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Multi-Ethnic Bird Guide of the Subantarctic Forests of South America

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The subantarctic forests of South America are the world's southernmost forested ecosystems. The birds have sung in these austral forests for millions of years; the Yahgan and Mapuche peoples have handed down their bird stories from generation to generation for hundreds of years. In Multi-ethnic Bird Guide of the Subantarctic Forests of South America, Ricardo Rozzi and his collaborators present a unique combination of bird guide and cultural ethnography. The book includes entries on fifty bird species of southern Chile and Argentina, among them the Magellanic Woodpecker, Rufous-Legged Owl, Ringed Kingfisher, Buff-Necked Ibis, Giant Hummingbird, and Andean Condor. Each bird is named in Yahgan, Mapudungun, Spanish, English, and scientific nomenclature, followed by a description, full color photographs, the bird's distribution map, habitat and lifestyle, and its history in the region. Each entry is augmented further with indigenous accounts of the bird in history and folklore. "Highly original in its approach of combining information on natural history and biodiversity with information on the region’s human cultural and linguistic diversity."--Chris Elphick, coauthor of The Sibley Guide to Bird Life and Behavior

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Brief Biographies

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BRIEF BIOGRAPHIES OF

Úrsula Calderón and Cristina Calderón

Cristina Zárraga

Úrsula Calderón Harban was born on the 7th of September, 1925 in Mejillones Bay, Navarino Island.

After the death of her mother, when she was barely 7 years old, she lived with her half-sister Dora and her brother Juan. When she was 14, she worked on the Róbalo Ranch, and at age 15, she married

José González. Together, they worked hunting sea otters, and during eight years they lived moving from one place to another by boat. They resided in their tent in Puerto Navarino or simply where they anchored at night. Later, they set up residence on Mascar Island, but, as their children needed to attend school, Úrsula moved to Puerto Williams with the children. José remained on Mascar, raising cattle and sheep. Later, he too lived in Puerto Williams, where he died in 1987, brought down by lung cancer. Today, Úrsula lives with her three children in her house in Villa Ukika in Puerto Williams, and she dedicated herself to handcrafted artistry—weaving baskets of rush, building canoes, needlepoint and knitting—in addition to speaking her native language.*

 

I. Birds from the Forest Interior

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CD 1 / Track 2

B IRDS O F TH E FO REST INTERIOR

Lána

Kürüpütriu

Carpintero negro

Magellanic Woodpecker

The Magellanic Woodpecker is the largest woodpecker species in South America. It belongs to the same genus (Campephilus) as the two largest species of woodpeckers known worldwide: the Imperial

Woodpecker (C. imperialis) and the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker (C. principalis). Both species inhabited the forests of North America, and today are presumed to be extinct due to the destruction of their habitats, and hunting pressures.

The Magellanic Woodpecker (Campephilus magellanicus) is endemic to the Nothofagus forests of southern Chile and Argentina. It is so specialized in its habitat requirements that it nests solely in old trees of the genus Nothofagus. In the trunks of these trees, it excavates rounded cavities which provide nesting sites not only for woodpecker families, but also for numerous other cavity-nesting birds, such as the Austral Parakeet (Enicognathus ferrugineus) and the Austral Pygmy Owl (Glaucidum nanum).

 

II. Owls and Forest - Interior Birds of Prey

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CD 1 / Track 10

OWLS AND FOREST INTERIOR BIRDS OF PREY

Kuhúrj

Kong kong

Concón

Rufous-Legged Owl

The Rufous-Legged Owl is a close relative of the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis), who helped to motivate the conservation of the old-growth forests of the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Canada. In the Northern Hemisphere or the Southern Hemisphere, these owls prefer to inhabit old-growth temperate forests with dense canopy cover. From the complex vegetation structure of the austral primary forests, sometimes incorrectly called “overly mature forests,” emerges the powerful, prolonged call kong kong kong… which is usually heard around midnight and is the inspiration of the onomatopoeic Mapudungun-Lafkenche name: kong-kong.

The Rufous-Legged Owl is identified by its varied nocturnal calls and by its brownish face with large concentric rings around its eyes. From within the dense foliage it usually emits a short call kuhúrj or a short, but strong, echoing shout có-có-có. The first sound led to its onomatopoeic Yahgan name kuhúrj; the second to its Mapudungun-Williche name coa or có. The Williche, who are the Mapuche people that live on Chiloé Island, assign distinct meanings to this owl’s calls, depending on the form. If the coa only shouts once, it calls for good harvests and fortune, but if it calls many times, it announces bad luck. The “remedy” to change this message of bad luck consists of hanging salt over the wood stove.

