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Miniature Forests of Cape Horn

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In the humid forests of Cape Horn, a single tree can host more than 100 species of little epiphyte plants. The floor of the forest and the rocks are also covered by numerous species of liverworts, mosses, and lichens. The decision to stop at a tree or rock and explore these "miniature forests" generates an authentic ecotourism experience. In a small area we can spend several minutes or hours with a magnifying glass or camera discovering the colors, shapes, and textures of the most diverse organisms of Cape Horn. This guidebook enhances exploration by providing information to understand the architecture, life cycles, and identification of taxonomic groups of the organisms that form them. For example, when viewing a yellow orange organism, the full color pictures and text in the guidebook illustrate that what you are viewing on the inter-tidal rocks is a crustose lichen, with a well-defined circular structure belonging to the genus Caloplaca that enjoys a broad distribution in inter-tidal zones of Arctic and Antarctic areas. The authors of this guidebook also provide a novel twist on other, more traditional field guides to bryophytes and lichens by introducing the innovative, sustainable tourism activity of "ecotourism with a hand lens." They present a strong natural history narrative and an ecological and ethical orientation for the appreciation of wonders of the miniature forests of Cape Horn.

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Serendipity in the Origin of Ecotourism with a Hand Lens /Serendipia en el Origen del Ecoturismo con Lupa - Ricardo Rozzi

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SERENDIPITY IN THE ORIGIN OF

ECOTOURISM WITH A

HAND LENS

SERENDIPIA EN EL ORIGEN DEL

ECOTURISMO CON LUPA

Ricardo Rozzi

In March 2000, I embarked on an expedition to the Cape Horn Islands at the southern end of the Americas, guiding a group of bryologists led by Bernard Goffinet in the search of Splachnaceae or “dung” mosses that Bernard thought might grow on the bones of whales beached on the south shores of the island. We experienced several storms while navigating on the

“Maroba”, a tiny fishing boat, but we survived! We were determined to find these mosses and began a long hike across a vast peatland. I soon became separated from the group and fell into one of the numerous scattered pools. I started to sink, sure that this would be a quiet natural death. While sinking I observed the astonishing diversity of mosses around the pond, and thought “if I am a biologist and do not have knowledge of this diversity of plants, what about the decision makers and teachers in Chile?” Some years earlier, I had participated in committees charged with identifying priority sites for conservation in Chile and Latin America, based only on vertebrate and vascular plant diversity.

 

I. Ecotourism with a Hand Lens / Ecoturismo con Lupa

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1. INTRODUCTION TO

ECOTOURISM WITH A HAND LENS

1. INTRODUCCIÓN AL

ECOTURISMO CON LUPA

Ricardo Rozzi

You have arrived at Cape Horn, the southern summit of the Americas. Like on the peaks of high mountains, we find few tree species at this high latitude tip of the continent. However, this austral summit hosts a unique kind of forest: “the miniature forests of Cape Horn.”

Usted ha llegado al Cabo de Hornos, la cumbre austral de América. Al igual que en las cumbres de las altas montañas, en este extremo con nental se encuentran pocas especies de

árboles. Sin embargo, esta cumbre austral alberga unos bosques únicos en el mundo: “los bosques en miniatura del Cabo de Hornos”.

In the humid forests of Cape Horn, a single tree can host more than 100 species of li le epiphyte plants, which grow on its trunk and branches. (Photo Ricardo Rozzi).

En los bosques húmedos del Cabo de Hornos un solo árbol suele contener más de 100 especies de pequeñas plan tas epífitas que crecen sobre su tronco y ramas. (Foto Ricardo Rozzi).

 

II. Introduction to the Bryophytes and Lichens of the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve / Introduccion a las Briofitas y Liquenes de la Reserva de Biosfera Cabo de Hornos

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2. INTRODUCTION TO

BRYOPHYTES

2. INTRODUCCIÓN A LAS

BRIOFITAS

Bernard Goffinet, William Buck & Ricardo Rozzi

The green cushions that sheath the trunks and branches and carpet rocks and soil are composed of a diversity of miniature plants known as bryophytes

(Figure 2.1). These little plants differ from the trees that dominate the landscape in the Magellan Archipelago by not having flowers and seeds. Bryophytes also differ from the majestic trees in many aspects of their architecture; however, they share with them fundamental aspects of their life cycle, a testimony of their common, ancient, evolutionary history.

