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Warriors and Scholars

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Few works of military history are able to move between the battlefield and academia. But Warriors and Scholars takes the best from both worlds by presenting the viewpoints of senior, eminent military historians on topics of their specialty, alongside veteran accounts for the modern war being discussed. Editors Peter Lane and Ronald Marcello have added helpful contextual and commentary footnotes for student readers. The papers, originally from the University of North Texas's annual Military History Seminar, are organized chronologically from World War II to the present day, making this a modern war reader of great use for the professional and the student. Scholars and topics include David Glantz on the Soviet Great Patriotic War, 1941-1945; Robert Divine on the decision to use the atomic bomb; George Herring on Lyndon Baines Johnson as Commander-in-Chief; and Brian Linn comparing the U.S. war and occupation in Iraq with the 1899-1902 war in the Philippines. Veterans and their topics include flying with the Bloody 100th by John Luckadoo; an enlisted man in the Pacific theater of World War II, by Roy Appleton; a POW in Vietnam, by David Winn; and Cold War duty in Moscow, by Charles Hamm.

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Fact and Fancy: The Soviet Great Patriotic War, 1941–1945

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COLONEL DAVID M. GLANTZ, USA (RET.)

FACT AND FANCY:

THE SOVIET GREAT

PATRIOTIC WAR,

1941–1945

Col. David M. Glantz earned degrees in history from Virginia

Military Institute (1963) and in modern European history from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (1965).

He is a graduate of the Defense Language Institute (1973), the U.S. Army Institute for Advanced Russian and Eastern

European Studies (1975), the U.S. Army Command and

General Staff College (1972), and the U.S. Army War College

(1983). His over thirty years of military service included

field artillery assignments with the 24th Infantry Division

(Mechanized) in Europe and the II Field Force artillery in

Vietnam and intelligence assignments with the Office of the

Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence, U.S. Army Europe.

During his last eight years of service, he founded and directed the U.S. Army’s Foreign (Soviet) Military Studies Office,

Combined Arms Command, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

Colonel Glantz founded and currently edits the Journal of Slavic Military Studies and is a member of the Academy of Natural Sciences of the Russian Federation. Among the numerous books he has authored on Soviet and Russian military affairs are: Soviet Military Intelligence in War (1990);

 

Life in the Bloody 100th

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MAJOR JOHN LUCKADOO, USAAF (RET.)

LIFE IN THE

BLOODY 100th

Born in 1922 in Chattanooga, Tennessee, John Luckadoo enlisted in the Aviation Cadet Program of the U.S. Army Air

Forces in February 1942. Immediately after graduating as a multi-engine pilot in February 1943, he was assigned to the

100th Bomb Group (Heavy) flying B-17s. Luckadoo later flew overseas to England with his group to enter combat with the

8th Air Force.

Luckadoo’s fate was to serve as a member of an air group that became known as “The Bloody 100th.” Operating from an airfield near the English village of Thorpe Abbotts, the

100th flew a total of 306 combat missions between June

25, 1943, and April 20, 1945. During that time the 100th had lost 177 aircraft in combat and another 52 planes to operational accidents. The 100th was not the group with the highest losses in the 8th Air Force, but since its early losses often came in bunches, it soon acquired the reputation of a hard luck outfit along with the name “The Bloody 100th.”

It lost nine crews on the Regensburg-to-Africa shuttle in August 1943; seven over Bremen on October 8, 1943; twelve over Münster on October 10, 1943; fifteen over

 

An Enlisted Marine’s Perspective on the Pacific War

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CORPORAL ROY APPLETON, JR. (USMCR)

AN ENLISTED

MARINE’S

PERSPECTIVE ON

THE PACIFIC WAR

Roy Appleton, Jr., was a seventeen-year-old freshman at the

University of Texas when he decided to enlist in the Marine

Corps in October 1942. After completion of Marine boot camp at San Diego Recruit Depot, he was assigned to Headquarters

Company, Signal Battalion, 5th Amphibious Corps, and put into a new outfit, JASCO (Joint Assault Communications

Company). He subsequently participated in or observed five

Marine landings.

