundamental questions of modern psychoanalysis and, at the same time, to become the “wise baby” and even the enfant terrible3 of psychoanalytic history, although this was never his intention—indeed, it is safe to say this ran very much counter to his wishes.

A decade (1897–1908) of publications by Ferenczi—spanning both clinical topics and broader issues in healthcare—provide an insight into his early way of thinking and medical approach. Directions took shape that would become defining elements in his later writing on psychoanalysis. First and foremost, we see his constant need to experiment and to maintain a critical attitude of self-reflection—both in the interests of effective healing. The “maturity” grounded in the sensitivity of the “wise baby”, on the one hand, and the unusual shifts in perspective and express resistance to being integrated into a senseless “order” represented by authority on the part of the “enfant terrible”, on the other hand, constituted the basic features of Ferenczi's personality.

 

CHAPTER TWO The forming of the Budapest School (1908–1918)

PDF

CHAPTER TWO

The forming of the Budapest School

(1908–1918)

“[Ferenczi,] who is a close acquaintance of mine, and who is familiar, to an extent that few others arc [sic, are], with all the difficulties of psycho-analytic problems, is the first in Hungary to undertake the task of creating an interest in psycho-analysis among doctors and men of education in his own country through writings composed in their mother tongue. It is our cordial wish that this attempt of his may succeed and may result in gaining for this new field of work new workers from the body of his compatriots”

(Freud, 1910b)

H

ow did Budapest become suited to serve as the potential hub of psychoanalysis in Europe in the space of a decade? What happy congruence of motives spurred on this explosive

growth?

In addition to Ferenczi’s own considerable efforts, we can identify a number of forces of modernisation that not only encouraged the growth of the Budapest School, but also shaped the economic, scholarly, and cultural development of Hungary in the first two decades of

 

Chapter Two - The Forming of the Budapest School (1908–1918)

ePub

“[Ferenczi,] who is a close acquaintance of mine, and who is familiar, to an extent that few others arc [sic, are], with all the difficulties of psycho-analytic problems, is the first in Hungary to undertake the task of creating an interest in psycho-analysis among doctors and men of education in his own country through writings composed in their mother tongue. It is our cordial wish that this attempt of his may succeed and may result in gaining for this new field of work new workers from the body of his compatriots”

(Freud, 1910b)

How did Budapest become suited to serve as the potential hub of psychoanalysis in Europe in the space of a decade? What happy congruence of motives spurred on this explosive growth?

In addition to Ferenczi's own considerable efforts, we can identify a number of forces of modernisation that not only encouraged the growth of the Budapest School, but also shaped the economic, scholarly, and cultural development of Hungary in the first two decades of the twentieth century. A young avant-garde intelligentsia was ready for the changes offered by modernisation, and many would later become leading figures of the scholarly and cultural legacy of the last century.

 

CHAPTER THREE “Budapest will now become the headquarters of our movement”

PDF

CHAPTER THREE

“Budapest will now become the headquarters of our movement”38

“Ferenczi has become the first official university teacher [in]

ȈA, (o.ö. Professor),39 a success not dreamt before!”

(Freud, 1919j)

The Fifth International Psychoanalytical Congress riginally, the site selected for the Fifth International Psychoanalytical Congress was Breslau (now Wrocl´ aw, Poland), but this plan had to be changed because of the difficulties of transport during the war. Thus, it fell to Budapest to host the international gathering, which was held on 28–29 September 1918. Conference preparations were painstaking, with news of the event being reported in mid-May in Gyógyászat (Therapy): Ferenczi points to the main theme of the conference in the title of his paper “The psychoanalysis of war neuroses” (Anon, 1918a, p. 488).

The ten-month period following the conference between late

September 1918 and mid-July 1919 saw outstanding achievements in the Hungarian psychoanalytic movement that represented the culmination of a decade’s work. This era is perhaps the most widely

 

Chapter Three - “Budapest will Now Become the Headquarters of our Movement”

ePub

“Ferenczi has become the first official university teacher [in] A, (o.ö. Professor),39 a success not dreamt before!”