 

III. Wetland Birds, Associated with Riparian, Coastal or Prairie Habitats

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WETLAND BIRDS

Chéketej

Challwafe üñüm

Martín pescador

Ringed Kingfisher

CD 1 / Track 15

Ceryle torquata, formerly classified as Megaceryle (great = Gk. megas; kingfisher= Gk. ceryle) torquata, is the largest South American kingfisher, and it is the only one that reaches subpolar latitudes. Its distribution spans from Texas and Arizona in southern United States to Cape Horn in southern South America, where it receives the Yahgan name of chéketej.

It is a conspicuously colored species with an elegant white collar and a blue crest, especially marked in the male. It possesses a long, strong beak that permits it to catch fish in rivers, lakes, channels and fjords of the extreme south. It is frequently observed perched on branches or rocks that overhang rivers or the shoreline. On these, the Ringed Kingfisher waits for the appearance of marine and freshwater fish, crustaceans and larvae that it hunts on the surface of the water or by plunging itself into it. When it notices danger, it sweeps back and forth in the air, emitting its strong, repetitive calls kekereke- kekereke- kekereke.

 

IV. Birds from the Forest Margins

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CD 1 / Track 24

In the forests of southern Chile and Argentina, inhabits a Chilean Pigeon or Kono, an endemic pigeon larger than the domestic one so common in the world’s cities. Kono has a beautiful, reddish-chestnut coloration, orange eyes, and an elegant white band at the nape of the neck with a metallic green patch below. It is gregarious, and lives in flocks high in the trees where they eat fleshy fruits like the peumo (Cryptocaria alba), the lingue (Persea lingue), the Winter’s Bark (Drimys winteri) or the olivillo

(Aextoxicon punctatum). They nest in the trees, constructing small platforms of small, dry sticks, where they incubate and then feed their chicks with a kind of “milk” from the digested seeds of fruit.

BIRDS OF THE FOREST MARGINS

Kono

Torcaza

Chilean Pigeon

Hidden in the foliage of the trees, the pigeons emit their sonorous cooing that so typifies the austral forests—the sound was heard by Spanish conquistadors and caused them to believe that kono was the most abundant bird. Places such as Conumo (37º16’S; 73º14’W) in the mountains near Arauco, and the town of Pucón (39º15’S; 71º58’W) on the shores of Villarrica Lake express with their names of

 

V. Raptors of the Forests and Adjacent Habitats

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RAPTORS

Yoskalía

Triwkü

Tiuque

Chimango Caracara

CD 1 / Track 43

The loud descending cries of the Chimango Caracara, “triiiiuuuu, triu, triu, triu, triu ....”, characterize the forests and other environments of southern Chile, and are the source of its onomatopoeic

Mapudungun name: triuki.

This is the most common raptor in and around the austral forests. The Chimango Caracara uses trees to sleep and nest, and builds its large nests with twigs and branches. Although it is mainly a scavenger, it is omnivorous, as well, hunting frogs, lizards, mice, small fish, insects, earthworms, larvae, caterpillars and even slugs. Therefore, it is a very beneficial bird for agriculture. When cows are browsing in the prairies or people are hoeing the land, groups of up to one hundred Chimango

Caracara are seen eating insects on the ground.

The Williche on Chiloé Island consider the Chimango Caracara or triuki a “suspicious bird” because witches use them and even transform themselves into them. When the Chimango Caracara lands on the roof of a house, is said that it may be a witch that listens to the conversations of the people inside.

 

The Voices and Stories Must Continue

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Acknowledgments

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Acknowledgments for the first edition of this book in 2003:

As it was said in the Introduction, this guide is a collective work that is possible thanks to the fact that birds, forested ecosystems and very diverse people exist. In particular, the authors sincerely thank the following individuals and organizations:

Mario Chiguay, President of the Indigenous Yahgan Community of Bahía Mejillones, and all the other members of the community who collaborated in this project, especially Julia González;

Manuel Muñoz, Advisor to the Chiloé Council of Chiefs, the members of the Huilliche communities in Chanquin and Huentemó, the school teachers of Chanquin and Mr. Francisco Delgado, Chiloé

National Park, who encourage and helped the initiation of this project;

The poet Lorenzo Aillapan, who teaches in the Pullümapukimunweftuy Mapuche Academy in Puerto

Saavedra, a cultural center which this guide hopes to serve;

Dr. Víctor Fajardo, President of the University of Magallanes, Luis Oval, Vice-President for Academic

 

Selected Bibliography

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SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

References concerning ethnography and biocultural conservation in the South American temperate forests

Agusta, F. F. J. d. 1903. Gramática Mapuche Bilingüe. Ediciones Séneca, Santiago, Chile.