After a brief stint at Kiska, Aleutian Islands, he was sent to New Zealand to join the 3rd Battalion, 8th Marines, 2nd

Marine Division, which was making preparations for the upcoming invasion of Tarawa, Gilbert Islands, in November

1943. He still served with Signal Battalion, 5th Amphibious

Corps, and subsequently participated in the invasion of Iwo

Jima in February 1945. This account thus deals with his direct combat experiences in both of those operations as well as his observations of the abortive landing at Kiska and the fighting for Saipan and Tinian in the Mariana Islands.

 

B-29 Operations Against Japan: A Survivor’s Story

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1ST LIEUTENANT DAVID R. BRADEN (USAAC)

B-29 OPERATIONS

AGAINST JAPAN:

A SURVIVOR’S STORY

Born in Dallas, Texas, in 1924, David Braden was a freshman aeronautical engineering major at North Texas Agricultural

College when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. Shortly thereafter, he enlisted in the U.S. Army Air Forces Reserve, a program that allowed him to stay in school until called to active duty. His call came in February 1943. Much to his disappointment, he was designated for navigator training rather than pilot training due to vision problems. Nevertheless, he quickly adapted, finishing in the top 10 percent of his class and then going forward to qualify as a radar bombardier.

On January 28, 1945, Braden’s B-29 landed on Saipan,

Mariana Islands, with the first replacement crew for the 870th

Bomb Squadron, 497th Bomb Group, 73rd Bomb Wing, 20th

Air Force. During his thirty-five missions, Braden participated in the incendiary raids on Japanese cities in March 1945. As a result of damage caused by enemy fire, his planes made one crash landing at sea and four emergency landings on Iwo

 

Ending the War with Japan: The Decision to Use the Atomic Bombs

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DR. ROBERT A. DIVINE (UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS)

ENDING THE WAR

WITH JAPAN:

THE DECISION TO USE

THE ATOMIC BOMBS

Robert A. Divine, George W. Littlefield Professor Emeritus in American History at the University of Texas at Austin, received his Ph.D. from Yale University in 1954. A specialist in American diplomatic history, he taught from 1954 to 1996 at the University of Texas, where both the Student Association and the Graduate School honored him for teaching excellence.

His extensive works include The Illusion of Neutrality

(1962); The Reluctant Belligerent (1965); Second Chance: The

Triumph of Internationalism in America During World War

II; and Blowing in the Wind (1978). His most recent work is Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace (2000), a comparative analysis of twentieth-century American wars. He is also the author of Eisenhower and the Cold War (1981) and editor of three volumes of essays on the presidency of Lyndon B.

Johnson. His book, The Sputnik Challenge (1992), won the

Eugene E. Emme Astronautical Literature Award for 1993.

 

Leadership During the Cold War: A Four-Star General’s Perspective

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GENERAL RUSSELL E. DOUGHERTY, USAF (RET.)

LEADERSHIP DURING

THE COLD WAR: A FOURSTAR GENERAL’S PERSPECTIVE

At the time of his military retirement in 1977, Gen. Russell

E. Dougherty was Commander in Chief of the Strategic Air

Command and Director of U.S. Strategic Target Planning. He had previously served as Chief of Staff of NATO’s Supreme

Headquarters Allied Powers, Europe (SHAPE), as commander of the 2nd Air Force, and as Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations, U.S. Air Force.

General Dougherty began his military career as a member of the 123rd Cavalry, Kentucky National Guard. At the outbreak of World War II, he became an Aviation Cadet in the U.S. Army Air Forces. He has served in the Far East Air

Forces Command, U.S. European Command, Air Training

Command, the Air Force Logistics Command, and the Strategic Air Command. He completed two tours in the Pacific and three in Europe. General Dougherty retired with thirty-five years commissioned service on August 1, 1977.

