Medium 9780876111710

Civil War Texas

Views: 1297
Ratings: (0)
Written by one of the deans of Texas history, Civil War Texas provides an authoritative, comprehensive description of Texas during the Civil War as well as a guide for those who wish to visit sites in Texas associated with the war. In one compact volume, the reader or tourist is led on an exciting historical journey through Civil War Texas.

Because most of the great battles of the Civil War were fought east of the Mississippi River, it is often forgotten that Texas made major contributions to the war effort in terms of men and supplies. Over 70,000 Texans served in the Confederate army during the war and fought in almost every major battle. Ordnance works, shops, and depots were established for the manufacture and repair of weapons of war, and Texas cotton shipped through Mexico was exchanged for weapons and ammunition.

The state itself was the target of the Union army and navy. Galveston, the principal seaport, was occupied by Federal forces for three months and blockaded by the Union navy for four years. Brownsville, Port Lavaca, and Indianola were captured, and Sabine Pass, Corpus Christi, and Laredo were all under enemy attack. A major Federal attempt to invade East Texas by way of Louisiana was stopped only a few miles from the Texas border.

The Civil War had significant impact upon life within the state. The naval blockade created shortages requiring Texans to find substitutes for various commodities such as coffee, salt, ink, pins, and needles. The war affected Texas women, many of whom were now required to operate farms and plantations in the absence of their soldier husbands. As the author points out in the narrative, not all Texans supported the Confederacy. Many Texans, especially in the Hill Country and North Texas, opposed secession and attempted either to remain neutral or work for a Union victory. Over two thousand Texans, led by future governor Edmund J. Davis, joined the Union army.

In this carefully researched work, Ralph A. Wooster describes Texas's role in the war. He also notes the location of historical markers, statues, monuments, battle sites, buildings, and museums in Texas which may be visited by those interested in learning more about the war. Photographs, maps, chronology, end notes, and bibliography provide additional information on Civil War Texas.

List price: $9.95

Your Price: $7.96

You Save: 20%

Remix
Remove

6 Chapters

Format Buy Remix

1. The War Begins

ePub

1.

THE WAR BEGINS

Two members of the Twenty-seventh Cavalry Regiment (also known as First Texas Legion), Ross’s Brigade. Courtesy Lawrence T. Jones III, Austin.

ON FEBRUARY 1, 1861, delegates to the Texas state convention, called to consider federal relations, passed by a vote of 166 to 8, an ordinance separating Texas from the United States. Declaring that the federal government was using its power as a weapon against the Southern people, the secession ordinance repealed the annexation ordinance of 1845 by which Texas joined the American Union. The measure provided that the act of secession would be submitted to the people for ratification or rejection on February 23. If ratified in the popular election the ordinance would become effective on March 2, 1861, the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Texas Declaration of Independence from Mexico.1

Passage of the secession ordinance, and its subsequent ratification by the voters on February 23, came after several years of controversy over the issues of slavery and states’ rights. The election of Abraham Lincoln as President, on a platform pledged to halt the expansion of slavery in the territories, convinced many Southerners that separation from the Union was necessary. In December 1860, South Carolina seceded. The next month Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana held conventions which took similar action. Texas governor Sam Houston opposed calling a convention in Texas, but a group of prominent citizens led by O. M. Roberts, John S. “Rip” Ford, and William P. Rogers issued a call for a convention to consider the issue of federal relations. Elections for delegates took place in early January, and on January 28 the convention—which included as delegates former governor Hardin R. Runnels, four future governors, and seven future Confederate generals—began its deliberations in Austin. The following day the delegates passed by a vote of 152 to 6 a resolution stating that it was the sense of the convention that “Texas should separately secede from the Union.” Three days later the convention adopted the secession ordinance.2

 

2. Defending the Texas Coast

ePub

2.

DEFENDING THE TEXAS COAST

Hispanic Confederates from Texas. Courtesy Lawrence T. Jones III, Austin.

THE CONFEDERATE defeats at Pea Ridge and Shiloh in the spring of 1862 discouraged some Texans who had believed the South would defeat the North in a few months. When enthusiasm for military service began to wane the Confederate Congress on April 16, 1862, passed the first of several conscription laws to assure that manpower needs of the army would be met. The conscription laws were generally unpopular in Texas and elsewhere but they did serve as a continued stimulant to recruitment as Southerners volunteered for service to avoid the odium of conscription.

The war came directly to Texas in the late spring of 1862 as the Union Navy became more active along the coast. A naval blockade of Texas seaports had begun the previous July when the Union warship South Carolina commanded by Capt. James Alden arrived off the coast near Galveston. During the next ten months a few blockade runners were captured, shots were exchanged between the South Carolina and Galveston batteries, and the Confederate patrol schooner Royal Yacht was burned, but no effort was made to occupy the city. In May 1862, Capt. Henry Eagle, master of the Union frigate Santee, demanded the surrender of Galveston. Maj. Gen. Paul O. Hébert, commanding Confederate forces in Texas, sensed that this was only a bluff and declined to surrender but did order the evacuation of civilians, livestock, and excessive provisions from the island. Although Captain Eagle was unable to enforce his surrender demands, his action caused concern to state and Confederate officials. Gov. Francis Lubbock was determined to defend the city against any possible attack, but General Hébert was of the opinion that because of its exposed position Galveston Island could not be held against a determined Union assault.15

 

3. Living in Confederate Texas

ePub

3.

