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Further Contributions to the Theory and Technique of Psycho-analysis

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Charts the development of Ferenczi's 'Active Technique' in papers such as "The Technique of Psychoanalysis" and "Further Development of an Active Therapy". Ferenczi made outstanding contributions to the theory and practice of psychoanalysis. This volume, first published in 1926, brings together the fruit of ten year's work and study. Primary medical in orientation and concerned with technique, it covers a wide range of topics: Nosology, Technique, Sexual Theory, From the Nursery, Dreams, Symbolism, Applied Psycho-Analysis, Medical Jurisprudence and Religion.

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NOSOLOGY: The Analytic Conception of the Psycho-Neuroses. [1908]

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THERE are many ways in which the flattering request of the Medical Association, that I should deliver a lecture reviewing the progress in the study of the neuroses, might be treated. I might discuss various functional neuroses seriatim and mention the novelties that have appeared among the individual kinds of neuroses in the course of the last few years. On a little reflection I rejected this plan, because if I mentioned merely the names of all the disease-phenomena nowadays included under the heading’ functional neurosis’ it would create such a chaos of new Graeco-Latin words that I should only increase the confusion reigning at present where the neuroses are concerned. I shall therefore try to carry out my task in a different way. Instead of going into details I shall review matters individually and give the general impression which a nerve specialist acquires of the present state of his department of medicine.

One of the wittiest of German writers, Georg Christian Lichtenberg, once asked the paradoxical question why did it never strike researchers that discoveries could be made not only with a magnifying glass but also, perhaps, with a diminishing lens? He obviously meant that the increasing search for details in which science gets tied up and loses its perspective over things as a whole might from time to time be given up for the consideration, individually and from a distance, of the results already achieved. He means, therefore, approximately the same thing that Herbert Spencer mentions as the necessary phase in all natural evolution, namely, that differentiation should occasionally be freed from the work of correlation and integration.

 

2. Actual- and Psycho-Neuroses in the Light of Freud's Investigations and Psycho-Analysis. [1908]

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ON the occasion of the third Hungarian Psychiatric Congress in Budapest I delivered several years ago a lecture on’ neurasthenia’, in which I asked for the correct nosological classification of this far too varied clinical picture, this cloak for so many wrong or wanting diagnoses. And although I was in the right when I maintained that real exhaustion neurasthenia is to be sharply distinguished from all other nervous states, amongst others from those only explicable on psychiatric grounds, nevertheless I made a mistake difficult to remedy when I left out of account Professor Freud’s investigations of the neuroses. This omission was all the greater as I was acquainted with Freud’s work. Already in 1893 I had read the paper he wrote, along with Breuer, concerning the psychic mechanism of hysterical symptoms, and, later, another independent paper in which he discusses infantile sexual dreams as the causes or starting-points for the psycho-neuroses. To-day, when I have convinced myself in so many cases of the correctness of Freud’s theories, I may well ask myself why did I reject them so rashly at that time, why did they from the first seem to me improbable and artificial, and particularly, why did the assumption of a purely sexual pathogenesis of the neuroses rouse such a strong aversion in me that I did not even honour it with a closer scrutiny? In excuse I must at any rate mention that by far the greater number of men of my profession, amongst them men of the eminence of Kraepelin and Aschaffenburg, take up a similar standpoint even to-day in opposition to Freud. The few, however, who nevertheless did attempt later to solve the peculiar problems of the neuroses by means of Freud’s laborious methods, became enthusiastic followers of the hitherto quite unnoticed movement.

 

3. Suggestion and Psycho-Analysis. [1912]

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MANY people from lack of information regard psychoanalysis as a therapy that acts’ suggestively’ . But those also who have perhaps read something of analytic literature are inclined if they have no experience of their own to refer to the scientific and therapeutic results of analysis, on superficial grounds, as’ suggestive’ . On the other hand, whoever is engaged, as I am myself, in practice with the analysis of mind, perceives a great difference between the two methods or research and healing which are distinguished as analysis and suggestion. I should now like to say something about these differences.

It is perhaps excusable if I make the concession to my feelings by beginning with the enlightenment of the uninformed, that is, of those still impartial; and of only after this attempting to disarm the objections, which will have become clamant, of the second group.