General Dougherty is a graduate of Western Kentucky

 

The Korean War: Are There Still Military Lessons to be Learned?

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BRIGADIER GENERAL EDWIN H. SIMMONS, USMC (RET.)

THE KOREAN WAR:

ARE THERE STILL

MILITARY LESSONS

TO BE LEARNED?

Brig. Gen. Edwin H. Simmons is a veteran of three wars: World

War II in the Pacific, Korea, and Vietnam. Born in 1921 in Billingsport, NJ, he received his commission in the Marine Corps through the ROTC program at Lehigh University in 1942. He later earned the MA degree from The Ohio State University and is also a graduate of the National War College.

In the Korean War, as a twenty-nine-year-old major in command of Weapons Company, 3rd Battalion, 1st Marines,

Simmons participated in the Inchon landing and the recapture of Seoul. He continued in this command during the epic breakout at the Chosin Reservoir. Simmons left Korea in spring 1951 after being wounded.

General Simmons’s fourteen military decorations include the Distinguished Service Medal, Silver Star, three Legions of

Merit with Combat V, two Bronze Stars with Combat V, and a Purple Heart.

In 1972, General Simmons began serving as Director of

 

Combat in Korea: Reflections by a Once Young Soldier

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COLONEL HENRY G. GOLE, USA (RET.)

COMBAT IN KOREA:

REFLECTIONS BY A

ONCE-YOUNG SOLDIER

Col. Henry G. Gole’s initiation to combat came as a draftee during the Korean War, where he served in 1953 as a rifleman and BAR (Browning automatic rifle) man before being promoted to sergeant and squad leader.

After receiving his bachelor’s degree from Hofstra University in 1957, he served a three-year stint as a high school history teacher and coach. In the meantime, he found time to earn a master’s degree from the Fletcher School of Law and

Diplomacy in 1958 and a master’s degree in education from

Hofstra in 1960.

Gole reentered the Army in May 1961 and remained until

1988. He continued his formal education while in the Army, earning a master’s degree in history from Stanford University in 1969. After completing infantry, airborne, and ranger training at Fort Benning in 1961, Gole served two Special Forces tours in Vietnam (1966–67 and 1970–71), the latter with

MACV-SOG (Military Assistance Command Vietnam-Studies and Observations Group), an unconventional warfare task force engaged in highly secret operations throughout Southeast Asia. He had earlier completed a Special Forces tour in

 

The Reluctant Warrior: LBJ as Commander-in-Chief

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DR. GEORGE C. HERRING (UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY)

THE RELUCTANT

WARRIOR: LBJ AS

COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF

George Herring, a professor of history at the University of

Kentucky, is one of the nation’s foremost scholars of the Vietnam War. He is the author of three books on that war, and his monograph, America’s Longest War: The United States and

Vietnam, 1950–1975, is acknowledged as one of the best general works about that conflict. In addition to his books on

Vietnam, Professor Herring has published three other books as well as scholarly articles in the Journal of American History, Political Science Quarterly, Diplomatic History, and Military Affairs.

On several occasions during his academic career, Professor Herring has been called to serve as chair of the Department of History at the University of Kentucky. His other honors at Kentucky include: Alumni Professor (1990); Distinguished Professor (1988); University Research Professor (1986–87); and Hallam Professor of History, (1985–87, elected by colleagues). Professor Herring also has served as president of the Society for Historians of Foreign Relations

 

A POW in Vietnam: “Smart People, Dumb War”

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BRIGADIER GENERAL DAVID W. WINN, USAF (RET.)

A POW IN VIETNAM:

“SMART PEOPLE,

DUMB WAR”

Born in Austin, Minnesota, July 20, 1923, David Winn entered the U.S. Army Air Forces during World War II and earned his wings and commission as a 2nd lieutenant pilot in

February 1943. He served in North Africa, Sardinia, and Italy during the war. In 1948 he separated from the Air Force.

