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The New Answers Book Volume 4: Over 30 Questions on Creation/Evolution and the Bible

By: Ken Ham
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  • What about climate change?
  • Is there a connection between dragon legends and dinosaurs?
  • Is evolution the bloodiest religion ever?
  • What about cavemen?
  • What are the 10 best evidences for a young creation?
The Answers series has been a powerful tool in equipping believers to share and defend their faith. Now the newest book in this landmark series takes on hot button topics like climate change, ancient man, and many more. Too many people have walked away from their faith because they sought answers for what seemed a contradiction in Christian belief and scientific teaching. For those who desire a deeper walk and a thriving faith in the face of a growing cultural adversity, now find the answers to questions you have or others may use to genetic engineering, this powerful team of apologists is able to inspire you and those you know who may not yet believe.

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34 Chapters

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Atheistic Devices: Spotting Them . . . but Countering Them, Too?



Atheistic Devices: Spotting Them . . . but Countering Them, Too?

Ken Ham

Introduction: Atheists Using Churches to Infiltrate and Deceive

Did you know that many Christian leaders are doing exactly what the atheists are encouraging them to do? Its incredible.

You see, theres an epidemic that is infecting and destroying many churches around the world. It is the epidemic of Christians (including many church leaders) who are adopting mans religion of evolutionary ideas and adding them to Scripture thus undermining the authority of the Word of God.

As we see the loss of the foundation of the authority of Gods Word in our Western nations, we are also seeing a massive decline in Christian morality in society. Even the great nation of America is on a downward spiral, as we see the absolutes of Christianity being eliminated from the culture (on an almost daily basis).

We spoke to a prominent Christian leader recently. He is the pastor of a large church in a generally conservative denomination (though many of its churches allow for millions of years). He shared with us that within his denomination, he saw the next big theological debate being whether or not Adam and Eve were literal human beings!


1. Does the Gospel Depend on a Young Earth?


Chapter 1

Does the Gospel Depend on a Young Earth?

Ken Ham

Can a person believe in an old earth and an old universe (millions or billions of years in age) and be a Christian?

First of all, lets consider three verses that sum up the gospel and salvation. 1 Corinthians 15:17 says, If Christ is not risen, your faith is futile; you are still in your sins! Jesus said in John 3:3, Most assuredly, I say to you, unless one is born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God. Romans 10:9 clearly explains, If you confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus and believe in your heart that God has raised Him from the dead, you will be saved.

Numerous other passages could be cited, but not one of them states in any way that a person has to believe in a young earth or universe to be saved.

And the list of those who cannot enter Gods kingdom, as recorded in passages like Revelation 21:8, certainly does not include old earthers.

Many great men of God who are now with the Lord have believed in an old earth. Some of these explained away the Bibles clear teaching about a young earth by adopting the classic gap theory. Others accepted a day-age theory or positions such as theistic evolution, the framework hypothesis, and progressive creation.


2. Do Plants and Leaves Die?


Chapter 2

Do Plants and Leaves Die?

Dr. Michael Todhunter

Fall in America and throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere is a beautiful time of year. Bright reds, oranges, and yellows rustle in the trees and then blanket the ground as warm weather gives way to winter cold. Many are awed at Gods handiwork as the leaves float to the ground like heavens confetti. But fall may also make us wonder, Did Adam and Eve ever see such brilliant colors in the Garden of Eden? Realizing that these plants wither at the end of the growing season may also raise the question, Did plants die before the Fall of mankind?

Before we can answer this question, we must consider the definition of die. We commonly use the word die to describe when plants, animals, or humans no longer function biologically. However, this is not the definition of the word die or death in the Old Testament. The Hebrew word for die (or death), mt (or mavet or muwth), is used only in relation to the death of man or animals with the breath of life, not regarding plants.1 This usage indicates that plants are viewed differently from animals and humans.


3. Dragons . . . Were They Real?


Chapter 3

Dragons . . . Were They Real?

Bodie Hodge

A Dodo of an Introduction

The dodo was a strange bird, and our understanding of its demise and extinction by 1662 is equally strange. The dodo was a flightless bird that lived on the island of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean. It was easy to catch and provided meat to sailors. There were numerous written accounts, sketches, and descriptions of the bird from the 1500s through the 1600s.