To define the meaning of the word’ suggestion’ is perhaps difficult, but everyone knows what the word implies; it is the deliberate smuggling of sensations, feelings, thoughts, and decisions of the will into another person’s psychic world, and this in such a way that the person influenced cannot of himself modify or correct the suggested thoughts, feelings, and impulses. Put briefly, suggestion is the forcing upon, or the unquestioning acceptance of, a foreign psychic influence. The setting aside of all criticism is therefore the pre-condition for successful suggestion; by what means, however, can this be achieved? On the one hand by impressiveness, by intimidation, on the other by bribery, by means of friendly, kindly talk. Elsewhere I endeavoured to show that suggestion reduces people precisely to the level of a helpless child incapable of contradicting or of independent thought, whereby the suggester forces himself upon the medium’s will with paternal authority, or insinuates himself into his mind with maternal tenderness. And what is it that the hypnotist or the suggester requires of his medium? No less than that he shall not feel, know, and wish what he would naturally be compelled to know, feel, and wish. He is not to feel the tormenting physical or mental pain, the obsessional ideas from which he suffers; they must no longer oppress his consciousness; he is no longer to pursue unattainable or absurd goals. Or perhaps he is to know, feel, and wish what something in him rebels against; he must work, concentrate his attention, carry out projects, be able to forgive, love, and hate even when external and inner reasons have paralysed those capacities. The hypnotist says to the hysterical paralytic as Jesus once said: Arise and walk—and the patient must get up and walk; to the woman in child-bed he says: Thou shalt bring forth painlessly—and the miracle happens.

 

4. On Forced Phantasies. [1924]

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ACTIVITY IN THE ASSOCIATION-TECHNIQUE

IN my paper delivered at the Hague Congress2 on the’ active’ psycho-analytic technique, I put forward the view that one is sometimes in a position when one must issue orders and prohibitions to the patient regarding certain actions for the purpose of disturbing the habitual (pathological) pathways of discharge of excitations out of the psychical, and that the new distribution of psychical tension resulting from this interference makes possible the activation of material till then lying hidden in the unconscious and allows it to become manifest in the associations. Every now and then I observe in this connection that this activity can be extended to influencing the material of associations. If, for example, one observes signs that a patient is’ misusing the freedom of associations’ and one calls his attention to this, or if one suddenly interrupts the flow of words of the analysand and harks back to something brought forward earlier, from which the patient with his logorrhoea seeks to fly by means of’ talking past the point’, we sin apparently against the’ fundamental rule’ , but we remain true to another and even more important regulation of psychoanalysis, which is that the chief duty of the analyst is to unmask the resistances of the patient. We may not make any exceptions to this rule in those cases in which the resistance employs the fundamental rule of associations to frustrate the objects of the treatment.

 

5. Disease- or Patho-Neuroses. [1916/17]

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A STUDENT, aged twenty-two, came to see me complaining that he was much bothered by’ sadistic’ (in part, masochistic) phantasies. He also informed me that recently he had had a testicle removed because of tubercular degeneration. Months later he came again and asked me whether, on the advice of a surgeon, he should permit the second testicle, now also diseased, to be removed. It struck me that the patient’s mood was not, as one might have expected, depressed, but peculiarly excited, almost elevated. His request that I should give him psychoanalytic treatment after the operation—’ since, after removal of the organic libido, the pathological displacements in the mind can be resolved more easily and with less disturbance’ —seemed incongruous with the tragedy of the situation. He had conceived the idea after reading some psychoanalytical literature. I had to leave the decision about the operation to the surgeon, and could hold out no hopes of psychotherapy proving advantageous. The castration was carried out within the next few days.

 

6. The Phenomena of Hysterical Materialization. [1919]

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“ You have travelled the way from worm to human being and much in you is still worm “ (Nietzsche, Also sprach Zaral/irustra).

FREUD‘S psycho-analytic researches showed the symptoms of conversion hysteria to be representations of unconscious phantasies in bodily terms. For instance, an hysterical paralysis of the arm can signify — by a negative. representation— an intended aggressive activity, a wrestling of opposing emotions; a localized anaesthesia or hyperesthesia, the unconsciously retained and elaborated memory of a sexual contact at that place. Psycho-analysis has also given us unexpected explanations concerning the nature of the forces at work in the formation of hysterical symptoms; it shows us in each individual case that in the symptomatology of these neuroses erotic and egoistic impulses come to expression either alternately or, most often, in compromise-formations. Finally Freud’s latest decisive researches concerning the choice of neurosis have revealed in addition the genetic point of fixation in the history of the development of the libido which conditions the disposition to hysteria. He found the disposing factor to be a disturbance of the normal sexual development at the stage when complete primacy of the genital zone had already been reached. Those thus disposed react to an erotic conflict brought about by a psychic trauma by the repression of the genital impulses and eventually by the displacement of these impulses on to apparently indifferent parts of the body. I should like to express it thus: conversion hysteria genitalizes those parts of the body at which the symptoms are manifested. In an attempt to reconstruct the developmental stages of the ego, I was able to point out that the disposition to hysterogenesis presupposes also a fixation of the reality-sense at a given period of development at which the organism does not yet endeavour to adapt to reality by a modification of the external world, but by that of its own body—by magic gestures; and the hysterical language of gesture may indicate a regression to this stage.