Recalled to active duty for the Korean War, Winn chose to make the Air Force a career and subsequently served in

Germany, Thailand, Canada, and the United Kingdom as an exchange officer with the RAF. U.S. assignments included duty in Texas, Arizona, Michigan, Colorado, Minnesota, and

Washington, DC. He saw staff duty at the Pentagon with the

Joint Chiefs of Staff. A graduate of the University of Minnesota, he later earned a master’s degree in international relations from George Washington University. He also is a graduate of the National War College.

While on a combat mission in a F-105 out of a base in

Thailand, Winn was shot down over North Vietnam and captured in August 1968. He was a prisoner of war in Hanoi until his release in 1973. As one of the senior POWs, he played an important role in establishing camp policies and conduct

 

Cold War Duty as a Defense Attaché in Moscow

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LIEUTENANT GENERAL CHARLES HAMM, USAF (RET.)

COLD WAR DUTY

AS A DEFENSE

ATTACHÉ IN MOSCOW

From 1981–1983, General Charles R. Hamm served in Moscow as U.S. defense attaché to the USSR, after completing

Russian language training in Washington, DC, as a new brigadier general. A 1956 graduate of the U.S. Military Academy, he opted for an Air Force commission and earned his pilot’s wings. Various flying assignments followed, including tours as a member of the Air Force Thunderbird Aerial Demonstration Team and experiences as a flight commander with

103 combat missions during the Vietnam War. Eventually, he commanded two different fighter wings and three times had progressively responsible tours as a staff officer at USAF

Headquarters in the Pentagon.

In addition to the staff assignments, General Hamm graduated from the Air Command and Staff College in 1969 and from the National War College in 1972. After his service in the Soviet Union as defense attaché, he became vice-commander of what is now the Air Force Education and Training

 

Old Whines in New Bottles: Some Thoughts on the Psychology of Terrorists and Terrorism

PDF

DR. NORMAN ITZKOWITZ

OLD WHINES IN

NEW BOTTLES:

SOME THOUGHTS ON

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF

TERRORISTS AND

TERRORISM

Born in New York City on May 6, 1931, Dr. Norman Itzkowitz earned his Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1959. He is currently professor of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton and is also a member of the Advisory Board, Center for the Study of Mind and Human Interaction at the Medical School of the

University of Virginia.

In addition to his teaching responsibilities and scholarly pursuits, Dr. Itzkowitz has been actively involved in university service at Princeton. He served as Departmental Director of Undergraduate Studies, 1961–66; and Department Director of Graduate Studies, 1971–73. Dr. Itzkowitz also served as Master of Wilson College at Princeton, 1975–89. When he took over the mastership, Wilson College was a four-year college, and the success of Wilson College led to the organization of the Committee for Undergraduate Life (CURL), which devised a residential college scheme whereby all freshmen and sophomores live in five residential colleges in which they have their living space, meals, social life, academic advising, and other support systems.

 

Foreshadowing Postwar Iraq: The U.S. War in the Philippines, 1899–1902

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DR. BRIAN LINN (TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY)

FORESHADOWING THE

WAR IN IRAQ: THE U.S.

WAR IN THE PHILIPPINES,

1899–1902

Dr. Brian Linn is currently professor of history at Texas A&M

University. He is perhaps the foremost authority in the United States concerning the American military experience in the

Pacific in the aftermath of the Spanish-American War.

Dr. Linn received his Ph.D at The Ohio State University in 1985 and has been a member of the Department of History at Texas A&M since 1989. In 2000 he published The Philippine War, 1899–1902 (University Press of Kansas), which was a selection of the History Book Club in 2000 and winner of the Society of Military History’s Distinguished Book Prize in 2001. In 1997, he published Guardians of Empire: The U.S.

