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Abstracts of the Collected Works of C.G. Jung

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The publication will be gratifying to disciples of Jung, agreeably provocative to followers of other theoretical persuasions, and useful to all graduate psychoanalysts as a general refernce tool.

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Abstracts: Volume 1. Psychiatric Studies

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000001 On the psychology and pathology of so-called occult phenomena: 1. Introduction. In: Jung, C, Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Vol. I. 2nd ed., Princeton University Press, 1970. 260 p. (p. 3-17).

Certain conditions of psychopathic inferiority and altered states of consciousness, previously thought to be occult phenomena, are discussed to classify them and to resolve previous disagreement about them among scientific authorities. These include narcolepsy, lethargy, ambulatory automatism, periodic amnesia, somnambulism, and pathological lying, which are sometimes attributed to epilepsy, hysteria, or neurasthenia and sometimes described as diseases in themselves. The exceptional difficulty in defining these states is outlined and a case of somnambulism is presented to illustrate the problems of classification. A 40-year-old unmarried female, an accountant and bookkeeper in a large firm, had been in a highly nervous state for some time and took a vacation. While walking in a cemetery, she began to tear up flowers and scratch at the graves, remembering nothing of this later. In an asylum in Zurich she reported that she saw dead people in her room and her bed and heard voices calling from the cemetery. The conclusion was that the patient suffered from a psychopathic inferiority with a tendency to hysteria. In her state of nervous exhaustion, she had spells of epileptoid stupor. As a result of an unusually large dose of alcohol, the attacks developed into somnambulism with hallucinations, which attached themselves to fortuitous external perceptions in the same way as dreams. When she recovered from her nervous state, the hysteriform symptoms disappeared. Other cases of somnambulism and the findings of other researchers are briefly discussed. 17 references.

 

Volume 2. Experimental Researches

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000015 The associations of normal subjects. General experimental procedure. Classification. In: Jung, C, Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Vol. 2. Princeton University Press, 1973. 649 p. (p. 3-39).

In an effort to determine standard reactions of normal people to association stimuli and, in turn, to establish a basis of comparison between normal and mentally disturbed subjects, diagnostic word association studies were conducted with known normal subjects. A total of 38 normal Ss were studied to determine their association patterns and to investigate the effects of attention on the associations. Ss were 9 educated men, 14 educated women, 7 uneducated men, and 8 uneducated women, between the ages of 20 and 50, all judged to be normal. The study was limited to associations produced by calling out stimulus words. The 400 stimulus words, 231 nouns, 69 adjectives, 82 verbs, and 18 adverbs and numerals, were taken from everyday life. The number of syllables was not taken into account. Care was taken to eliminate any discrepancy between standard German speaking subjects and Swiss German speaking subjects. The research design also attempted to control the differences in education. The study was broken into three segments: 1) measurement of reaction time in the first 200 reactions and description of psychic state; 2) 100 reactions recorded under the condition of internal distraction; and 3) a series, sometimes not carried out until the second day, which observed the effects of external distraction in 100 reactions. Some 300-400 word assocations were obtained from each S and classified, resulting in about 12,400 associations. Using a schema developed by Aschaffenburg, the results were divided into four main categories, internal associations, external associations, sound reactions, and a miscellaneous classification including indirect associations, meaningless reactions, failures, and repetition of the stimulus word. Also noted were the phenomena of perseveration, the egocentric reaction, repetition of the reaction, and linguistic connection. Tables and breakdown patterns of various associations are appended. 13 references.

 

Volume 3. The Psychogenesis of Mental Disease

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000039 The psychology of dementia praecox. 1. Critical survey of theoretical views on the psychology of dementia praecox. In: Jung, C, Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Vol. 3. Princeton University Press, 1972. 303 p. (p. 1-37).

