Medium 9780946439560

Selected Papers

Views: 1962
Ratings: (0)

The collection of Foulkes' papers, which includes some unpublished material and some published in English for the first time, comprises not only the later Group-Analytic writings but also those from the first part of his career as a psychoanalyst. Among the latter, the paper "On Introjections" is of particular interest and importance.

List price: $36.99

Your Price: $29.59

You Save: 20%

Remix
Remove
 

28 Chapters

Format Buy Remix

1. S. H. Foulkes: a brief memoir

ePub

Elizabeth Foulkes

Having spent 25 years in a close working relationship with S. H. Foulkes, including the last 16 years of his life as his wife, this is bound to be a personal account. My late husband enjoyed thinking aloud about many things, not least about the stimulations he found in his daily work with patients and in teaching and in sharing his ideas. Much of what follows is based on our conversations over the years.

It happens that I knew Foulkes’ parents and siblings (we were distant cousins), and I can therefore describe his background from my own impressions, both direct and indirect. We were and remained in contact from 1936 on, when I myself arrived in London to learn the antiquarian book trade.

During the war we met occasionally when he was a Major in the Royal Army Medical Corps at Northfield near Birmingham. At the time I was in the ATS (the women’s army), posted to a temporary home for pregnant army girls outside Worcester, where amongst other duties I was entrusted with conducting discussion groups with the girls. I remember asking Foulkes how I could tactfully stop the girls in my groups from endlessly repeating their life story, having once, with difficulty, succeeded in getting them to talk freely. (I cannot recall the exact answer—something like, ‘let the group help you’…).

 

2. ‘Recollections of my visit to Freud' (1969)

ePub

In 1969 Foulkes received a request from the Sigmund Freud Archives in New York to put on record his recollections of meeting Freud. He did so by dictating them on tape. The following is a slightly shortened and edited version based on this recording.

To his great regret he had not been able to meet Freud during or at the end of his psychoanalytic training in Vienna (see Freud’s letter to Foulkes below).

Foulkes visited Freud from London. In 1936 he could not travel safely through Germany and had to go (and return) via France, Switzerland and Austria to Marienbad in Czechoslovakia, to attend the psycho-analytic congress there. On the way back from the congress he called on Freud.

To-day is the 7th of September 1969. How peculiar to look back such a long time to a visit which was the fulfilment of a longstanding wish, after a long time of waiting, To put this visit into some kind of perspective, I should like to make some introductory remarks. I came to Freud in my own quiet way by reading his books. From 1919, when I first became acquainted with his writings, I have considered myself a firm adherent of his, and he has remained the greatest single influence in my life, especially my professional life. Yet, it was only in 1928, after a thorough training in medicine and neurology, that I arrived in Vienna to start my analysis with Helene Deutsch on my thirtieth birthday.

 

3. Observations on the significance of the name in a schizophrenic (1930)

ePub

During Foulkes’ postgraduate psychiatric and psychoanalytic studies in Vienna he took the opportunity to spend many free afternoons at the psychiatric clinic. Having no official duties, he could give ample time to mixing freely with the patients, and he frequently spent hours talking to one or other of them. He found this informal self-training very enlightening.

He later regretted that he had not taken notes of his observations into the psychopathology of these psychotic patients. The paper on the significance of the proper name is the only published account from this time. It is also Foulkes’ first published paper (Foulkes, 1968c, p. 120). It has been translated and abbreviated for publication in this collection.

This early paper is unusual for the clinical detail given. It reflects Foulkes’ interest in psychoanalytic anthropology and the prevailing notion of the mentality of ‘primitive people’. It also gives early expression of his life-long interest in language, which is only occasionally mentioned in his later written work.