(Freud, 1919j)

The Fifth International Psychoanalytical Congress

Originally, the site selected for the Fifth International Psychoanalytical Congress was Breslau (now Wrocław, Poland), but this plan had to be changed because of the difficulties of transport during the war. Thus, it fell to Budapest to host the international gathering, which was held on 28–29 September 1918. Conference preparations were painstaking, with news of the event being reported in mid-May in Gyógyászat (Therapy): Ferenczi points to the main theme of the conference in the title of his paper “The psychoanalysis of war neuroses” (Anon, 1918a, p. 488).

The ten-month period following the conference between late September 1918 and mid-July 1919 saw outstanding achievements in the Hungarian psychoanalytic movement that represented the culmination of a decade's work. This era is perhaps the most widely studied in the history of psychoanalysis in Hungary (Erős, 2004; Erős, Kapás, Kiss, & Giampieri Spanghero, 1987; Harmat, 1994; Kapronczay & Kiss, 1986). In this chapter, therefore, I wish to focus on certain aspects of the period in order to demonstrate that the process through which psychoanalysis grew into an academic discipline taught at university level in Budapest was, beyond doubt, the outcome of a systematic evolution and did not happen by accident. Neither was it elevated to that level merely out of the fervour of the revolutions of the day. Psychoanalysis in Hungary had reached a point in its development at which this was inevitable. Freud's observation about the central role of Budapest was not merely a reference to the situation offered by a congress. It pointed to real prospects.

 

Chapter Four - The First Wave of Emigration in the Early 1920s

ePub

“I don't see the possibility of a peaceful life here in the future”

(Lóránd, 1925)47

The end of the First World War did not simply mark the end of a war. Empires crumbled—and so, too, Austria-Hungary. The monarchy disappeared as a form of government in the region, and new borders were drawn where none had existed before. Hungary saw dramatic changes between 1918 and 1920: in October 1918, the Aster Revolution (led by liberal, radical opponents of the First World War) formed the catalyst for the country's first republic (the Republic of Hungary), which was unstable and short-lived due to domestic and international political power relations. This was followed in 1919 by the Soviet Republic, which “was largely imported from Soviet Russia by former Hungarian prisoners of war” (Frank, 2009, p. 80) and lasted only a few months. Then came a right-wing White Terror under Admiral Miklós Horthy.48 As a consequence of such powerful unrest and changes of such seismic proportions, the potential for Budapest to remain a hub for the psychoanalytic movement disappeared.

 

CHAPTER FOUR The first wave of emigration in the early 1920s

PDF

CHAPTER FOUR

The first wave of emigration in the early 1920s

“I don’t see the possibility of a peaceful life here in the future”

(Lóránd, 1925)47

he end of the First World War did not simply mark the end of a war. Empires crumbled—and so, too, Austria-Hungary.

The monarchy disappeared as a form of government in the region, and new borders were drawn where none had existed before.

Hungary saw dramatic changes between 1918 and 1920: in October

1918, the Aster Revolution (led by liberal, radical opponents of the

First World War) formed the catalyst for the country’s first republic

(the Republic of Hungary), which was unstable and short-lived due to domestic and international political power relations. This was followed in 1919 by the Soviet Republic, which “was largely imported from Soviet Russia by former Hungarian prisoners of war” (Frank,

2009, p. 80) and lasted only a few months. Then came a right-wing

White Terror under Admiral Miklós Horthy.48 As a consequence of such powerful unrest and changes of such seismic proportions, the potential for Budapest to remain a hub for the psychoanalytic movement disappeared.

 

CHAPTER FIVE A period of consolidation

PDF

CHAPTER FIVE

A period of consolidation

“The teachings of psychoanalysis are in the air, they are part of the public domain”

(Kosztolányi, 2001[1931], translated for this edition)

fter an era of crisis and chaos, in a hopeful age of political and economic consolidation between 1925 and 1937, the tiny

Hungarian Society managed to find itself again. By that time, the particular perspective of the Budapest School—that is, the analysts that belonged to it—had taken shape (Haynal & Mészáros, 2004).