A critical survey of the theoretical views on the psychology of dementia praecox includes discussions and comparisons of the works of Freud, Gross, Jiling, and a number of others. An overview of the literature on the subject shows that the research, although fragmentary and apparently uncoordinated, agrees that the symptoms commonly include a central disturbance - a lowering of attention or apperceptive deterioration. This is typically manifest in superficiality of associations, symbolism, stereotypies, perseverations, command automatisms, apathy, aboulia, disturbance of reproduction, and negativism. Rene Masselon’s exhaustive study on catatonic psychology emphasizes the characteristic reduction of attention. He feels the patient suffers a perpetual distraction in which perception of external objects, awareness of his own personality, judgment, the feeling of rapport, belief, and certainty all fade or disappear when power of attention disappears. Freud was the first to demonstrate the “principle of conversion” in a case of paranoid dementia praecox. In explaining the emotional impoverishment characteristic of dementia praecox, Neisser observed that the mobility of symptoms in hysteria is due to the mobility of affects, while paranoia is characterized by a fixation of affects. It is hypothesized that in dementia praecox there is a specific concomitant of the affect that causes the final fixation of the precipitating complex, impeding the further development of the personality. The possibility that in some cases the primary factor may be a change in the metabolism is postulated. Such ideas and their detailed psychological processes are outlined for a large selection of the leading authors on dementia praecox near the turn of the century. 58 references.

 

Volume 4. Freud and Psychoanalysis

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000054 Freud’s theory of hysteria: A reply to Aschaffenburg.

In: Jung, C, Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Vol. 4. Princeton University Press, 1970. 368 p. (p. 3-9).

Freud’s theory of hysteria is defended against Aschaffen-burg’s criticism of the role assigned to sexuality in the formation of the psychoneuroses. This criticism is directed specifically at Freud’s psychology of sexuality, the determinants of hysterical symptoms, and the early methods of his psychoanalysis. Aschaffenburg accepts the view, now generally supported, that hysteria is a psychogenic illness; that surely an essential component of the psyche is sexuality. Aschaffenburg’s claims that there are entirely traumatic hysterias prove only that not all cases of hysteria have sexual roots. His point is not valid unless it is demonstrated by the psychoanalytic method. He asserts that this method is autosuggestion on the part of both doctor and patient, but again there is no proof. The association experiments, which uphold the results of psychoanalysis, have nothing to do with autosuggestion, and can be repeated by anyone. Aschaffenburg considers exploration of the patient for sexual ideas immoral in many cases. The decision on the use of sexual enlightenment in treatment can be made only on the basis of whether it harms or helps the individual, not on the basis of “higher” considerations. It is concluded that Freud’s theory of hysteria has not yet been proved erroneous; that such proof could be supplied only by psychoanalysis; that psychoanalysis has not produced results other than Freud’s; and that psychoanalysis itself has not been discredited.

 

Volume 5. Symbols of Transformation

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000079 Symbols of transformation. Part I. Introduction. In: Jung, C, Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Vol. 5. 2nd ed., Princeton University Press, 1967. 557 p. (p. 3-6).

Freud’s exposition of the incest fantasy, which he derived from the Oedipus legend, is proposed as an example of classical legends which express basic psychological concepts, and which can be more fully understood and appreciated through the exploration of these concepts. The works of Riklin, Rank, Abraham, Maeder, Jones, Silberer, and Pfister are mentioned as contributing clues in historical research that furnish insights into the unconscious of modern man. As the study of the activity of the unconscious in modern man can expand the understanding of the psychology of historical problems and symbolism, so the reverse procedure, a comparative study of historical material, would shed light on individual psychological problems of today. It is in this perspective of gaining new insight into the foundations of psychology that the study of historical material is proposed.

 

Volume 6. Psychological Types

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000094 Psychological types. Introduction. In: Jung, C, Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Vol. 6. 2nd ed., Princeton University Press, 1971. 608 p. (p. 3-7).

Through insights gained from the clinical study of patients, two broad personality types are distinguished: the introverted and the extraverted. In the introduction to “Psychological Types,” the theory is stated; the method to be followed to understand them is described; and the definition, characteristics and effects of these two personality types are summarized. For the introverted personality, subjective and psychological processes are the center of interest: all life-giving energy seeks the subject himself; the object has a lower value than the subject. The extraverted personality, on the other hand, is drawn to the object as the center of interest: ultimate value rests in the object and the subject subordinates his own subjective processes to the object. The psychological result of these two standpoints is two totally different orientations: one sees everything in terms of the objective event (extraverted); the other sees everything in terms of his own situation (introverted). This broad classification does not exclude the existence of a second set of psychological types determined by the four basic psychological functions: thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition, found within both introverted and extraverted personalities. This work, then, will discuss both sets of types: one determined by the predominant center of interest; the other determined by the predominance of one of the four basic psychological functions. 1 reference.