But when the dodo went extinct, no one seemed to notice. And a few years later, scientists began to promote the idea that the dodo was merely a myth. Just look at the evidence:

1. It was a very strange creature.

2. No one could find them.

3. They seemed to exist only in the old descriptions, accounts, and drawings!

Had it not been for specimens popping up in the recesses of museum collections, and finally brought to light, they could have been labeled simply as myth for as long as the earth endures! But in the 19th century, at last, there was vindication that the dodo was real and that it had merely gone extinct. Since then, fossils and other portions of specimens have been identified as dodo.


4. Peppered Moths . . . Evidence for Evolution?


Chapter 4

Peppered Moths . . . Evidence for Evolution?

Dr. Tommy Mitchell

Stop me if you have heard this tale before. Its about one of the sacred cows of evolution: the peppered moth. The story of this moth has been set forth for decades as the prime example of evolution in action. It is a fascinating story about how, due to a combination of environmental changes and selective predation, a moth turned into, well, a moth.

The peppered moth, scientifically known as Biston betularia, exists in two primary forms one light colored with spots and one almost black. As the tale goes, in the mid 1800s, the lighter variety of the moth (typica) predominated. During the Industrial Revolution, the lichen on tree trunks died, soot got deposited on trees, and as a result trees got darker. As this change occurred, the population of darker moths (carbonaria) increased, presumably due to the camouflage offered by the darker trees. Bird predators could not see the dark moths against the dark bark. As the darker moth population increased, the lighter moth population decreased.1


5. Is Evolutionary Humanism the Most Blood-stained Religion Ever?


Chapter 5

Is Evolutionary Humanism the Most Blood-stained Religion Ever?

Bodie Hodge

Introduction: Mans Authority or Gods Authority . . . Two Religions

If God and His Word are not the authority . . . then by default . . . who is? Man is. When people reject God and His Word as the ultimate authority, then man is attempting to elevate his or her thoughts (collectively or individually) to a position of authority over God and His Word.

So often, people claim that Christians are religious and the enlightened unbelievers who reject God are not religious. Dont be deceived by such a statement. For these nonbelievers are indeed religious . . . very religious, whether they realize it or not. For they have bought into the religion of humanism.

Humanism is the religion that elevates man to be greater than God. Humanism, in a broad sense, encompasses any thought or worldview that rejects God and the 66 books of His Word in part or in whole; hence all non-biblical religions have humanistic roots. There are also those that mix aspects of humanism with the Bible. Many of these religions (e.g., Mormons, Islam, Judaism, etc.) openly borrow from the Bible, but they also have mixed human elements into their religion where they take some of mans ideas to supersede many parts of the Bible, perhaps in subtle ways.1


6. Was Charles Darwin a Christian?


Chapter 6

Was Charles Darwin a Christian?

Dr. Tommy Mitchell

Much has been written about the religious views of Charles Darwin. What exactly did he believe, and when? Did he reject Christianity? Was he out to destroy Christianity, as some in the Church have come to believe?

While it is true that Darwins ideas have caused great harm to the Church and have led many people to openly question the authority of the Bible, what did the man himself actually believe? Did he ever become a Christian?


Charles Darwin was born in 1809. He was part of a well-to-do family in England.

His grandfather, Erasmus, was a prominent physician, poet, and somewhat of an activist. He could best be described as a progressive or free thinker. Dr. Erasmus had a naturalistic view of origins and even promoted basic evolutionary ideas. His religious stand was as a deist, and he rejected the idea that the Bible was supernaturally inspired.

Charles never met his grandfather, who died before Charles was born. He did, however, become familiar with his grandfathers beliefs and ideas through reading his writings.


7. Cavemen . . . Really?


Chapter 7

Cavemen . . . Really?

Dr. David Menton, Dr. Georgia Purdom, and John Upchurch

As far as stereotypes go, cavemen make easy targets especially when transplanted into the 21st century. Their brutish way of dealing with contemporary situations earns a laugh on commercials and TV shows. They just dont understand us modern humans, and their misunderstanding strikes humor gold.