 

4. Biology in the light of the work of Kurt Goldstein (1936)

ePub

Extracts from a lengthy paper, reviewing the work of the neurobiolo-gist Kurt Goldstein. It was written at the invitation of the editors of Imago and was addressed to psychoanalysts. Foulkes deals with one of the most important sources of his thinking; apart from discussing Goldstein’s published work, he also draws on his personal experience during the two years between 1926 and 1928 when he was Goldstein’s assistant at the Neurological Institute in Frankfurt. Taking for granted that a future psychoanalyst needed experience in neurology, Foulkes had deliberately chosen to work with Goldstein, whose approach he found stimulating and consonant with his own ideas.

The holist approach which Goldstein postulated in neurological observations was adopted by Foulkes in relation to psychopathology and psychotherapy. Another adaptation from neurology was Foulkes’ network theory, comparing the individual person within the context of his group—a therapeutic group or any group of which he is an intimate member—to a nodal point in a network of neurons. Foulkes also made contact with Gestalt psychology while working with Goldstein. He later adapted this by referring to the figure/ ground relationship when postulating the continuous shift of focus between the individual person and the group, as background.

 

5. On introjection (1937)

ePub

This wasFoulkes’ membership paper to the British Psycho-Analytical Society and his major theoretical paper on psychoanalysis. His comprehensive review of the literature to that time, both of the classical continental authors, particularly Ferenczi who introduced the term introjection into psychoanalysis, and of more recent British analysts, focuses on problems of terminology. He underlines the danger of talking about the same things in different words, or of different things in the same words, and he proposes some alterations in the definition and usage of the terms ‘identification’, ‘projection’ and ‘introjection’ in particular.

The term ‘introjection’ is used much more often in this country than in any other psycho-analytical society I know. This does not necessarily imply that the process thus designated is realized elsewhere to a lesser extent. As I consider it my foremost task to dwell on the historical evolution of the idea of introjec-tion, I can obviously devote comparatively only little time to the work done in recent years in this country on our topic. There is no need, however, to suspect any insufficient consideration of this work on my part in any way. On the contrary, the very fact of my choosing this theme shows my appreciation of its importance and springs from my hope of contributing something to it, if only in an indirect way.

 

6. Book review of Norbert Elias' The Civilising Process (1938)

ePub

Foulkes and Elias knew each other from the time both were in Frankfurt. They met again in London and even planned a joint book. This review of the first volume of Elias’ main work was intended to draw the attention of psychoanalysts to current sociological thought. It was published also in a German version in Imago, and Foulkes later also reviewed the second volume of Elias’s work, both in English and in German.

Foulkes has recorded that, at the time he began to practice group analysis, there ‘was to my surprise nothing at all in sociology which was helpful about small groups. I had learned much from my sociological friendsespecially Norbert Elias and Franz Borkenau, both of whom had been analysed—and we could learn from each other by exchange’ /Group Analysis, 6 (1973): 72 J

Book review of Norbert Elias, fiber denProzess der Zivilisation. Vol. I: Wandlungen des Verhaltens in den weltlichen Oberschichten des Abendlandes (Prague: Academia, 1937) [English edition: The Civilising Process, Vol. I: The History of Manners (Oxford: Biackwell, 1978). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 19 (1938): 263-266.

 

7. On a chapter of Helen Keller's The World I Live In (1941)

ePub

The following paper, given here in a much shortened and edited version, was read to the British Psycho-Analytical Society in 1937. It throws light on another side of Foulkes’ interests and also includes an early mention of ego psychology.

Since the psychology of the ego and its relation to actual reality has come into the range of psychoanalytic investigation, works like that of Helen Keller (1908) have acquired a definite interest for us, though they do not carry any evidence on more classical psychoanalytic topics. The interest in ego psychology has grown particularly on the Continent, due I think to the more acute course of social developments there. The constant interference of external circumstances has led to observations on how far deeply established formations, such as our ego and superego (but not the id), can be influenced and altered by the social situation. Instead of considering this unrestful time as an accidental disturbance of our work we gradually realized that it showed an underlying factor at work, one we have to reckon with in practice and in science as long as human beings will be living in a social way.