 

Volume 7. Two Essays on Analytical Psychology

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000158 On the psychology of the unconscious. Prefaces. In: Jung, C, Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Vol. 7. 2nd ed., Princeton University Press, 1966. 349 p. (p. 1-8).

The five prefaces introducing this volume indicate that the original work, “The Psychology of the Unconscious Process,” has been revised and refined many times. The purpose of the work, mentioned in the 1917 and 1918 editions, is to provide a broad survey on the nature and the psychology of the unconscious. The growing concern with the human psyche and the interest in man’s chaotic unconscious is seen as a result of the First World War. This concern, motivating self-reflection is seen as a favorable trend since the psychology of nations and that of individuals are interrelated. The hope is expressed that the individual’s return to his own deepest being will result in a cure for the illnesses of the times. It is frequently noted that this work attempts to popularize a highly complicated science still in the process of development. The essay is not intended to be comprehensive. Its purpose is to supply background information to be used as an introduction to the unconscious. Because this study is virtually virgin territory, the essay may contain inadequacies and errors. The preface to the fifth edition, the edition that applies to this volume, indicates that the previous versions had been thoroughly revised and that the material on psychological types has been included in a separate volume, title “Psychological Types.”

 

Volume 8. The Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche

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000185 On psychic energy. I. General remarks on the energic point of view in psychology, a. Introduction. In: Jung, C, Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Vol. 8. 2nd ed., Princeton University Press, 1972. 588 p. (p. 3-6).

The introduction to a reexamination of the author’s concept of libido is presented. It is generally recognized that physical events can be looked at from a mechanistic or from an energic standpoint. The mechanistic view is purely causal and is concerned with the moving substance itself; the energic view, on the other hand, is final; it is not founded on the substances themselves but on the relations of the movement of substances. A third conception, which is a compromise of mechanistic and energic, gives rise to many theoretical hybrids but yields a relatively faithful picture of reality. It is mentioned in closing that all explanatory principles are only points of view depending less upon the objective behavior of things than upon the psychological attitude of the investigator and thinker.

 

Volume 9(1). The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious

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000226 Archetypes of the collective unconscious. In: Jung, C, Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Vol. 9, Part 1. 2nd ed., Princeton University Press, 1968. 451 p. (p. 3-41).

The concept of archetypes as the mode of expression of the collective unconscious is discussed. In addition to the purely personal unconscious hypothesized by Freud, a deeper unconscious level is felt to exist. This deeper level manifests itself in universal archaic images expressed in dreams, religious beliefs, myths, and fairytales. The archetypes, as unfiltered psychic experience, appear sometimes in their most primitive and naive forms (in dreams), sometimes in a considerably more complex form due to the operation of conscious elaboration (in myths). Archetypal images expressed in religious dogma in particular are thoroughly elaborated into formalized structures which, while by expressing the unconscious in a circuitous manner, prevent direct confrontation with it. Since the Protestant Reformation rejected nearly all of the carefully constructed symbol structures, man has felt increasingly isolated and alone without his gods; at a loss to replenish his externalized symbols, he must turn to their source in the unconscious. The search into the unconscious involves confronting the shadow, man’s hidden nature; the anima/animus, a hidden opposite gender in each individual; and beyond, the archetype of meaning. These are archetypes susceptible to personification; the archetypes of transformation, which express the process of individuation itself, are manifested in situations. As archetypes penetrate consciousness, they influence the perceived experience of normal and neurotic people; a too powerful archetype may totally possess the individual and cause psychosis. The therapeutic process takes the unconscious archetypes into account in two ways: they are made as fully conscious as possible, then synthesized with the conscious by recognition and acceptance. It is observed that since modem man has a highly developed ability to dissociate, simple recognition may not be followed by appropriate action; it is thus felt that moral judgment and counsel is often required in the course of treatment.

 

Volume 9(H). Aion: Researches into the Phenomenology of the Self

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000284 The ego. In: Jung, C, CoUected Works of C. G. Jung, Vol. 9, Part 2. 2nd ed., Princeton University Press, 1968. 333 p. (p. 3-7).