But when we cut away the laugh track and the bumbling ways, were left with something of an enigmatic figure a being without a settled place in our understanding of history. Perhaps, in fact, its our discomfort with not knowing what to do with cavemen that makes us laugh. So just who were they?

Would the Real Caveman Please Stand Up?

Before we go spelunking, we need to limit our scope somewhat. At its most basic, the term caveman simply means a person who dwells in a cave, which isnt unheard of even today. But thats rarely what we mean when we use the word. Instead, were usually talking about a group of ancient cave hoppers who left behind animal artwork, rough-hewn weapons, and bones at least, thats the common assumption. While the collective opinion of history and science has moved beyond considering these early humans as animal-like brutes, the term still carries with it the baggage of a being somewhat lesser than modern Homo sapiens (us today). And thats unfortunate as well see.


8. Should There Really Be a Battle between Science and the Bible?


Chapter 8

Should There Really Be a Battle between Science and the Bible?

Roger Patterson

There is much debate in our culture about the nature of science and religion and the interaction of the two. Some will argue that the two areas give us understanding in distinct ways that do not overlap.1 Others suggest that science should drive our understanding of religion. Still others argue that religion should drive our scientific understanding. There are truly deep divisions in many senses as people claim different sources of authority on these issues.

But there are many contrasting ideas that are presented in the popular discussions of this topic that need to be carefully considered. Words have meanings, and we need to make sure that we are using our own words in a manner that is clear and does not hide or change the meaning of certain terms and concepts. We all recognize when a politician talks out of both sides of his mouth, but it can be a little harder to spot when we see religious leaders and scientists talking in the same manner.2 While we can learn from those who have studied various ideas, we need to be careful not to accept those ideas just because some scientist, religious leader, or news analyst says something is so.


9. What Did the Reformers Believe about the Age of the Earth?


Chapter 9

What Did the Reformers Believe about the Age of the Earth?

Dr. Joel R. Beeke

All Christians believe that God the Father Almighty is the Maker of heaven and earth. This belief is like a great river that runs through Christian history. It distinguishes Christianity from other forms of spirituality. Yet within this river there have been two streams of thought about how to understand Genesis: the allegorical reading and the literal reading.1

The Reformation of the 16th and 17th centuries marked a return to the literal reading of Scripture. The Reformers taught that God revealed in Genesis that He created all things in six ordinary days about six thousand years ago.

In this chapter, I will sketch out these two streams of thought, describe the teachings of the Reformers, and show how these teachings crystallized in their confessions of faith.

Two Views of Genesis 1 in Christian History

There have been many Christians through history who believed in a literal interpretation of Genesis 1. Basil of Caesarea (a.d. 329379) wrote that in the context of morning and evening a day in Genesis 1 referred to a day of twenty-four hours.2 Ambrose (c. a.d. 339397) wrote in his commentary on Genesis, The length of one day is twenty-four hours in extent.3 The English historian and theologian Bede (c. a.d. 672735) commented on Genesis 1:5 that the first day was without a doubt a day of twenty-four hours.4


10. What Are Some of the Best Evidences in Science of a Young Creation?


Chapter 10

What Are Some of the Best Evidences in Science of a Young Creation?

Dr. Andrew A. Snelling, Dr. David Menton,

Dr. Danny R. Faulkner, and Dr. Georgia Purdom

The earth is only a few thousand years old. Thats a fact, plainly revealed in Gods Word. So we should expect to find plenty of evidence for its youth. And thats what we find in the earths geology, biology, paleontology, and even astronomy.

Literally hundreds of dating methods could be used to attempt an estimate of the earths age, and the vast majority of them point to a much younger earth than the 4.5 billion years claimed by secularists. The following series of articles presents what Answers in Genesis researchers picked as the ten best scientific evidences that contradict billions of years and confirm a relatively young earth and universe.

Despite this wealth of evidence, it is important to understand that, from the perspective of observational science, no one can prove absolutely how young (or old) the universe is. Only one dating method is absolutely reliable a witness who doesnt lie, who has all evidence, and who can reveal to us when the universe began!


