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Web Design in a Nutshell: A Desktop Quick Reference

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Are you still designing web sites like it's 1999? If so, you're in for a surprise. Since the last edition of this book appeared five years ago, there has been a major climate change with regard to web standards. Designers are no longer using (X)HTML as a design tool, but as a means of defining the meaning and structure of content. Cascading Style Sheets are no longer just something interesting to tinker with, but rather a reliable method for handling all matters of presentation, from fonts and colors to the layout of the entire page. In fact, following the standards is now a mandate of professional web design.

Our popular reference, Web Design in a Nutshell, is one of the first books to capture this new web landscape with an edition that's been completely rewritten and expanded to reflect the state of the art. In addition to being an authoritative reference for (X)HTML and Cascading Style Sheets, this book also provides an overview of the unique requirements of designing for the Web and gets to the nitty-gritty of JavaScript and DOM Scripting, web graphics optimization, and multimedia production. It is an indispensable tool for web designers and developers of all levels.

The third edition covers these contemporary web design topics:

  • Structural layer: HTML 4.01 and XHTML 1.0 (9 chapters), including an alphabetical reference of all elements, attributes and character entities
  • Presentation layer: Ten all-new chapters on Cascading Style Sheets, Level 2.1, including an alphabetical reference of all properties and values.
  • Behavior layer: JavaScript and scripting with the Document Object Model (DOM)
  • Web environment: New web standards, browsers, display devices, accessibility, and internationalization
  • Web graphics optimization: Producing lean and mean GIF, JPEG, PNG, and animated GIFs
  • Multimedia: Web audio, video, Flash, and PDF

Organized so that readers can find answers quickly, Web Design in a Nutshell, Third Edition helps experienced designers come up to speed quickly on standards-based web design, and serves as a quick reference for those already familiar with the new standards and technology.

There are many books for web designers, but none that address such a wide variety of topics. Find out why nearly half a million buyers have made this the most popular web design book available.

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1. Web Standards

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A great sea change has taken place in web development in the last six or seven years (and since the last edition of this book). Standards compliance is the name of the game in web design these days. After years of browser competition, HTML hacking, and other practices born out of the lack of guiding principles, we are all finally recognizing the benefits of abiding by the rules. That means using clean and logical HTML or XHTML for marking up content, Cascading Style Sheets for all matters of presentation, and a single Document Object Model for scripting.

As of this writing, we are still in a period of transition. New approaches need to be learned; old habits need to be shaken. Eventually, standards -based design will be second nature. The good news is that the developers of the tools we use to view and create web pages are making strides toward full standards support. With everyone on the same page, web production has the potential to be more efficient, less costly, and forward compatible.

 

2. Designing for a Variety of Browsers

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Most web authors agree that the biggest challenge (and headache) in web design is dealing with a multitude of browsers and their varying support of web standards. Does a page that is designed to be functional on all browsers necessarily need to be boring? Is it possible to please everyone? And if not, where do you draw the line? How many past browser versions do you need to cater to with your designs?

The situation is better than it was a few years ago, but the struggle is not over. For instance, you can now be confident that at least 99% of users have browsers that support nearly all of HTML 4. Unfortunately, there are still inconsistencies in the way Cascading Style Sheets are implemented. And of course, older browser versions that pre-date the current standards take a long time to fade away entirely.

This chapter provides background information, statistics, and current wisdom from professional web designers that may help you deal with browser differences. It focuses on the traditional graphical computer-based browsers that developers generally keep in mind. Web browsing clients for mobile devices are discussed in Chapter 3, and assistive browsing devices for the disabled are addressed in Chapter 5.

 

3. Designing for a Variety of Displays

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A simple fact of web publishing is that your page is at the mercy of the software and hardware configuration of each individual user. A page that looks great on your machine may look radically different when viewed on another user's setup. This is partly due to the browser's functionality (as discussed in Chapter 2) and the individual user's preferences (font size, colors, etc.), but the display device itself also plays a large part in the user's experience.

This chapter looks at the ways in which design decisions are influenced by a wide range of displays and viewing conditions. The variation in display is a function of the monitor's size (or, more accurately, its resolution), color capabilities, and user's personal preferences. However, it is important to keep in mind that the diversity does not end there. Some users may be watching your web page on TV. Still others may be viewing it in the palm of their hand on a PDA (personal digital assistant) or cell phone. Sight-impaired users may be listening to your page, not viewing it.