Army in the Pacific, 1902–1940 (University of North Carolina

Press). This book also was a History Book Club selection in

1997 and winner of both the Society of Military History’s

Distinguished Book Prize in 1998 and the Army Historical

Foundation’s Distinguished Book Award in 1997. In 1989 he published The U.S. Army and Counterinsurgency in the Philippine War (University of North Carolina Press). In addition to the monographs, he has published sixteen articles and book chapters as well as numerous essays, encyclopedia entries,

 

A

PDF

INDEX

1st Byelorussian Front, 23

1st U.S. Provisional Marine

Brigade, 135

1st U.S.Cavalry Division, 134

1st Ukrainian Front, 23

2nd Soviet Shock Army, 14

2nd U.S. Marine Division, 52, 57

3rd Battalion, 8th Marines, 2nd U.S.

Marine Division, 50, 52

4th U.S. Marine Division, 57

5th Pioneer Battalion, 62

5th Soviet Tank Army, 9

6th German Army; at Stalingrad, 20

9th Air Force, 40

9th Guards Army, 24

11th Army, 17

20th U.S.Air Force, 67

24th U.S, Marines (4th Marine

Division), 61

24th U.S. Infantry Division, 134

25th U.S. Infantry Division

Replacement Center, 151

25th U.S. Infantry Division, 134

27th British Infantry Brigade, 136

27th U.S. Infantry (Wolfhound)

Regiment, 151

27th U.S. Infantry Division, 57

28th U.S. Marines, 62

38th Parallel, 125

58th Bomb Wing. 67–68

73rd U.S. Bomb Wing. 64, 67;

497th, 498th, 499th, 500th

Bomb Groups, 68; losses, 79

96th Bomb Group, 41

497th Bomb Group,

870th Bomb Squadron, 69

A

Abbasid caliphs, 232

Acheson, Dean, 171

Adak Island, Aleutians, 52 aerial bombing, effects on

German economy, 42

Afghanistan, 206, 220; Soviet invasion, 225–26

 

B

PDF

Index

American Caesar, 133

American casualties, 263

American defense attaché, 212; responsibilities, 212–13, 218–

19; “Four Bs,” 215–18; Soviet aircraft, 218; assessment of

Red Army, 225–26

American productive capacity, 31

Amon Carter Foundation, vi

Anatahan Island, 72

Antonov AN-24, 218

Appleton, Roy, 47-50

Arab-Israeli conflict, 243

Arafat, Yasir, 235

Area Studies Program (U.S.

Army), 221

Army Group Don (German), 1920

Army Group North Ukraine

(German), 23

Army Group South (German), 10,

17, 19

Army Group South Ukraine and

Romania (German), 23

Aspin, Les, 123n15

Assassins, 232–34 assessment of LBJ’s leadership as war president, 187–89

Atom bomb, use of, 79; revisionist historians, 99

Atomic bomb, top-secret development. 96

Atta, Muhammad, 239–40

Ataturk, Mustafa Kemel, 234, 241

Atterbury, Edwin, 200n18,

204n21 attitudes toward military, 180–81

Aviation Cadet Program, 31

Axis Sally, 37

B

B-17, 33; losses, 38

B-29s, 62; (Super Fortress) specifications, characteristics,

66; North Korean operations,

140

B-47, 113

B-52, 113

Bader-Meinhoff Gang, 230

 