11. Have People Always Been Brilliant or Were They Originally Dumb Brutes?


Chapter 11

Have People Always Been Brilliant or Were They Originally Dumb Brutes?

Don Landis1

Many Christians today have unanswered questions about the authority of the Bible due to their acceptance of an evolutionary time-line of history and, in particular, their view of mankind within that time-line. If the claims that mankind emerged from the slow process of evolution are true, then the Bible must be wrong, because the biblical record tells us that men were intelligent since the day of their creation (e.g., able to converse with God, able to work, and so on).

Yet our modern society believes we are just reaching the height of human intelligence and capabilities. If we accept this evolutionary view, what do we do with the biblical account? Is it completely unfounded and simply a myth? Or is the Bible true and verifiably so, thus making the evolutionary time-line errant?2

Most secular historians have not completely ignored the record of the Bible. However, they cite it as simply a source of information (e.g., a document of men, without God). In doing so, they undermine the authority of Scripture by not placing the Bible in its rightful place. Many Christians unwittingly accept this abuse of Gods Word and furthermore even promote it! When it is assumed that the Bible is only one of many records of early man and it is placed in a time-line alongside the other legends predating it, two key points are missed:


12. What about Living Fossils?


Chapter 12

What about Living Fossils?

Dr. John Whitmore1

When Charles Darwin published the first edition of the Origin of Species in 1859, he imagined a large evolutionary tree of organisms that were continuously connected by various transitional forms. Furthermore, he envisioned life constantly changing through time as various environmental and climatic conditions changed with only the fittest and best adapted offspring surviving. At the time, paleontology was still a relatively young science and Darwin realized that the fossil record did not yet support his theory. Subsequently, he predicted that numerous fossil intermediate links would be found, gradually leading to the animals that we have today. Darwin did not predict that organisms at the lowest taxonomic levels would remain unchanged for long periods of time.2 He thought that their morphology (or body shape) would change (or evolve) over time.

What Are Living Fossils?

Initially, the term living fossil doesnt make much sense. How could something be alive and a fossil at the same time? Living fossils are organisms that can be found both living in the world today and also found preserved in the rock record as fossils, with the living animals showing little if any difference from their fossil counterparts. Studying and comparing fossils to modern organisms is important because we can see how (or if) they have changed over time. The study of these organisms has implications for both evolutionary and biblical models of earth history. An organism is considered a living fossil if it has fossil representatives that are from the same taxonomic level usually in the same genus or species group. Living fossils are impressive from an evolutionary perspective with some animal genera existing for nearly the entire range of the Phanerozoic3 record thats more than half of a billion years! From a biblical perspective, no fossils are much older than the time of the Flood, about 4,300 years ago, so a creationist might predict living fossils would be more common. Many famous examples of living fossils are found in the Cenozoic rocks, or ones that were made after the Flood was over.


13. What Is the State of the Canopy Model?


Chapter 13

What Is the State of the Canopy Model?

Bodie Hodge

If there is one thing you need to know about biblical creationists . . . they can be divided on a subject. This isnt necessarily a bad thing. Though we all have the same heart to follow Christ and do the best we can for the sake of biblical authority and the cause of Christ, we can have differences when it comes to details of models used to explain various aspects of Gods creation.

When divisions occur over scientific models, this helps us dive into an issue in more detail and discover if that model is good, bad, needs revision, and so on. But note over what we are divided; it is not the Word of God nor is it even theology it is a division over a scientific model.

This is where Christians can rightly be divided on a subject and still do so with Christian love, which I hope is how each Christian would conduct themselves in iron-sharpening-iron dealings on a model while still promoting a heart for the gospel (Proverbs 27:17).

The debate over a canopy model is no different we are all brothers and sisters in Christ trying to understand what the Bible says and what it doesnt say on this subject (2 Timothy 2:15). It is the Bible that reigns supreme on the issue, and our scientific analysis on the subject will always be subservient to the Bibles text.


14. Are There Transitional Forms in the Fossil Record?


Chapter 14

Are There Transitional Forms in the Fossil Record?