Psychoanalytic methodology saw a fundamental shift in viewpoint, and new points of crystallisation emerged in theory as well. A review of the dynamism of the relationship between analyst and analysand was initiated with experiments in technique that Ferenczi had begun as early as the late 1910s (Ferenczi, 1980e[1919]) and completed in 1932 not only with conclusions he had drawn from mutual analysis with the patient (Ferenczi, 1988[1932]), but also with the paradigm shift in trauma theory (Ferenczi, 1980k[1933]; Mészáros,

 

Chapter Five - A Period of Consolidation

ePub

“The teachings of psychoanalysis are in the air, they are part of the public domain”

(Kosztolányi, 2001[1931], translated for this edition)

After an era of crisis and chaos, in a hopeful age of political and economic consolidation between 1925 and 1937, the tiny Hungarian Society managed to find itself again. By that time, the particular perspective of the Budapest School—that is, the analysts that belonged to it—had taken shape (Haynal & Mészáros, 2004).

Psychoanalytic methodology saw a fundamental shift in viewpoint, and new points of crystallisation emerged in theory as well. A review of the dynamism of the relationship between analyst and analysand was initiated with experiments in technique that Ferenczi had begun as early as the late 1910s (Ferenczi, 1980e[1919]) and completed in 1932 not only with conclusions he had drawn from mutual analysis with the patient (Ferenczi, 1988[1932]), but also with the paradigm shift in trauma theory (Ferenczi, 1980k[1933]; Mészáros, 2010a). This series of experiments and observations on the operation of psychoanalysis led to recognitions and discoveries that are still in effect today. For example, it was found that to make therapy truly effective, a mutual dialogue must be developed between analysand and analyst, both intellectually and emotionally. Therefore, the topic of the analysis covers everything that the patient's transference reactions unconsciously trigger in the analyst—including the intellectual and emotional factors in the manifestations of countertransference. This represented an important change over Freud's previous ideas. Freud thought that from the point of view of therapy it was more effective for the analyst to remain outside the process emotionally in all situations (Freud, 1910d). This attitude, however, impairs the emotional authenticity of the communication between patient and therapist, and the factual knowledge often multiplies the strength of resistance in spite of the intellectual insight gained. Ferenczi realised that lack of authenticity limited the depth of trust felt by the patient, which is an indispensable condition for discovering and working through the traumatic experiences and memories that have been pushed out of the conscious mind. Most members of the Hungarian Society agreed with this attitude. Indeed, it was based on this function of the therapist as authentic, accepting, and emotionally involved that Michael Balint introduced one of the key elements of the psychotherapeutic process: the corrective phenomenon known as a new beginning (M. Balint, 1936), where, in the safety of psychotherapy, the patient himself can regulate the tension of his formerly repressed traumatic experiences and, thus, move beyond them.

 

CHAPTER SIX The USA’s immigration policy: the sum of conflicting vectors

PDF

CHAPTER SIX

The USA’s immigration policy: the sum of conflicting vectors

t was in the immediate wake of the Anschluss that the American

Psychoanalytic Association (APsaA)72 established the Emergency

Committee on Relief and Immigration, as I will discuss in detail in a later chapter. Thus, the Emergency Committee sprang from a civil society initiative.

The significance of its establishment and operation can only be fully appreciated in the context of the US government’s refugee and immigration policy. It is in the light of this that we can reconstruct the various domestic and foreign policy factors that determined and limited the organisation’s room for manoeuvre. It is in this way that we can arrive at the answers to such questions as who the committee needed to co-operate with, how it managed to obtain support, who it could count on, and what resistance it met as it attempted to aid in the escape and resettlement of European peers in line with its set goals.

 

Chapter Six - The USA's Immigration Policy: The Sum of Conflicting Vectors

ePub

It was in the immediate wake of the Anschluss that the American Psychoanalytic Association (APsaA)72 established the Emergency Committee on Relief and Immigration, as I will discuss in detail in a later chapter. Thus, the Emergency Committee sprang from a civil society initiative.

The significance of its establishment and operation can only be fully appreciated in the context of the US government's refugee and immigration policy. It is in the light of this that we can reconstruct the various domestic and foreign policy factors that determined and limited the organisation's room for manoeuvre. It is in this way that we can arrive at the answers to such questions as who the committee needed to co-operate with, how it managed to obtain support, who it could count on, and what resistance it met as it attempted to aid in the escape and resettlement of European peers in line with its set goals.