Los cojines verdes que cubren los troncos y ramas, lo mismo que las alfombras sobre las rocas y el suelo, están compuestos de una diversidad de pequeñas plantitas, conocidas como briofitas (Figura 2.1). Éstas difieren de los árboles que dominan el paisaje del archipiélago magallánico en la ausencia de flores y semillas. Además, las briofitas se diferencian de los árboles en muchos aspectos de su arquitectura; sin embargo, comparten con ellos aspectos fundamentales del ciclo de vida que expresan una ancestral historia evolutiva común.

 

III. Representative Bryophyte and Lichen Species of the Miniature Forests of Cape Horn / Especies Representativas de Briofitas y Liquenes de Los Bosques en Miniaturia del cabo de Hornos

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Acrocladium auriculatum (Acrocladiaceae)

Characters for field identification: Plants grow horizontally and form highly branched mats, usually with many sporophytes. The branches are spreading and conspicuously pointed. The leaves are broad and spoon-shaped, with hollow blades and rounded apices. The operculum of the capsules are characteristically white.

Habitat: Soil and decaying tree trunks in Nothofagus forests; rocks and live tree trunks in humid

Nothofagus forests

Distribution: Southwestern South America.

Did you know? The characteristic pointed branches have given this moss its generic name

Acrocladium [Acro (tip) + clad (branch)]. The name auriculatum [auricul (auricle) + tum (lobed leaf base)] describes the heart shaped leaves. Many of the names given to bryophytes describe characteristic features of the particular species or genus.

Adam M. Wilson

Lily Lewis

Características para la identificación en terreno: Las plantas crecen horizontalmente formando alfombras muy ramificadas, usualmente con muchos esporofitos. Las ramas se expanden y son notoriamente puntiagudas. Las hojas son anchas y en forma de cuchara, con hojas ahuecadas y

 

IV. Ecotourism with a Hand Lens in the Trail of the Miniature Forests of Cape Horn at Omora Park / Ecotourismo Con Lupa en El Sendero De Los Bosques en Miniatura Del Cabo de Hornos en El Parque Omora

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9. RECOGNIZING SPECIES AND

PRACTICING ECOTOURISM

WITH A HAND LENS

9. RECONOCIENDO ESPECIES Y

PRACTICANDO ECOTURISMO

CON LUPA

Lily Lewis, Francisca Massardo, Yanet Medina, Kelli Moses, Manuela Méndez,

Bernard Goffinet & Ricardo Rozzi

We invite you to go through the trail of the

Miniature Forests of Cape Horn where you will find metal signs in the shape of magnifying glasses that call your a en on to some of the organisms and microhabitats, and help you discover the beauty, diversity and ecological role of these small plants and lichens.

Lo invitamos a recorrer el sendero de los Bosques en Miniatura del Cabo de Hornos, donde encontrará señales metálicas en forma de lupas que centran su atención en algunas especies de esta pequeña flora y sus microhábitats, y que le ayudarán a descubrir la belleza, la diversidad y el papel ecológico de las briofitas y líquenes.

For the Yahgans, the original inhabitants of the sub-Antarc c ecoregion of South America,

Omora is a hummingbird that embodies a small hero who protects the water supply for all the inhabitants of the Cape Horn region and maintains, both, ecological and social order. This eco-social order is the basis for sustainability and is central for conserva on of the diversity of animals and plants. In this visit to the Omora Ethnobotanical Park you will become familiar with an essen al component of the flora of the sub-Antarc c forests: the bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) and lichens. This flora plays an essen al role regula ng the nutrient cycles, the flow and quality of water, and achieves a level of diversity so high that the Magellanic sub-Antarc c forest ecoregion is a world hotspot of non-vascular flora!

 

Afterword "On Seeing-As" / Epilogo "Ver Como" - J. Britt Holbrook

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AFTERWORD

ON SEEING AS

EPÍLOGO

VER COMO

There are, no doubt, somewhat surprising and important scientific facts presented in this book. These facts, if they are understood and incorporated into the scientific record, may have implications for the ways in which conservation biology is taught and conservation policy is enacted around the globe. If preserving the diversity of species around the world is of the highest value for conservation biology, then conservation biology must turn its attention to all the species of the world.