 

8. On not knowing the analyst (1942)

ePub

This paper seems to have been written early in the last war and given as a talk. Foulkes kept his handwritten manuscript but never revised it for publication, as there was the possibility that the patient discussed in the last part might see the article if it was published in a journal. Added notes, including a reference to Dostoevsky, indicate that he intended to prepare it for publication eventually. Since the case history goes back to his pre-war practice, there cannot now be any need to refrain from publication.

Foulkes was scrupulously careful regarding discretion in using clinical material for publication. He felt that changing recognizable features such as age, profession or family constellation changed the whole picture and thus rendered it unsuitable for presentation. There is therefore relatively little clinical work on record.

The paper is included here with minimal editing, in its colloquial and unfinished style, as the clinical material complements the theoretical paper, ‘On introjection’ (chapter five, this volume).

 

9. The idea of a change of sex in women (1953)

ePub

This brief clinical paper was presumably written in the early days of the war. Foulkes discusses four cases from his psychoanalytic practice,

In a number of women patients the idea of being transformed into a man was of outstanding importance. Every analyst must be familiar with this phantasy, but it does not seem to have received the attention it deserves. We are in the habit of considering it as an expression of a desire to compensate for or deny the absence of a male organ, which is frequently regarded as a castration.

In the cases which I am about to describe, however, the matter was not so simple. The event of the change itself filled them with horror and disgust. Some wanted it to be brought about artificially by an operation, in order to get rid of the dreaded phantasy. Finer analysis, which was possible in these cases, brought out a rather astonishing fact: the patients considered themselves possessed by a male principle, a man, or, more concretely speaking, a penis inside themselves. To this they attributed dangerous and horrifying qualities. It will be understood that I refer to unconscious formations revealing themselves under analysis, but there could be no doubt as to the validity of the observations. I say observations because interpretations scarcely entered into it. A point of special interest seemed to me that the incorporation of these phallic images served as a protection against them, a true incarceration. The frightening element in the threatening change of sex lay precisely in the fact that these phantasy organs had thus to be revealed, to come out into the open and be set free. Further analysis showed that the underlying anxieties and feelings of guilt were connected in the usual way with infantile masturbation and the Oedipus complex. My present purpose is merely to show the existence of this transformation phantasy and to see what analysis can contribute to the understanding of the nature and meaning of it.

 

10. Psychoanalytic concepts and object relations theory: comments on a paper by Fairbairn (1957)

ePub

In order to put Foulkes’ comments into their context, Fairbairn’s paper is here briefly summarized. Fairbairn’s paper was not written for a psychoanalytic readership but for the British Journal of the Philosophy of Science. The Editor of this journal also invited comments from Balint, Foulkes and Sutherland, and a reply from Fairbairn to these comments, Foulkes’ comments are included in full. Extracts from Fairbairn’s reply are also given.

In the opinion of Fairbairn, Freud’s application of two distinct explanatory principles to the same phenomenain terms of a psychology of impulse (libido theory) and of an object-relations theory (Oedipus situation), respectivelyis inconsistent and should be resolved in favour of an explicit psychology of object relations. This would involve a revision of libido theory on which all aspects of psychoanalytic theory depend. Psychological hedonism he considers to bean unsatisfactory basis for psychoanalytical theory, as it relegates object theory to a secondary place, with the implicit assumption that man is not, by nature, a social animal. He refers repeatedly to animal behaviour and infers that man is by nature object-seeking rather than pleasure seeking, his behaviour determined by the reality principle rather than the pleasure principle.

 

11. Psychoanalysis and crime (1944)

ePub

This was in part a basic exposition of psychoanalytic theory, designed to enable the criminal scientist, in the words of the editors of the pamphlet series, to ‘keep in touch with this new movement; and a discussion of psychoanalytic ideas on crime to show the ways ‘ in which psychoanalysis might assist in solving problems of delinquency.