The backdrop of a restrictive policy

The immigration policy of the USA in the period preceding the establishment of the Emergency Committee on Relief and Immigration was shaped by four major factors:73

 

Chapter Seven - “Your Committee”: The Emergency Committee on Relief and Immigration of the American Psychoanalytic Association

ePub

“I can assure you that we will do all we can to secure affidavits…for all of our colleagues who want ultimately to come here”

(Kubie to István Hollós, 19 January 1939, Mészáros, 2008, p. 222)

On Sunday 13 March 1938, one day after the Anschluss, the American Psychoanalytic Association (APsaA) set up the Emergency Committee on Relief and Immigration. The work of this committee would play a central role in the history of psychoanalysis (Jeffrey, 1989; Mészáros, 1998b, 2012; Thompson 2012). Members of the committee were drawn from several different psychoanalytic societies in the USA: Dr Lawrence S. Kubie, Dr Bertram D. Lewin, Dr Sandor Rado, Dr Monroe A. Meyer, and Dr George Daniels from the New York Psychoanalytic Society; Dr Lewis Hill representing the Washington–Baltimore Psychoanalytic Society; Dr Helene Deutsch, Dr Henry Murray, and Dr M. Ralph Kaufman from the Boston Psychoanalytic Society; and Dr Franz Alexander and Dr Thomas French on hand from the Chicago Psychoanalytic Society.

The majority of the committee members had had considerable experience and personal relationships with the European analysts. Many had undergone training in Berlin. In addition to Hungarians Rado and Alexander, who had resettled in the USA earlier, there were also Thomas French and Bertram D. Lewin, both of whom had been trained by Alexander at the Berlin Institute. Lewin's duties on the committee involved financial matters. The committee chair, Lawrence S. Kubie, had spent several years in London, while Helene Deutsch's own life history made her very much at home in Central Eastern Europe. She knew the members of both the Vienna and Berlin societies very well and was familiar with conditions in the region.

 

CHAPTER SEVEN “Your Committee”: the Emergency Committee on Relief and Immigration of the American Psychoanalytic Association

PDF

CHAPTER SEVEN

“Your Committee”: the Emergency

Committee on Relief and

Immigration of the American

Psychoanalytic Association

“I can assure you that we will do all we can to secure affidavits

. . . for all of our colleagues who want ultimately to come here”

(Kubie to István Hollós, 19 January 1939, Mészáros, 2008, p. 222)

n Sunday 13 March 1938, one day after the Anschluss, the

American Psychoanalytic Association (APsaA) set up the

Emergency Committee on Relief and Immigration. The work of this committee would play a central role in the history of psychoanalysis (Jeffrey, 1989; Mészáros, 1998b, 2012; Thompson 2012).

Members of the committee were drawn from several different psychoanalytic societies in the USA: Dr Lawrence S. Kubie, Dr Bertram D.

Lewin, Dr Sandor Rado, Dr Monroe A. Meyer, and Dr George Daniels from the New York Psychoanalytic Society; Dr Lewis Hill representing the Washington–Baltimore Psychoanalytic Society; Dr Helene

 

CHAPTER EIGHT The time has come (1938–1941): the second wave of emigration

PDF

CHAPTER EIGHT

The time has come (1938–1941): the second wave of emigration

The Hungarian analysts and their emigration struggles—constraints and opportunities

“Though our recent situation is not yet so difficult . . . its turn to the worst can be expected in a very short time”

(Hollós to Lawrence Kubie, 9 January 1939, Mészáros, 1998a, p. 211)

n the weeks following the Anschluss, the first anti-Semitic “Jewish law” came before Hungary’s Parliament with the ultimate aim of

“putting economic restrictions in place in the spirit of the numerus clausus” (Ránki, 1999, p. 119, translated for this edition). This term, meaning “closed number”, refers to a Hungarian Act of Parliament in

1920 that imposed a quota on university admissions for Jews but which had become virtually defunct by 1938. This “first Jewish law” in 1938, soon reinforced by a second one, would prove to be a harbinger of far more dire things to come in Hungary.104 On 29 May of that year, Parliament passed Act XV of 1938 on Securing a More Effective

 

Chapter Eight - The Time has Come (1938–1941): The Second Wave of Emigration

ePub

The Hungarian analysts and their emigration struggles—constraints and opportunities

“Though our recent situation is not yet so difficult…its turn to the worst can be expected in a very short time”

(Hollós to Lawrence Kubie, 9 January 1939, Mészáros, 1998a, p. 211)