The concepts of self and unconscious as related to the ego are described. The somatic and psychic bases of the ego are said to contain both conscious and unconscious factors. Three levels of content are posited in the unconscious: that which can be produced voluntarily (memory); that which cannot be produced voluntarily but can be produced involuntarily; and that which can never be produced. From earlier discussions it is inferred that the ego is the center of consciousness but not the center of the personality, since it is but a part of the personality and so contained within it. The center of the personality is more properly labeled as “the self.” The ego is viewed as arising from the continuous interplay of the person’s inner and outer experiences. Its characteristics are unique to each individual, but its elements are common to aU individuals. Its ability to change and develop in each person over a period of time is discussed. FinaUy, the notion of the collective unconscious is introduced and described as a subdivision of the extraconscious content of the psyche.

 

Volume 10. Civilization in Transition

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000301 The role of the unconscious. In: Jung, C, Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Vol. 10. 2nd ed., Princeton University Press, 1970. 609 p. (p. 3-28).

The unconscious is discussed not as a mere psychological construct but rather as an integral part of man’s psyche, history and world view. The term “unconscious” was at first spurned by experimental psychologists who believed that everything psychic was conscious. Medical men treating severe forms of psychopathology, however, found the unconscious to be a useful construct. On the basis of empirical findings, the concept of the unconscious as the sum total of all repressed desires and forgotten memories gradually took form. Although Freud’s observation that most of the represssed content of consciousness has to do with sexuality is accepted, his theory that sexuality is the fundamental instinct and activating principle of the psyche is rejected as an antiquated, reductionist, single forced approach to an explanation of the unconscious. It is suggested that such theories should be replaced by the view that psychological processes derive from a libidinal energy source that simply “is.” The psyche is held to be no more explainable than life. The unconscious is divided into the personal and the collective unconscious: the personal unconscious consists entirely of material acquired during the individual’s life whereas the collective unconscious is the psychic equivalent of the inherited brain structure. Not only does the unconscious store repressed material, but it also has a compensatory function: any complex of experience systematically denied by consciousness will build up in the unconscious and eventually force its way into consciousness, thus compensating for any onesidedness of conscious material. The unconscious is also seen to have a symbol creating function in that it is the wellspring of instinct and intuition. Evidence of the working of these two functions, compensation and symbol creation, are seen not only in the individual but in societies and nations. The French Revolution and the decline of Rome are used as examples of their occurrence on the national level.

 

Volume 11. Psychology and Religion: West and East

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000346 Psychology and religion. 1. The autonomy of the unconscious. In: Jung, C, Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Vol. 11. 2nd ed., Princeton University Press, 1969. 699 p. (p. 3-33).

In the Terry Lectures given at Yale University in 1937, a demonstration is proposed of the persective from which medical psychology views religion. Religion must be taken into account by psychologists, since it represents one of the most ancient and universal expressions of the human mind; but it is felt that the approach of psychology must be scientific, empirical and phenomenological rather than philosophical or metaphysical. Religion is defined for the purposes of this study as the belief in an external dynamic force which controls the human subject, and as the ritual acts carried out by men to produce the effect of this dynamic force, the numinosum. Religion is seen as an attitude of mind rather than any creed, although the creed is a codified form of the original reUgious experience. In the story of a patient who was convinced he had cancer, but whose real difficulty lay in obsessive drives he did not want to recognize, the desire of men in general to avoid revelatory contact with the unconscious is stressed; from primitive times to the present, man is seen to construct ritual and taboo to protect him from the voices of his dreams and the content of his unconscious. The definite forms and laws of the Church are seen in this Ught. Two dreams with specificaUy religious manifestations are briefly analyzed to demonstrate the existence of these inner voices and experiences, particularly the two figures of the anima and animus. Each is seen as a psychic representation of the minority of genes in the body; the anima, or female figure, appears in the imagery of the male’s unconscious, and vice versa. It is felt that the processes of the unconscious are just as continuously active as those of the conscious mind, and that dreams are manifestations of this chain of events that can be experienced in the conscious. 1 reference.

 

Volume 12. Psychology and Alchemy

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000396 Introduction to the religious and psychological problems of alchemy. In: Jung, C, Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Vol. 12. 2nd ed., Princeton University Press, 1968. 571 p. (p. 1-37).