Aillapan, L. & R. Rozzi. 2004. Una etno-ornitología mapuche contemporánea: poemas alados de los bosques nativos de Chile. Ornitología Neotropical 15: 419-434.

Arnold, J. 1996. The inverse system in Mapudungun and other languages. Revista de Lingüística Teórica y

Aplicada 34.

Bart, F. 1948. Cultural development in Southern South America: Yahgan and Alakaluf vs. Ona and Tehuelche.

Acta Americana 6: 192-9.

Bate, L. 1983. Comunidades primitivas de cazadores recolectores en Sudamérica. Historia General de

América, Volumen 2. Caracas, Venezuela.

Bird, J. 1946. The Archaeology of Patagonia. En Handbook of South American Indians, Smithsonian

Institution, Washington, USA.

Bridges, E.L. 1949. Uttermost Part of the Earth. E.P. Dutton and Company Inc., N.Y. (Special ed. 1950).

Bridges, T. 1933. Yamana-English Dictionary. F. Hestermann & M. Gusinde (Eds.). Second Edition

 

Participants

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PARTICIPANTS

Lorenzo Aillapan

Poet, Mapuche Bird Man

Academia Mapuche Püllümapukimunweftuy

Puerto Saavedra, IX Región, Chile

Christopher B. Anderson

Ecologist, Ph.D.

Sub-Antarctic Biocultural Conservation Program

University of North Texas - OSARA

Omora Ethnobotanical Park - Universidad de Magallanes, Chile

E-mail: Christopher.Anderson@unt.edu

Uta Berghöefer

Geographer, Ph.D.(c)

Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig,

Germany

E-mail: Uta.Berghoefer@ufz.de

Alejandra Calcutta

Graphic Designer

Studio Ochenta, Punta Arenas, Chile

E-mail: studio80@tie.cl

Úrsula Calderón

Artisan

Comunidad Indígena Yagán de Bahía Mejillones

She lived on Navarino Island, Chile, until January 2003.

Today she rests in the Cemetery of Mejillones Bay.

Plant Physiologist, Ph.D.

Omora Ethnobotanical Park

Universidad de Magallanes – Institute of Ecology and

Biodiversity, Chile

Puerto Williams, Chile

E-mail: massardorozzi@yahoo.com; francisca.massardo@umag.cl

Kurt Heidinger

Writer, Ph.D.

Omora Ethnobotanical Park

E-mail: kurtheidinger@yahoo.com

 

Indexes

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Yahgan Bird Names

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Mapudungun Bird Names

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Spanish Bird Names

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English Bird Names

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ENGLISH BIRD NAMES

American Kestrel

Andean Condor

Austral Blackbird

Austral Great Horned Owl

Austral Parakeet

Austral Pygmy Owl

Austral Thrush

Barn Owl

Bar-Winged Cinclodes

Bay-Winged Hawk

Bicolored Hawk

Black Vulture

Black-Chested Buzzard-Eagle

Black-Chinned Siskin

Black-Throated Huet-Huet

Blue-and-White Swallow

Buff-Necked Ibis

Chilean Flicker

Chilean Pigeon

Chilean Swallow

Chimango Caracara

Chucao Tapaculo

Common Diuca Finch

Common Snipe

Dark-Bellied Cinclodes

230

191

201

165

82

71

87

147

84

105

199

90

209

193

141

57

113

115

131

125

110

184

59

174

99

107

Desmur´s Wiretail

Eared Dove

Fire-Eyed Diucon

Giant Hummingbird

Green-Backed Firecrown

House Wren

Long-Tailed Meadowlark

Magellanic Tapaculo

Magellanic Woodpecker

Patagonian Sierrafinch

Patagonian Tyrant

Plumbeous Rail

Red-Backed Hawk

Ringed Kingfisher

Rufous-Collared Sparrow

Rufous-Legged Owl

Rufous-Tailed Plantcutter

Southern Lapwing

Southern-Crested Caracara

Striped Woodpecker

Thorn-Tailed Rayadito

Tufted Tit-Tyrant

Turkey Vulture

White-Crested Elaenia

White-Throated Treerunner

74

127

161

171

167

150

177

52

49

145

 