In the weeks following the Anschluss, the first anti-Semitic “Jewish law” came before Hungary's Parliament with the ultimate aim of “putting economic restrictions in place in the spirit of the numerus clausus” (Ránki, 1999, p. 119, translated for this edition). This term, meaning “closed number”, refers to a Hungarian Act of Parliament in 1920 that imposed a quota on university admissions for Jews but which had become virtually defunct by 1938. This “first Jewish law” in 1938, soon reinforced by a second one, would prove to be a harbinger of far more dire things to come in Hungary.104 On 29 May of that year, Parliament passed Act XV of 1938 on Securing a More Effective Balance in Social and Economic Life. With its ominously sanitised name, this legislation determined who was a Jew on religious grounds and, based on that, drastically cut to twenty per cent the number of Jewish members of professional associations tied to the press, the theatre and film, the law, medicine, and business. This set of measures put most of Hungary's college-educated Jews in an impossible bind because it was illegal to practise a profession without being a member of the relevant association. Passed on 5 May 1939, the “second Jewish law”, known as Act IV of 1939 on Restricting the Expansion of Jews in Public Life and the Economy, determined Jewish identity based on race in the spirit of Germany's Nuremberg Laws. Thus, individuals were judged to be Jews if they considered themselves to be Jewish or if they had one parent or two grandparents who were Jews. Hungary's second anti-Jewish law reduced the twenty per cent figure set down in the first legislation to the six per cent quota that had been established earlier in the numerus clausus and set the upper limit of Jewish people employed in trade and industry at twelve per cent. Furthermore, it completely banned Jews from public service. According to estimates, the first anti-Semitic law directly affected the lives of around 15,000 people, while the second one had an impact on at least 200,000 (Romsics, 2000, cited in Losonczi, 2005, p. 82). If one considers the families of those people, the latter law effectively sealed the fates of over 600,000 people.

 

CHAPTER NINE Emigration: losses and gains

PDF

CHAPTER NINE

Emigration: losses and gains

“Hungarians were aware that psychoanalysis was a two-way street”

(Roazen, 2001)

he two waves of emigration embarked on by the Budapest

School affected the domestic and international development of the psychoanalytic movement in myriad ways.

In 1918–1919, numerous, essentially long-term, programmes were launched at the initiative of the Budapest analysts and/or domestic supporters of analysis. Taken together, these signify an internal maturing of the Hungarian psychoanalytic movement.

Because of the destabilising effect of the political changes at the time, these initiatives ended up either becoming non-viable or being implemented in cities other than Budapest. The psychoanalytic publishing house was established in Vienna along with its first Englishlanguage journal, the International Journal of Psychoanalysis, which continues to be the most significant international publication in psychoanalysis to date. Berlin saw the establishment of the first psychoanalytic institute in 1920, where a new training model emerged

 

Chapter Nine - Emigration: Losses and Gains

ePub

“Hungarians were aware that psychoanalysis was a two-way street”

(Roazen, 2001)

The two waves of emigration embarked on by the Budapest School affected the domestic and international development of the psychoanalytic movement in myriad ways.

In 1918–1919, numerous, essentially long-term, programmes were launched at the initiative of the Budapest analysts and/or domestic supporters of analysis. Taken together, these signify an internal maturing of the Hungarian psychoanalytic movement.

Because of the destabilising effect of the political changes at the time, these initiatives ended up either becoming non-viable or being implemented in cities other than Budapest. The psychoanalytic publishing house was established in Vienna along with its first English-language journal, the International Journal of Psychoanalysis, which continues to be the most significant international publication in psychoanalysis to date. Berlin saw the establishment of the first psychoanalytic institute in 1920, where a new training model emerged that fundamentally departed from the previous tradition of educating lay analysts. Thus, psychoanalytic training took a new direction in Europe, since it was a prerequisite in Berlin to have a medical degree—unlike in Vienna and Budapest. It took another twenty-five years, however, before psychoanalysis was once again incorporated into university education: after the Budapest university department had reached the end of its mayfly's lifespan, it re-emerged in medical training at Columbia University in New York City.

 

Details

Print Book
E-Books
Chapters

Format name
ePub
Encrypted
No
Sku
B000000020095
Isbn
9781781812952
File size
6.57 MB
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Format name
ePub
Encrypted
No
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Sku
In metadata
Isbn
In metadata
File size
In metadata