A study of the relationship between alchemy and the psychic process of individuation is presented. The need to address the problems of the psyche is based on the fact that the psyche is still one of the most mysterious regions of experience. Observation of people points to the mystery of the psyche, and the psychotherapeutic process itself constantly reveals that the object of the search, for both doctor and patient, is the discovery of the whole man, a greater man in the future. The difficulty and dangers of this search are explored and the potentiality for wholeness in the true Christian “imitatio Christi” is explained. An exhaustive discussion of the relationship between religion and the psyche is included, with emphasis on the religious nature of the soul and on the contribution that psychology can make to arriving at a better understanding of religious truths. A comparison is made between the archetypes of the unconscious and religious dogmas, with stress on the importance of the Christ symbol as an expression of the union of opposites. The alchemic view of the soul and the Godhead is presented and contrasted with the Christian view. In alchemy, the search was also directed toward the discovery of the seed of unity as is the psychotherapeutic process. The goal of this latter process is stated as enabling the patient to be alone with the self. The methods, dangers and difficulties of arriving at this goal are discussed. Reference is made to a dialogue between the patient and his shadow, which is to be followed by the study of a series of dreams containing mandala symbols of the center or the goal. It is in developing these symbols that the healing process or the solution for this particular person emerges. An attempt is made to introduce the symbolism of alchemy and to relate it to Christianity, Gnosticism and the psychotherapeutic process.

 

Volume 13. Alchemical Studies

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000437 Commentary on “The secret of the golden flower.” In: Jung, C, Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Vol. 13. Princeton University Press, 1967. 444 p. (p. 1-5).

The text of “The secret of the golden flower,” a Taoist text and an alchemical treatise, is cited as the major source of the discovery of the connecting link between Gnosis and the collective unconscious, a link that had been impossible to establish due to the absence of a history of psychic experience. Certain misunderstandings concerning the use of this text are corrected: it is neither a recipe for happiness nor is the commentary on it a description of Jungian psychotherapeutic method. Instead, it is stressed that the idea of the collective unconscious is an empirical concept to be put alongside the concept of libido.

000438 Commentary on “The secret of the golden flower.” 1. Difficulties encountered by a European in trying to understand the East. In: Jung, C, Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Vol. 13. Princeton University Press, 1967. 444 p. (p. 6-10).

 

Volume 14. Mysterium Coniunctlonis

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000511 The components of the coniunctio. 1. The opposites. In: Jung, C. Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Vol. 14. 2nd ed., Princeton University Press, 1970. 702 p. (p. 3-6).

The alchemical duality of opposites, the symbols used to express them, and their significance in terms of psychology are briefly presented. A list of the factors coming together in the coniunctio, such as heat/cold, moist/dry, spirit/soul, active/passive, etc.,are provided. It is noted that these polarities are often arranged into a quaternity, usually symbolized by a Physis (a cross.)Both personified and theriomorphic examples of symbolic representations of the coniunctio are given. A brief analysis of the astrological fishes and the stag/unicorn/forest symbols from Lambspringk’s “Symbols” is provided. The elevation of the human figure to a king or divinity is explained as an indication of the transconscious character of the pair of opposites showing the relation of the opposites to the ego personality and the self.

 

Volume 15. The Spirit in Man, Art, and Literature

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000561 Paracelsus. In. Jung, C, Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Vol. 15. Princeton University Press, 1966. 160 p. (p. 312).

The life, philosophy, and contributions to modern science of the medieval Swiss physician Paracelsus are discussed in an address presented at Paracelsus’ birth place. Shadowed by the Alps, it is considered to have had an importantly early biographical influence on Paracelsus, which gave him the typical Swiss qualities of self-reliance, obstinacy, and pride. The most important influence on Paracelsus, however, was his father, whose fate he set out to avenge. Paracelsus’ revenge took the form of withholding love from everyone except his father, for, as far as is known, he never loved anyone else. After extensive travel and study, Paracelsus achieved fame as a self-taught and excellent physician who offended everyone with his arrogance. Toward middle age he became interested in phil-sophy and medicine. Although emotionally Paracelsus remained a good Catholic, intellectually he embraced a pagan philsophy influenced by the Neoplatonist Marsilio Ficino. To designate his highest cosmogonic principle, Paracelsus coined the word “Yliaster,” or “Hylaster,” which might be translated as “cosmic matter.” For him, the spiritual principle took second place to cosmic matter; man and the world were both seen as parts of animate matter. Thus while being a medieval animist who believed nature is full of witches, incubi, and other spirits, Paracelsus was at the same time a modem materialist. According to him, everything consists of animate particles, or entia, diseases included. Diseases, therefore, are natural, necessary constituents of life rather than hated and foreign ones. The sources of Paracelsus’ thought and work were his own psyche, which he probed in depth, and superstitious pagan beliefs which he collected extensively. While working within the confines of existing medieval knowledge, he used the methods of scientific empiricism, thus adding to the modem understanding of the nature of disease and of life itself.