 

4. A Beginner's Guide to the Server

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Even if you focus primarily on what's commonly referred to as frontend web developmentHTML documents and web graphicsthe server and the way it is configured may impact the way you work. In most cases, there is no way to avoid making firsthand contact with the server, even if it's just to upload files.

For this reason, all web designers should have a basic level of familiarity with servers and what they do. At the very least, this will enable you to communicate more clearly with your server administrator. If you have permission for greater access to the server, it could mean taking care of certain tasks yourself without needing to wait for assistance.

This chapter provides an introduction to server terminology and functions, pathnames, and file (MIME) types. It also discusses uploading files and setting permissions, which designers often need to do.

A server is any computer running software that enables it to answer requests for documents and other data. The programs that request and display documents (such as a browser) are called clients . The terms server-side and client-side, in regard to such specific functions refer to which machine is doing the processing. Client-side functions happen on the user's machine; server-side functions occur on the remote machine.

 

5. Accessibility

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At its core, web accessibility is about building web sites, applications, and pages so that there are as few barriers to use as possible for anyone, regardless of ability and the device used to access the information. Web accessibility goes beyond creating a more usable Web for persons with disabilities, too. Many of the techniques and principles designers apply to make web content more accessible to people with disabilities also improve accessibility for those using slower connections who might have the images off as well as increase interoperability with handhelds.

For sites to be accessible, we have to let go the notion that we know how people use our web sites. We have to understand the nature of the medium in which we work. And, we have to be willing to embrace "universal design" and to use web development techniques and code that support accessibility.

There are four broad categories of disabilities that have an impact on how a person interacts with a web site: vision impairment, mobility impairment , auditory impairment, and cognitive impairments.

 

6. Internationalization

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If the Web is to reach a truly worldwide audience, it needs to be able to support the display of all the languages of the world, with all their unique alphabets and symbols, directionality, and specialized punctuation. The W3C's efforts for internationalization (often referred to as "i18n"an i, then 18 letters, then an n) ensure that the formats and protocols defined by the W3C are usable worldwide in all languages and writing systems.

You often hear the terms internationalization (or globalization ) and localization used together. The W3C defines localization as the process of adapting a technology or content to meet the language, cultural, and other requirements of a particular culture, region, or language. Internationalization refers to the design and development of web content and technologies that enables easy localization for target audiences. Localization entails more than simple language translation. It also takes into account details including, but not limited to:

 

7. Introduction to XML

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If you are thinking about skipping this chapter, please reconsider. While you may never need to be an XML expert, the basic concepts covered here will illuminate why things are done the way they are in the world of web document authoring. Furthermore, if you "get" XML, you'll understand the reasoning that influences all contemporary web design and related W3C Recommendations, from XHTML to CSS 2 and beyond.

XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a W3C standard for text document markup. It is not a language in itself (like HTML), but rather a set of rules for creating other markup languages. In other words, it is a meta-markup language. Languages written according to XML syntax are called XML applications (a confusing use of the word "application" to be sure, but such is the legacy jargon that SGML has left us). If this sounds a bit abstract, think of it this way: XML provides the tools for making up custom sets and subsets of tags.

Although XML began as an effort to improve information structure and handling on the Web, it has quickly taken the entire computing world by storm. In fact, today there is more XML used outside the Web than on it. XML is used for document sharing and data storage in fields as diverse as finance, retail, physics, travel, insurance, and academia, just to name a few. There are also XML files working behind the scenes in an increasing number of software applications, such as Microsoft Office, Macromedia Flash, and Apple iTunes. This is just a testament to the flexibility and robust nature of XML.

 

8. HTML and XHTML Overview

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HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is the markup language used to turn text documents into web pages. HTML allows authors to identify elements that give the document structure, such as headings, paragraphs, lists, and so on. Other elements act as mechanisms for adding hypertext links, interactive forms, and media such as audio and video to web pages.

HTML has undergone quite a journey since its creation by Tim Berners-Lee in 1991 as a simple way to indicate the meaning and structure of hypertext documents. It didn't take long for competing browser developers to add on to the initial minimal set of HTML elements or for the first crop of web designers to co-opt HTML as a visual design tool.

XHTML is a reformulation of HTML in XML. In other words, it uses the same vocabulary (the same elements and attributes) as HTML, but the syntactical rules are pulled from XML, which is stricter than HTML. XHTML is discussed in detail later in this chapter.

Before we delve into HTML and XHTML syntax, let's take a moment to look at the important role (X)HTML plays as well as the recent groundswell of respect it has earned in the new standards-driven web design environment.