 

7. ‘Materialization ' in Globus Hystericus. [1923]

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As an example of hysterical’ materialization’ (by which process an idea actually becomes true in the flesh) I mentioned in my work on this topic globus hystericus, and put forward the opinion that it deals with not only a paresthesia but an actual materialization. I now read in Bernheim’s book, Hypnotism, Suggestion, Psycho-therapy, on page 33, the following:’ When I was a pupil of M. SeMillot, that eminent master was called on to examine a patient who could not swallow any solid food. He felt in the upper part of the oesophagus, behind the thyroid cartilage, an obstruction at which level the alimentary bolus was retained, not regurgitated. On introducing his finger as deeply as possible across the pharynx, M. Seciillot felt a tumour which he described as a fibrous polypus projecting in the area of the oesophagus. Two distinguished surgeons touched it after him, and ascertained without hesitation the existence of a tumour such as the master had described. CEsophagotomy was performed; no malformation existed at this level.’

 

8. Psychogenic Anomalies of Voice Production. [1915]

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I. IN 1910 a young man came to me accompanied by his mother; he wished to be cured of his impotence. Even at the first examination I recognized his condition as a combination of neurosis and paranoia. In the course of an analysis carried on tentatively for a time his peculiar megalomania became more and more apparent. He had the feeling and the certain conviction that he was possessed of supernatural (magical) power that compelled other people (especially men) to look round at him whenever he looked at them. He discovered this for the first time when at the theatre he looked fixedly through his opera glasses at the actors on the stage, whereupon they had at once to look in the direction where he sat in the audience. Later he became aware of his miraculous power over several other men, which alarmed him excessively, and finally compelled him to give up all social intercourse and to settle down with his long-widowed mother in a remote dwelling; he gave up his profession (although he had already progressed far in it) entirely. The neurotic element in his condition was the anxiety he endured when he noticed his own magical powers, especially when the magic extended to inanimate objects;’ for’ —so he said—’ if the inorganic world also obeys my will, the whole world can be destroyed through me’ . To prevent this, he had— when standing in front of people whom he wished to spare —to shut his eyes. Even after only a few hours of analysis, I was able to recognize as the true kernel of his megalomania his enormous self-satisfaction (nowadays we would call it narcissism) and the homosexuality associated with it. The unconscious wish to please the whole world, particularly men, returned from repression as on the one and an hysterical phobia, and on the other as an omni-potence phantasy. When the talk got on to homosexual ove, he told me spontaneously about his homosexual love affairs in the secondary school, where he thoroughly enjoyed the girl’s part that was given him by the professors and his school companions. He was given a girl’s name, and fun was made of his blushes at unseemly conversations and of his girlish soprano.’ These things are all over long ago! I don’t bother about men any more, I should like to have sexual intercourse only with women, but I cannot manage it.’ In arranging the occurrence of the facts in their chronological order we showed conclusively that the appearance of the insane idea synchronized with the cessation of love relations with men. The occasion for this change, however, was a change of dwelling-place and therefore, too, of school companions. From his native city, where everyone knew him and where he was quite happy amongst his teasing comrades in spite of the apparent annoyance, he went to a larger, quite strange town, where he sought in vain for a substitute for the’ consideration’ he had lost. He did not take the real content of his wishes into consideration, however; instead he believed himself quite free from his (previously quite apparent) homosexuality — as a result of which there presently appeared the symptom already described, dread of being observed and the idea of magical omnipotence. It is evident that the case offers nothing remarkable from the standpoint of psycho-analytic teaching about paranoia, as it only substantiates the view hitherto held by us of the pathogenesis of paranoia, and particularly of its genetic association with narcissism and homosexuality. The reason why I nevertheless report it is because of a peculiar symptom that the patient manifested. He had two voices: a high soprano voice and a fairly normal baritone voice. The larynx showed no abnormalities externally or internally; it was here only a matter of’ nervous disturbance’ , as one would say in circles where such fine-sounding names are taken for explanations. It was only on psycho-analysis of this case that it was shown that here one was dealing neither with’ subcortical’ nor’ cortical’ disturbances of innervation, nor with a developmental anomaly of the larynx, but with a psychogenic disturbance of the voice. It soon struck me that the patient only used his baritone voice when he was earnestly and objectively absorbed in something; as soon, however—in the transference—as he unconsciously wished to coquette with me or please me, so that he was more concerned with the effect of than with the content of his talk, he spoke with the feminine voice. As he only seldom succeeded in emancipating himself from the desire to please, his’ usual’ voice was the feminine one. This voice, however, was no normal soprano, but a falsetto of which he was not a little conceited. He once sang me a little song in falsetto, and he liked to use this voice in laughing. He could always alter the voice register voluntarily, but evidently felt more at home in the falsetto. As distinct from the sudden’ break’ of voice that occurs so frequently at puberty in men, and which is actually due to a disturbance in innervation, a lack of skill in the control of the rapidly growing larynx, our patient could speak for hours in one of the two voices without ever a’ break’ in a sentence or on a word.