Scientific Bird Names

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SCIENTIFIC BIRD NAMES

Accipiter bicolor

Anairetes parulus

Aphrastura spinicauda

Bubo magellanicus

Buteo polyosoma

Campephilus magellanicus

Caracara plancus

Carduelis barbata

Cathartes aura

Ceryle torquata

Cinclodes fuscus

Cinclodes patagonicus

Colaptes pitius

Colorhamphus parvirostris

Coragyps atratus

Curaeus curaeus

Diuca diuca

Elaenia albiceps

Enicognathus ferrugineus

Falco sparverius

Gallinago paraguaiae

Geranoaetus melanoleucus

Glaucidium nanum

Milvago chimango

Parabuteo unicinctus

90

157

67

82

196

49

187

141

206

95

105

107

131

153

209

165

174

137

71

191

99

193

87

184

199

Pardirallus sanguinolentus

Patagioenas araucana

Patagona gigas

Phrygilus patagonicus

Phytotoma rara

Picoides lignarius

Pteroptochos tarnii

Pygarrhichas albogularis

Pygochelidon cyanoleuca

Scelorchilus rubecula

Scytalopus magellanicus

Sephanoides sephaniodes

Strix rufipes

Sturnella loyca

Sylviorthorhyncus desmursii

Tachycineta meyeni

Theristicus melanopis

Troglodytes aedon

Turdus falcklandii

Tyto alba

Vanellus chilensis

Vultur gryphus

Xolmis pyrope

Zenaida auriculata

Zonotrichia capensis

102

 

CD – I

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Name

Time

1

Trutruka song (Lorenzo Aillapan)

1:06:51

FOREST

INTERIOR

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Magellanic Woodpecker

Magellanic Tapaculo

Black-Throated Huet-Huet

Chucao Tapaculo

White-Throated Treerunner

Thorn-Tailed Rayadito

Austral Parakeet

Desmur´s Wiretail

0:40:57

0:22:36

0:32:65

0:31:14

0:24:40

0:25:40

0:28:57

0:50:67

OWLS

10

11

12

13

14

Rufous-Legged Owl

Austral Great Horned Owl

Barn Owl

Austral Pygmy Owl

Bicolored Hawk

0:43:14

0:31:21

0:27:52

0:28:16

0:17:52

WETLANDS

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

Ringed Kingfisher

Common Snipe

Plumbeous Rail

Bar-Winged Cinclodes

Dark-Bellied Cinclodes

Chilean Swallow

Blue-and-White Swallow

Buff-Necked Ibis

Southern Lapwing

0:31:60

0:39:17

0:29:27

0:25:18

0:24:02

0:31:26

0:25:24

0:33:21

0:23:18

FOREST MARGINS

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

Chilean Pigeon

Eared Dove

Chilean Flicker

Striped Woodpecker

White-Crested Elaenia

Black-Chinned Siskin

Patagonian Sierrafinch

Austral Thrush

House Wren

Patagonian Tyrant

Tufted Tit-Tyrant

Rufous-Collared Sparrow

Fire-Eyed Diucon

Austral Blackbird

Green-Backed Firecrown

Giant Hummingbird

Common Diuca Finch long-Lailed Meadowlark

 

CD – II

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The Millennium Science Initiative Program (MSI) is an original model in the developing world whose main objective is to promote the advancement of cutting edge scientific and technological research in

Chile. This is done through Centers of Excellence in scientific research in the fields of Natural and Exact Sciences and in Social Sciences, as a relevant actor in the National System of Science, Technology and

Innovation. www.iniciativamilenio.cl

This book is a revised and amplified edition of the “Multi-ethnic bird guide of the austral temperate forests of South America,” published by Fantástico Sur – Birding & Nature, in 2003.

Cover: Branches of High Deciduous Beech (Nothofagus pumilio) with photographs of Úrsula Calderón and Magellanic

Woodpecker (top left), Cristina Calderón and Ringed Kingfisher (top right), Lorenzo Aillapan and Red-Backed Hawk, and

Ricardo Rozzi and Austral Pygmy Owl. Design by Paola Vezzani & Ricardo Rozzi. Photographs by John Schwenk (Úrsula

Calderón and Ricardo Rozzi), Paola Vezzani (branches of High Deciduous Beech or “Lenga” tree, and coastal landscape at the Beagle Channel, Navarino Island), Oliver Vogel (Cristina Calderón and Lorenzo Aillapan), Steve Morello (Austral Pygmy

 

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