C

PDF

Index

Boxer Rebellion, 265

Bracewell, Arnold, 208

Braden, David, 47, 64; makes

General, 65; MOS, 66

Bradley, Omar, 121

Bremen, 28; Mission, 43

Brezhnev, Leonid, 211, 220

Briansk Front, 19,

British 29th Brigade, 139, 142

British WAAFs (Women’s

Auxiliary Air Force), 34 broad front, 15

Brodie, Bernard, 114,

Brown, Bobby, vi

Brown, George S., 122

Bryan, William Jennings, 260,

261–262n9

Buckheit, James, 74

Budapest, 23–24

Bullard, Robert, 273

Bundy, McGeorge,97n13, 184,

187

Burke, Arleigh, 121

Burma-Thailand Railroad, 80

Bush, George W., Governor, 82

Bush, George, President, 82

Byelorussian operation, 21-22

Byrnes, James F., 94; Japanese surrender, 98

Caucasus, 16

CCF Fourth Field Army, 139; 38th,

39th, 40th, and 42nd Armies,

139; counterattack, 140

CCF Third Field Army, 139; 20th,

26th, and 27th Armies, 139; counterattack, 140

Central Front, 19

Chalabi, Ahmed, 258, 258-259n6

Chattanooga, 30

Chengtu, China, 68

Chickamauga, 30

Chinese 63rd Army, 142

Chinese Communist forces, 136

Choppin’ Charlie Company, 151; dumping slops, 162

Chosin Reservoir, 125

 

D

PDF

Index

COW outpost, 154

Creech, Bill, 122

Crimea, 17

Cuban Missile Crisis, 101

Curtis, Bob, 72-73

Cyprus, 245–46, 245n13

E

Eaker, Ira, 121

East Prussia, 23

Eastern Front, 7, 13–14, 19

Efate, New Hebrides, 52

Eglin AFB, 208

Eighth U. S. Army in Korea

(EUSAK), 134, 137; retreat,

141

Eisenhower, Dwight D., 111

Election of 1900 and antiimperialists, 260–261n9

Enola Gay, 78; Smithsonian exhibit, 86 escape attempts, 200–4, 200–

201n18

ETA (Euskadi ta Askatasuna),

236

Eurocentrism, 231-232

D

Dallas-Fort Worth International

Airport, 65 daylight high-altitude precision bombing, 35

D-Day, 86

De Custine, Marquis, 213

De La Cruz, Madame, 209 declaration of Jihad against U.S.,

244

Defense Attaché Office, 221

Defense Intelligence Office, 219

Defense Intelligence School

(Bolling AFB), 209

Defense Science Board Readiness

Task Force, 123n15

Denton Chamber of Commerce,

51

Denton Record-Chronicle, 51

Denton, Jeremiah, 197, 197n12,

198n13, 205n23 deterrent strategy, 117

Dhahran, Saudi Arabia (Khobar

Towers), 239

Dios Dios, 263

Divine, Robert, 48, 85

Dixon, Robert, 122, 224

 

E

PDF

Index

COW outpost, 154

Creech, Bill, 122

Crimea, 17

Cuban Missile Crisis, 101

Curtis, Bob, 72-73

Cyprus, 245–46, 245n13

E

Eaker, Ira, 121

East Prussia, 23

Eastern Front, 7, 13–14, 19

Efate, New Hebrides, 52

Eglin AFB, 208

Eighth U. S. Army in Korea

(EUSAK), 134, 137; retreat,

141

Eisenhower, Dwight D., 111

Election of 1900 and antiimperialists, 260–261n9

Enola Gay, 78; Smithsonian exhibit, 86 escape attempts, 200–4, 200–

201n18

ETA (Euskadi ta Askatasuna),

236

Eurocentrism, 231-232

D

Dallas-Fort Worth International

Airport, 65 daylight high-altitude precision bombing, 35

D-Day, 86

De Custine, Marquis, 213

De La Cruz, Madame, 209 declaration of Jihad against U.S.,

244

Defense Attaché Office, 221

Defense Intelligence Office, 219

Defense Intelligence School

(Bolling AFB), 209

Defense Science Board Readiness

Task Force, 123n15

Denton Chamber of Commerce,

51

Denton Record-Chronicle, 51

Denton, Jeremiah, 197, 197n12,

198n13, 205n23 deterrent strategy, 117

Dhahran, Saudi Arabia (Khobar

Towers), 239

Dios Dios, 263

Divine, Robert, 48, 85

Dixon, Robert, 122, 224

 

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