 

9. An Attempted Explanation of some Hysterical Stigmata. [1919]

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THE word’ stigma’ is historically of clerical origin and formerly indicated the amazing fact that the wound-marks of the Christ were transferred to believers by the efficacy of fervent prayer. At the period of witch trials insensi-tiveness to contact with red-hot iron was held to be a stigma of guilt. One-time witches are to-day called hysterics, and certain permanent symptoms that recur in them with great regularity are described as hysterical stigmata.

A striking difference between psycho-analysts and other neurologists in regard to the estimation of stigmata is already evident on the first examination of a case of hysteria. The psycho-analyst is content with a physical examination sufficient to exclude the possibility of confusion with an organic nervous disease, and hastens to consider the psychic peculiarities of the case only by the help of which he can make an accurate diagnosis. The non-analyst hardly lets the patient finish speaking, is glad when he has done with his complaints which tell the doctor nothing, so that the organic examination can begin. He dwells on this with great satisfaction even after the exclusion of organic complications, and rejoices if in the end he can demonstrate the hysterical stigmata demanded by pathology, the reduction of touch- or pain-sensibility, absence of reflex winking on touching the conjunctiva or cornea, the concentric contraction of the field of vision, the absence of gum or throat reflexes, the sensation of a lump in the throat (globus), the hypersensitiveness of the lower abdomen (ovaries), etc.

 

10. The Psycho-Analysis of a Case of Hysterical Hypochondria. [1919]

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IN consequence of the wearisome and slow progress of its method of cure psycho-analytic technique entails the blurring of the general impression of a case, and the individual factors of its complicated connections force themselves on the attention only intermittently.

In what follows I shall communicate a case whose cure was very rapid and whose clinical picture, both in form and content very varied and interesting, unfolded itself dramatically, almost without interruption, like a series of cinematograph pictures.

The patient, a pretty young foreigner, was brought to me for treatment by her relatives, after various other methods of cure had been tried. She made a very unfavourable impression. Her most prominent symptom was a very marked anxiety. Without being exactly agoraphobic, she had for months been unable to exist without being accompanied at every moment; if she were left alone, the most intense attacks of anxiety occurred, even at night she had to waken her husband or whoever happened to be sleeping with her and tell them about her ideas and feelings of anxiety for hours on end. Her complaints were of hypochondriacal bodily sensations and the fear of death associated with them. She felt something in her throat,’ points’ were coming out of her scalp (these sensations compelled her constantly to touch her throat and the skin of her face); her ears were lengthening, her head was splitting in front; her heart was palpitating, etc. In each such sensation, for whose occurrence she was constantly looking, she saw an indication of her approaching death; she had thoughts too of suicide. Her rather had died of arterio-sclerosis and that now seemed imminent to her; she would also (like her father) become insane, and would have to die in the asylum. She at once constructed a new symptom out of the fact that at the first examination I explored her throat for possible anaesthesia or hyperesthesia. She had constantly to stand in front of the mirror and look for changes in her tongue. The first interviews passed in continuous, monotonous complaints about these sensations, and the symptoms seemed to me to be of an unmodifiable, hypochondriacal, insane type, especially as a few such cases were still fresh in my memory.