LIVING IN CONFEDERATE TEXAS

Confederate soldier and sweetheart, Henderson County, Texas. Courtesy Lawrence T. Jones III, Austin.

BY THE END OF 1863 the vast majority of adult white male Texans, ninety thousand according to Gov. Francis Lubbock, were serving in Confederate or state military forces, some far away from the state. Those men, women, and children who remained at home faced new challenges as they adjusted to the impact of war.

A frontier state, Texas suffered less than the other Confederate states. The major battles of the war were fought in Virginia, Tennessee, and Georgia, where physical devastation was immense. Although Galveston was occupied briefly, Brownsville, Indianola, and South Texas were under federal control in the winter of 1863–64, and El Paso was occupied by federal troops following Sibley’s retreat in 1862, most of those living in Texas did not have direct contact with the enemy. Even so, there were changes in lifestyles. The blockade of the Southern coastline cut off many imports from Europe and other parts of the world. Too, the great variety of goods purchased from Northern manufacturers were no longer available. As a result, there were shortages of many items, especially coffee, medicine, clothing, shoes, and farm implements.

 

4. Defending Home and Country

ePub

4.

DEFENDING HOME AND COUNTRY

Private John P. Offield, Company A, Twelfth Texas Cavalry (Parson’s Brigade). Courtesy Lawrence T. Jones III, Austin.

WHILE THE STRUGGLE to defend the Confederacy continued in 1863 and 1864, people in the northwestern counties of Texas fought to protect their homes from Indian attacks.

Just before Christmas 1863, a band of over three hundred Comanche Indians crossed the Red River and made a major raid into Montague and Cooke Counties, killing a dozen citizens, burning ten homes, and carrying off numerous horses and several women. Confederate and state troops gave pursuit but the raiders escaped back into Indian Territory before they could be overtaken.60

Although there were several small raids during the spring and summer of 1864, there was not another major Indian incursion until October 1864, when over five hundred Kiowas and Comanches led by the Comanche Little Buffalo crossed the Red River and rode southward into Young County. The raiders divided into several parties which attacked ranches and farms along Elm Creek, a tributary of the Brazos. Troops from Col. James Bourland’s Frontier Regiment and Maj. William Quayle’s Frontier District rode to assist families who took refuge in two small fortified stockades, but arrived after the Indians had withdrawn, taking seven women and children captives with them. The troopers followed the Indians for over one hundred miles before they gave up the chase.61

 

5. Collapse of the Confederacy

ePub

5.

COLLAPSE OF THE CONFEDERACY

Private George T. Brown, Company B, Third Texas Cavalry (Arizona Brigade). Courtesy Lawrence T. Jones III, Austin.

DESPITE THE MANY sacrifices made by Texans and other Southerners, the effort to establish a Confederate nation came to an end in early 1865. On April 9, after four years of fighting against overwhelming odds, Robert E. Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox Court House. Three days later the formal exchange of men and weapons took place. Among those in Lee’s army were 617 members of Hood’s Texas Brigade, the last of over five thousand Texans and Arkansans who had served in the brigade. After being paroled, these proud veterans began to make their way home to Texas and Arkansas.80

During the next month other Confederates capitulated. In late April Joseph E. Johnston surrendered what remained of the Army of Tennessee to William T. Sherman near Durham, North Carolina. On May 4 Richard Taylor surrendered Confederate troops in Alabama and Mississippi to E. R. S. Canby at Citronelle, Alabama.81

 

Chronology of Events

ePub

CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS

1860

November 6   Lincoln elected President

December 3   Address to People of Texas calling for state convention

1861

January 8   Elections for delegates to state convention

28   State convention opens

February 1   State convention approves ordinance of secession

16   Twiggs surrenders federal property in Texas

23   People vote on secession ordinance

March 4   Convention canvasses vote of people

5   Convention passes ordinance uniting Texas with Confederate States of America

16   Convention removes Houston from office

April 12   Confederates fire on Fort Sumter

May 5   Texas forces occupy federal forts in Indian Territory

July 2   U.S. Navy initiates blockade of Galveston

27   John R. Baylor captures Ft. Fillmore, N.Mex.

August 10   Federals defeated at Wilson’s Creek (Oak Hill)

October 23   Sibley’s Brigade leaves San Antonio for N.Mex.

1862

February 21   Battle of Valverde, N.Mex.

March 7   Ben McCulloch killed at Pea Ridge, Ark.

26–28   Battle of Glorieta Pass, N.Mex.

April 6 Albert Sidney Johnston killed at Shiloh, Tenn.

 

Details

Print Book
E-Books
Chapters

Format name
ePub
Encrypted
No
Sku
B000000019220
Isbn
9780876111710
File size
10.4 MB
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Format name
ePub
Encrypted
No
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Sku
In metadata
Isbn
In metadata
File size
In metadata