Dr. David Menton

The central idea of evolution is that all of the kinds of living organisms on earth share a common ancestor and that over time they have evolved one from another by an unplanned and unguided natural process. This unobserved sort of amoeba-to-man evolution extending over hundreds of millions of years is called macroevolution to distinguish it from the relatively small-scale variations we observe among the individuals of a species. Evolutionists like to refer to these small variations as microevolution with the tacit assumption that over eons of time they add up incrementally to produce macroevolution. Thus, evolutionists look for evidence of these incremental steps, often referring to them as transitional forms, suggesting that they represent stages of transformation of one organism into a different kind of organism.

Since macroevolution is not observable in the time frame of human observers, evolutionists often invoke microevolution as both evidence for macroevolution as well as its presumed mechanism. But as any animal or plant breeder knows, the limited variation that is observed among the individuals of a species has not been observed to lead to the essentially limitless process of macroevolution. In 1980, a group of evolutionists met in Chicago to discuss the relationship of micro- and macroevolution. Roger Lewin summed up this meeting in the journal Science as follows:


15. Could the Flood Cataclysm Deposit Uniform Sedimentary Rock Layers?


Chapter 15

Could the Flood Cataclysm Deposit Uniform Sedimentary Rock Layers?

Dr. Andrew A. Snelling

This is definitely a legitimate question to ask concerning the nature of the evidence one would expect to be left behind by the Flood cataclysm. Because the waters of local floods today are often full of sediments and are fast-moving, it is commonly thought that neat, uniform sediment layers are not deposited under such conditions. So this question needs close examination, starting by looking at what the evidence is that we see in the rock record.

Do We Find Neat Uniform Sedimentary Rock Layers in the Geologic Record?

Whether looking into the Grand Canyon from one of the rim overlooks or traversing through the Grand Canyon on foot or by raft, the answer to this question is obviously yes. The fossil-bearing sedimentary layers deposited by the Flood can be seen exposed in the walls, stacked on top of one another like a huge pile of pancakes. And the view is much the same no matter where one views the Grand Canyon. So at the regional scale in the Grand Canyon area it is clearly evident that the sedimentary rock layers deposited there during the Flood cataclysm are neat and uniform.


16. Should We Be Concerned about Climate Change?


Chapter 16

Should We Be Concerned about Climate Change?

Dr. Alan White

There is good evidence that global temperatures have been slowly climbing for the past four centuries and were slowly declining for many centuries prior to that. But are these temperature changes a serious threat to our way of life or are they just a part of normal variation to which we can readily adjust? Sadly, our lives are going to be affected whether global warming is a real threat or not. Global warming has been blamed for almost every ill in our society.1 In his State of the Union speech in 2013, President Obama said this:

Its true that no single event makes a trend. But the fact is, the 12 hottest years on record have all come in the last 15. Heat waves, droughts, wildfires, floods all are now more frequent and more intense. We can choose to believe that Superstorm Sandy, and the most severe drought in decades, and the worst wildfires some states have ever seen were all just a freak coincidence. Or we can choose to believe in the overwhelming judgment of science and act before its too late.2


17. What about Creation, Flood, and Language Division Legends?


Chapter 17

What about Creation, Flood, and Language Division Legends?

Troy Lacey (with Bodie Hodge)


Nearly every culture around the world has a creation legend and just as many have worldwide flood legends, and, believe it or not, there are even many language division legends around the world in different and diverse cultures.

In todays highly secularized culture, there are attacks on the Bible using these legends. Those who do not trust what the Bible plainly says often speculate that the Bibles discussion about creation, the Flood, and the Tower of Babel are just more legends and determine that the Bible cannot be trusted. What these attackers fail to realize is that these legends are a great confirmation of the Bible and that the Bible retains the true account recorded by God in His Word. From an historical perspective, this makes perfect sense and is consistent with a biblical worldview, but it is hard to explain all these legends from a secular evolutionary worldview people supposedly evolved and slowly filled the earth with a gradual changing of languages and no global Flood. Why then should we find so many common threads in so many accounts from all over the world? The evolutionary explanation fails to provide a reason for commonality, whereas the biblical one does.


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