 

11. Two Types of War Neuroses. [1916/17]

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IT is very far from my intention to say anything final about the important subject of war neuroses after studying them for so comparatively short a time. I have been in charge of the section for nervous diseases in this hospital for only two months, and have had about two hundred cases under observation. This number is too great, the time for observation has been too short; psycho-analysis has taught us that progress is to be expected not from the statistical turnover of many, but from the intensive exploration of individual cases. These are, therefore, only preliminary communications, and merely reproduce a psycho-analyst’s impressions on observing war neuroses in the mass.

The first impression that the ward full of war neurotics made on me was one of bewilderment, and if you glance at the groups of patients standing, sitting, and lying about before you you would probably share this impression. You see here about fifty patients, who almost all give the impression of being seriously ill, if not of being crippled. Many are incapable of moving about; for most of them the attempt to move causes such violent tremors of knees and feet that my voice cannot be heard above the noise of their shoes upon the floor.

 

12. Psycho-Analytical Observations on Tic. [1921]

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I

PSYCHO-ANALYSIS has done very little so far towards investigating that very common neurotic symptom which, following French nomenclature, goes under the general term of tie or tic convulsif.2 In the notes appended to the account of’ Technical Difficulties in the Analysis of Hysteria’ 3 in a case I had for treatment, I gave a short digression on this subject and expressed the opinion that many tics may turn out to be stereotyped equivalents of onanism, and that the remarkable connection of tics with coprolalia, when all motor expression is suppressed, might be nothing else than the uttered expression of the same erotic emotion usually abreacted in symbolic movements. On the same occasion I drew attention to the close relation between stereotypies and symptomatic acts (in sickness and in health) on the one hand and the tics, or rather onanism, on the other. For instance, in the case cited above, these muscular actions and skin irritations carried out apparently without thought and believed to be without meaning were able to seize the whole of the genital libido; they were at times accompanied by regular orgasm.

 

13. Sunday Neuroses. [1919]

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WE know from psychiatry of illnesses that display a marked periodicity; it will suffice to recall periodic mania and melancholia. We know, too, since Freud established it psycho-analytically, that psycho-neurotics—so many of whom, as is well known, suffer from repressed memories— cheerfully celebrate the anniversary or the time of year of certain experiences significant for them by an exacerbation of their symptoms. But as far as I am aware no one has yet described neuroses the oscillation of whose symptoms were dependent on the particular day of the week.

And yet I think I can assert the existence of this peculiar periodicity. I treated several neurotics the history of whose illness, recounted spontaneously or reproduced during the analysis, contained the information that certain nervous conditions had developed—mostly in youth—on a certain day of the week, and had then regularly recurred.

Most of them experienced these periodical returns of the disturbances on Sundays. They were mostly headaches or stomach disturbances that were wont to appear on this day without any particular cause, and often utterly spoilt the young people’s one free day of the week. I probably do not need to state that I did not neglect the possibility of other rational causes. The patients themselves, too, endeavoured —apparently successfully—to hit on a reasonable explanation for this peculiar periodic regularity of their condition, and wanted to connect it with the dietetic peculiarities of the Sunday. One sleeps longer than usual on a Sunday, therefore one has a headache, said some; one eats so much and so well on Sundays, and therefore one upsets one’s stomach so easily, said the others. Nor do I wish to deny the activity of this purely somatic factor in evoking the Sunday periodicity.

 

14. On the Technique of Psycho-Analysis. [1919]

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I. Abuse of Free Association

THE whole method rests on Freud’s’ fundamental rule of psycho-analysis’ , on the patient’s duty to relate everything that occurs to him in the course of the analytical hour. Under no circumstances may an exception be made to this rule, and everything that the patient—from whatever motive—endeavours to withhold, must be unrelentingly brought to light. It may happen, however, that when the patient has with no little pains been educated up to literal acquiescence in this rule that his resistances take possession of it and endeavour to defeat the doctor with his own weapon.

Obsessional neurotics sometimes have recourse to the evasion of relating only senseless associations, as though deliberately misunderstanding the doctor’s request that they should recount everything, senseless things as well. If they are let alone and not interrupted, in the hope that in time they will weary of the proceeding, this expectation is often disappointed, until one is convinced that they are unconsciously displaying a tendency to reduce their doctor’s request to an absurdity. With this kind of superficial association they usually deliver an unbroken series of word associations, the selection of which, of course, betrays the unconscious material which the patient wishes to avoid. It is quite impossible, however, to achieve a thorough analysis of any particular ideas, for if by chance certain striking concealed traits are pointed out, instead of simply accepting or rejecting the interpretation—one is merely presented with more’ senseless’ material.