 

9. Document Structure

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Before marking up your actual content, it is necessary to establish the proper global structure of the (X)HTML document itself. An (X)HTML document is composed of three parts: a declaration of the HTML or XHTML version used, a header containing information about the document, and the body containing the document's content.[*] This chapter takes a look at each of these components and, in doing so, introduces these elements used for establishing the global structure of the document:

html

Root element of an (X)HTML document

head

Header

body

The body of the document

title

Document title

meta

Meta data (information about the document)

If you use a professional web authoring tool to create web pages, chances are you're accustomed to the minimal document structural markup inserted for you when you select "New File." This chapter will give you the tools necessary to peek under the hood and decide if the automatically generated declarations accurately represent the mode in which you intend to author.

This markup sample shows the structure of a minimal XHTML document as specified in the XHTML 1.0 Recommendation. It provides important context to upcoming discussions of global document structure.

 

10. Text Elements

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This chapter gets to the real meat and potatoes of document markup: elements used to structure text content. It's no surprise that nearly half of all the elements in the (X)HTML Recommendation are introduced in this chapter. The elements and discussions are organized as follows:

Block elements

Generic elements

h#

Heading

div

Block division

p

Paragraph

span

Span of inline content

pre

Preformatted text

Lists

address

Contact information

ul

Unordered list

blockquote

Lengthy quotation

ol

Ordered list

Inline elements

li

List item

abbr

Abbreviation

dl

Definition list

acronym

Acronym

dt

Term

cite

Citation or reference

dd

Definition

code

Code fragment

menu

Menu list

dfn

Defining term

dir

Directory

em

Emphasized text

Presentational elements

q

Short inline quotation

b

Bold

strong

Strongly emphasized

big

Big text

samp

Sample output

i

Italic

kbd

Text entered by a user

s

Strike-through

var

Variable or program argument

strike

Strike-through

sub

Subscript

tt

Teletype

sup

Superscript

u

Underlined

Line breaks

br

Inserts line break

font

Font face, color, and size

Edit notation

 

11. Creating Links

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The HTML 4.01 specification puts it simply and clearly: "A link is a connection from one web resource to another." This ability to create hyperlinks from one document to another is what makes HTML unique among document markup languages and is the key to its widespread popularity. You can create a link to any web resource, including (but not limited to) another HTML document, an image, a program, or a particular element within an HTML document.

This chapter focuses on these HTML elements related to linking and building relationships between documents.

a

Anchor (link)

base

Provides a base pathname

link

Establishes relationship between documents

The anchor (a) element is used to identify a string of text or an image that serves as a hypertext link to another document.

The href attribute provides the pathname (URL) of the document to which you want to link. URLs can be absolute or relative, as discussed in the next sections.

A text link is marked up like this:

To make an image a link, enclose the image element in an anchor as follows:

 

12. Images and Objects

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In addition to text content, web pages may include a wide range of multimedia objects, including images, image maps, Java applets, video, Flash movies, even other HTML documents. This chapter focuses on the (X)HTML elements defined for adding images and media objects, including:

img

Adds an image

map

The map used for an image map

area

A geometric region in an image map

object

A generic media object

param

Specifies values for an object necessary at runtime

embed

Embeds media requiring plug-ins (nonstandard)

noembed

Content displayed if embedded media is not supported (nonstandard)

applet

Adds an applet (deprecated)

iframe

A floating frame that displays an external HTML document

Inline images are images that occur in the normal flow of the document's content. As inline elements, they affect the visual display of other elements in the flow, unlike background images, which render behind elements. Images are added to the document with the img element. Images are considered to be replaced elements because the actual content resides in external files rather than in the source document.

 

13. Tables

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HTML table elements, first introduced in Netscape 1.1, were developed to give authors a way to present rows and columns of tabular data. In fact, that has always been and remains their intended use. But it didn't take long for designers, fed up with the one-column, full-width web pages, to co-opt tables as a tool for controlling page layout. For the last 10 years, complex table-based layouts have been the norm. Nobody cared much that it was a misuse of the table elementsthere weren't any other options. Today, we do have an option. Cascading Style Sheets offer the ability to create multicolumn pages and sophisticated layouts that were previously achievable only with tables. With improved browser support, pure style sheet layouts are finally a viable solution.

So tables-for-layout are out, but that doesn't mean that the whole set of table elements has been tossed in the dustbin. In fact, tables are still the appropriate markup choice for real tabular data, such as schedules, statistics, and so on.