 

Volume 16. The Practice of Psychotherapy

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000570 General problems ol psychotherapy. I. Principles of practical psychotherapy. In: Jung, C, Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Vol. 16. 2nd ed., Princeton University Press, 1966. 384 p. (p. 3-20).

Psychotherapy is defined as a kind of dialectic process, a dialogue and discussion between two persons. The various schools of thought on psychotherapy are examined and it is concluded and that their variety does not necessarily invalidate their divergent premises. The interdependence of psyche and body is established as a basic theoretical principle. Initially, the psychotherapist cannot judge the whole of his patient’s personality. Although the patient can be seen as approximating the universal man, his individuality is his own and must be allowed expression without being hampered by the doctor’s assumptions. Since the individual signifies nothing in comparison with the universal, and the universal signifies nothing in comparison with the individual, methods such as suggestion and “mana,” the universal healing power, can have some success. This success, however, is believed to be limited by the contradictions of the individual/universal antinomy. Psychoneu-roses can be divided into two main groups: collective types with underdeveloped personality and individualists with atrophied collective adaptation. Therapists are cautioned to treat their patients in accordance with the unique and unpredictable individuality of the latter; the cure should not alter the patient’s personality but lead to individuation. It is noted that the dialectic procedure calls for the most unbiased attitude possible on the part of the therapist who is a fellow participant in the therapeutic discourse with his patient. Freud’s concept of depth dimension logically resulted in the involvement of the doctor’s own personality as well as that of the patient in the psychotherapic treatment. Because the conscious attitude of the neurotic must be balanced by compensatory or complementary contents from the unconscious, the continuity of dreams, a source of unconscious content, is stressed. In a 2 month dream series, for example, a water motif, symbolic of the collective unconscious, was recurrent. Another dream series centered around various forms of woman, representing the mythological personification of the unconscious, the “anima.” It is justifiable to resort to mythological ideas to assist the patient. Religious beliefs are viewed as forms of psychotherapy which treat and heal the suffering of the soul and the suffering of the body caused by the soul. Since many patients do not have such beliefs, for them, dialectic developments of the mythological material within them is indicated. Various types of people for whom different treatment is required are distinguished. Aim of the therapeutic process is to enable the patient to assimilate the unconscious elements in his psyche, thus achieving the ultimate integration of his personality and the removal of the neurotic dissociation.

 

Volume 17. The Development of Personality

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000594 Psychic conflicts in a child. In: Jung, C, CoUected Works of C. G. Jung, Vol. 17. Princeton University Press, 1970. 235 p. (p. 1-35).

Observations of a 4-year-old child’s curiosity about and eventual discovery of the facts of life are the basis for a discussion of the development of sexuality in children. Although a scientific explanation of the mechanics of birth was presented to the child, she preferred her own fantasies which involved the use of subumination, compensation, logical reasoning and myth making. In explaining this preference for fantasy, it is suggested that the scientific presentation restricted the development of the thinking function whereas the fantasies stimulated it. The Freudian interpretation of infantile sexuality as “sexuality” pure and simple is presented and debated. As a replacement for the Freudian theory of “polymorphous perverse” a theory of a “polyvalent” disposition i proposed to explain the origin of the thinking function: according to the Freudian view, the thinking function develops out of sexual curiosity; according to the theory of polyvalent disposition the development of the thinking function coincedes with sexual curiosity. Reducing the origins of thought to mere sexuality is considered to be antithetical to the basic facts of human psychology. 3 references.

 

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