Existen, sin duda alguna, importantes hechos cien ficos algo sorprendentes que se presentan en este libro. Estos hechos, si es que son comprendidos e incorporados al registro cien fico, pueden tener implicancias para las formas en las que se enseña la conservación biológica y para la implementación de las regulaciones de conservación en el mundo.

Si la preservación de la diversidad de especies del mundo es del mayor valor para la biología de la conservación, entonces la biología de la conservación debe poner atención a todas las especies del mundo.

 

Acknowledgments

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This book is the result of a decade of research, educa on, conserva on and ecotourism work at the Omora Ethnobotanical Park. We thank the numerous friends of the park, volunteers, authori es, teachers, journalists, ar sts, graduate and undergraduate students who each year have taken the biocultural conserva on class at the Universidad de Magallanes since

2003, and have helped to build the Trail of the Miniature Forests, and to create the narra ve of ecotourism with a hand lens. We especially thank Mauricio Zárraga, Carlos Catrin, and Jaime Godoy who made possible the early expedi ons in Cape Horn on board of the

“Maroba” in 2000, and 2001, and the teachers María Anguita, Carlos Soto, Fernando Saldivia,

Francisco Fernández, and Nelson Cárcamo with whom we have maintained the workshop on the “miniature forests of Cape Horn” for over a decade at the local school of Puerto Williams.

Photography was primarily done by Adam M. Wilson (adamwilson.us) and Oliver Vogel with the collabora on of Gonzalo Arriagada, Javier Etayo, Ricardo Garille , Bernard Goffinet, Kris n

 

Agradecimientos

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AGRADECIMIENTOS

Este libro es el resultado de una década de trabajo de inves gación, educación, conservación y ecoturismo en el Parque Etnobotánico Omora. Agradecemos a los numerosos amigos del parque, voluntarios, autoridades, profesores, periodistas, ar stas, estudiantes graduados y de pregrado, que cada año han tomado el curso de conservación biocultural de la Universidad de Magallanes desde el 2003, y han ayudado a construir el Sendero de los Bosques en Miniatura del Cabo de Hornos y a crear la narra va del ecoturismo con lupa. Agradecemos especialmente a Mauricio Zárraga,

Carlos Catrin y Jaime Godoy, quienes hicieron posible las primeras expediciones al Cabo de Hornos a bordo de la “Maroba”, en el 2000 y el 2001, y a los profesores María Anguita, Carlos Soto, Fernando

Saldivia, Francisco Fernández, y Nelson Cárcamo, con quienes hemos mantenido los talleres de “Los

Bosques en Miniatura del Cabo de Hornos” en el liceo de Puerto Williams por más de diez años.

La fotogra a es mayoritariamente a Adam M. Wilson (adamwilson.us) y Oliver Vogel, con la colaboración de Gonzalo Arriagada, Ricardo Garille , Bernard Goffinet, Kris n Hoel ng, de

 

Bibliography / Bibliografia

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAFÍA

Ecology and Conservation in the Magellanic Sub-Antarctic Ecoregion / Ecología y

Conservación en la Ecorregión Subantártica de Magallanes

Alaback, P.B. 1991. Comparison of temperate rain forests of the Americas. Revista Chilena de Historia

Natural 64: 399–412.

Armesto, J.J., D. Manuscevich, A. Mora., C. Smith-Ramírez, R. Rozzi, A.M. Abarzúa & P.A. Marquet.

2010. From the Holocene to the Anthropocene: A historical framework for land cover change in southwestern South America in the past 15,000 years. Land Use Policy 27: 148-160.

Armesto, J.J., R. Rozzi, C. Smith-Ramírez & M.T.K. Arroyo. 1998. Effec ve conserva on targets in South

American temperate forests. Science 282: 1271-12.

72.

Armesto, J.J., C. Villagrán & M.T. Kalin (eds.). 1995. Ecología de los Bosques Nativos de Chile. Editorial

Universitaria, San ago, Chile. 469 pp.

Arroyo, M.T.K., M. Riveros, A. Peñaloza, L. Cavieres & A.M. Faggi. 1996. Phytogeographic rela onships and regional richness pa erns of the cool temperate rain forest of Southern South America.

 

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