 

14. Frames

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Frames are a method for dividing the browser window into smaller subwindows, each displaying a different HTML document. This chapter covers the structure and creation of framed documents, controls for affecting their display and function, and some advanced tips and tricks. The following frame-related elements will be addressed.

frame

Defines a single frame

frameset

Establishes the structure for frames or other framesets

noframes

Content displayed if frames are not supported

Frames allow authors to display several HTML documents in the browser window at one time, each in its own scrollable subwindow. Introduced by Netscape Navigator 2.0, frame support was soon added by other popular browsers. The HTML 4.01 and XHTML 1.0 Recommendations include a Frameset DTD for framed documents. XHTML 1.1 omits all frame elements.

Framed documents are typically used as a navigation device in which all of the navigation options stay put in one frame while the linked content documents are displayed in another frame. Because frames may include scrollbars and scroll independently of one another, frames are a method for making sure one page component stays put on the page while the rest of the page is free to scroll.

 

15. Forms

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Forms provide an interface allowing users to interact in some way with your site. In most cases, they are used to gather data, either for later use or to provide a customized response on the fly. Forms have a wide range of uses, from functions as simple as search boxes, mailing list signups, guestbooks, and surveys to as complex as online commerce systems.

Forms collect input via controls, such as buttons, text fields, or scrolling menus. Controls are placed on the page using special elements in the markup. These elements are merely an interface for collecting user information and do not actually process the data. The real work is done by forms-processing applications on the server, such as CGI scripts, ASP, ASP.NET, ColdFusion, PHP, or Java servlets.

The programming necessary for form processing is beyond the scope of this book. This chapter focuses on the frontend aspects of forms: the elements and attributes for building the form interface as well as the elements used to improve accessibility.

 

16. Cascading Style Sheets Fundamentals

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Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a W3C standard for defining the presentation of web documents. Presentation refers to the way a document is displayed or delivered to the user, whether it's on a computer monitor, a cell phone display, or read aloud by a screen reader. This book focuses primarily on the visual aspects of presentation, such as typography, colors, alignment, layout, and so on. CSS is the mechanism for providing these types of style instructions to elements in a document that has been marked up with XHTML, HTML, or any XML language. Most important, CSS keeps these presentation instructions separate from the content and its structural and semantic markup.

Before CSS, web designers were at the mercy of the browser's rendering engine and internal style sheets for the way HTML elements looked in the browser window. Presentational elements and attributes added to HTML, such as the font tag and the bgcolor attribute, granted some additional control over visual display, but the integrity of markup suffered. Cascading Style Sheets (or just "style sheets" in these chapters) hand visual display decisions back to designers and authors. This comes as good news both for designers who want more control over presentation and for those who are eager to see HTML get back to the exclusive business of defining document structure and meaning. Style sheets make both of these goals possible.

 

17. Selectors

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The selector is the part of the style rule that identifies the element (or elements) to which the presentation instructions are applied. For instance, if you want all of the h1s in a document to be green, write a single style rule with h1 as the selector. But that's just the beginning. CSS provides a variety of selector types to improve flexibility and efficiency in style sheet authoring. This chapter introduces the selectors included in the CSS 2.1 specification, including:

Type (element) selectors

Contextual selectors (descendant, child, and adjacent sibling)

Class and ID selectors

Attribute selectors

Pseudoclasses

Pseudoelements

Not all of these forward-thinking selectors are supported by today's browsers, so if a particular selector is not quite ready for prime time, it will be noted.

The W3C Selectors specification introduces additional selectors above and beyond those in CSS 2.1, which modern browsers are still in the process of implementing. This book does not describe them. For more information on those new selectors in particular, see the W3C Selectors specification (http://www.w3.org/TR/css3-selectors).

 

18. Font and Text Properties

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Cascading Style Sheets offer a degree of control over text formatting that approaches desktop publishing. This certainly comes as a relief after years of misusing HTML markup for presentation purposes. Controls for specifying fonts and text formatting are undeniably the most popular use of style sheets and they are the properties that browsers support the most reliably.

This chapter discusses the challenges of typography on the Web and introduces the following text-related CSS 2 properties:

font-family

text-decoration

letter-spacing

font-size

text-transform

word-spacing

font-weight

line-height

white-space

font-style

text-indent

direction

font-variant

text-align

unicode-bidi

font

vertical-align

Text color is discussed in the "Foreground Color" section of Chapter 20.

For those accustomed to print, the Web offers some unique challenges, usually requiring the relinquishing of control. Typography is a prime example. In print, designers may choose a typeface and point size for headlines and body copy, and as long as the proper font is provided when the printed piece is output, everything looks just the way the designer intended. On the Web, it's not so easy.

 

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