 

15. Technical Difficulties in the Analysis of a Case of Hysteria. [1919]

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{Including Observations on Larval Forms of Onanism and Onanistic Equivalents ‘)

A PATIENT who was endeavouring with great intelligence and much zeal to carry out the directions for psychoanalytic treatment, and who left nothing to be desired in the way of theoretical insight, nevertheless, after a certain degree of improvement, probably due to the first transference, made no progress for a long time.

As the proceedings made absolutely no headway, I decided on extreme measures and fixed a date up to which I would continue to treat her, in the expectation that by this means I should provide her with an adequate incentive to effort. Even this, however, proved only of temporary assistance; she soon relapsed into her former inactivity, which she concealed behind her transference love. The hours went by in passionate declarations of love and entreaties on her side, and in fruitless endeavours on mine to get her to understand the transference nature of her feelings, and to trace her affects to their real but unconscious object. On the completion of the period set I discharged her un-cured. She herself was quite content with her improvement.

 

16. The Further Development of an Active Therapy in Psycho-Analysis. [1920]I

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THE fundamentals of psycho-analytic technique have undergone little essential alteration since the introduction of Freud’s’ fundamental rule’ (free association). That my proposals do not aim at this either, I would emphasize at the beginning; on the contrary, their intention was and is to enable the patient, by means of certain artifices, to comply more successfully with the rule of free association and thereby to assist or hasten the exploring of the unconscious material. Besides, these artifices are only required in certain exceptional cases; for most patients the treatment can be carried out without any special’ activity’ on the part of either doctor or patient, and even in those cases in which one has to proceed more actively the interference should be restricted as much as possible. As soon as the stagnation of the analysis, the only justification for and the only motive of the modification, is overcome, the expert will immediately resume the passively receptive attitude most favourable for the efficient co-operation of the doctor’s unconscious.

 

17. Contra-indications to the 'Active' Psycho-Analytical Technique. [1925]

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THE so-called’ active’ technique which I attempted to present at the Hague Congress of our Association 2 in its main outlines, and to illustrate in later papers with examples,3 met with a quite critical response from one group of my colleagues, the response from another being friendly. One group of critics thought that psycho-analysis must take up arms against my innovations, asserting that in so far as they were acceptable they were not new but in so far as they transgressed the old established limits they were dangerous and therefore to be rejected. As you see, the arguments are the same as those which provided motives for burning the Alexandrian library.

I found that the extravagant praise of a few young persons troubled me more than these critics, for the former were ready to see in this’ activity’ the dawn of a kind of psycho-analytical freedom. This they obviously understood to be no less than that it was no longer necessary to travel the hard road of the ever more complicated analytical theories— a courageous’ active’ slash could loosen the most difficult therapeutic knot at a stroke. Now because I can look back over the experience of a number of years I believe the most useful purpose will be served if I renounce an all but sterile discussion with speculative opponents, and not troubling much about the unwelcome enthusiasm of particular adherents, put myself in the witness-box to indicate the weak points in the’ active technique’.

 

18. Thinking and Muscle Innervation. [1919]

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THERE are people who whenever they want to think something out tend to interrupt the particular movement in which they happen to be engaged (for instance walking) and to continue it only after completion of the intellectual act. Others again are incapable of carrying out an in any way complicated thought process while at rest, but must manifest active muscular movements throughout its dura-’tion (getting up from their chair, walking about, etc.). Those of the first category often prove to be strongly inhibited people in whom every independent effort of thought calls for the conquest of inner (intellectual and affective) resistances. The individuals belonging to the second group (who are usually described as of the’ motor type’ ) are on the contrary people with a too rapid flow of ideas and a very active phantasy. The fact that the inhibited individual seems to employ the energy saved by the suspension of muscular innervation for overcoming resistances during the act of thinking, while the’ motor type’ , according to all appearances, must squander muscular energy if he wishes to moderate the otherwise all too’ easy overflowing of intensities’ (Freud), that is, to restrain his phantasy and think logically, speaks for the inner connection between the act of thinking and motility. The degree of’ effort’ necessary for thought does not always-—as indicated—depend on the difficulty of comprehending the task to be mastered, but is— as analysis shows—very often affectively conditioned. Un-pleasurably toned thought processes require, ceteris paribus, greater effort; inhibited thought often proves on analysis to be conditioned by the censorship, that is, to be neurotic. In mild cyclothymics one sees conditions of inhibited and exaggerated phantasy run parallel with variations in liveliness of movement. These motor symptoms of thought inhibition or of excitement occur in’ normals’ also at times.2

 

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