Foulkes, with limited experience of treating delinquents, was conscious of writing from his desk rather thanas he normally preferred—from sufficient direct clinical knowledge. He was impressed that the delinquent’s acts were not so much due to unconscious phantasies as such, but that these phantasies were acted out. Among cases of delinquents which he had observed clinically, he had found a striking proportion of sleep-walking, impulsive wandering, fugue states and bed-wetting. One might say, he writes, that the neurotic acts in his dreams, whilst the criminal dreams in his actions.

Some extracts from the paper are reprinted here.

General observations on criminality from a psychoanalytic point of view

 

12. On group analysis (1946)

ePub

The following paper is based on a talkhis first one on the subject of group analysiswhich Foulkes gave to the British Psycho-Analytical Society in April 1946. This was just after leaving the army, and a large part of the paper deals with his crucial experiences at the Northfield Military Neurosis Centre. Since this period has been extensively described in Foulkes’ 1948 book and elsewhere, the following account is considerably shortened in order to avoid repetition.

In his introductory remarks he said that it was to be expected that psychoanalysts, like other psychotherapists and psychiatrists, would have many resistances to a group approach. He stressed that while the theory was still in its infancy, those who had had experience with group methods were agreed about their therapeutic value.

International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 27 (1946): 46-51.

It has been rightly said that group therapy has a very long past and a very short history. To compare and contrast different dL methods might prove confusing. Until fairly recently, I only knew by hearsay of the work done by others, and my knowledge of it is patchy at present. I may, therefore, take it that you are interested in having some information on the development of group treatment as I know it from my own experience. I want, however, to make it clear that in confining myself to my own work, I am doing so from lack of adequate knowledge and not from any disregard or disrespect for the work done by others.

 

13. Discussion of L. S. Kubie's paper, 'Some theoretical concepts underlying the relationship between individual and group psychotherapies' (1958)

ePub

The Editor of the journal invited comments on Kubie’s paper from Foulkes and other colleagues. Only a brief introduction to Kubie can be given here, but Foulkes restates the points at issue in the discussion.

Kubie finds both surprising similarities and differences at work in the individual and group situations. He talks of the ‘attendant shadows’present by proxy at every session, both tete a tete and in the group, presenting important areas of overlap and of identity. It is, however, the significant, concrete differences that stimulate his interest in clarifying problems of integrating, and possibly alternating, group and individual psychotherapies.

He finds attempts at comparing the ratio of successes and failures naive, nor is he interested in questions of the best use of therapists’ time and similar matters. His scientific curiosity is stimulated by the light groups of different constellations can shed on unsolved problems of the therapeutic process.

Under ‘group psychotherapy’ [Ruble’s quotation marks] he would include not only the usual arrangement of one or two therapists with a group of patients, but for instance two or more therapists workingconcurrently or alternatelywith one patient, bringing into action ‘psychotherapeutic and psychonoxious forces’ presenting the father—mother-child triad; or when two or more analysts treat different members of a family, of a business group, or a treatment centre. He feels that such constellations present a challenging contrast and that their exploration would throw light on the more usual type of therapy group.

 

14. The position of group analysis today, with special reference to the role of the Group-Analytic Society (London) (1961)

ePub

During the first two years of the Society’s existence the membership consisted exclusively of the Founder Members. Study courses for interested colleagues and students and monthly scientific ‘Open Meetings’ were organized. During the latter part of 1954 those who had taken part in these activities and some senior colleagues were invited to join the Society,

The following extracts are from Dr Foulkes’ address (as President) to the first General Meeting of the enlarged Society.

Extracts from an Address given to the Group-Analytic Society, on 31 January 1955, byS.H.Foulkes

Members may welcome the opportunity of hearing a little more about the Society. First, a few words about its JL V J_L history. After an informal start soon after the end of World War II the Society was formally founded in 1952. In view of the work and time they devoted to the Society as well as the financial sacrifices they made, the following are Founder Members: Dr James Anthony, Dr P. B. de Mare, the Hon. W. H. R. Iliffe and myself. They were joined from the beginning by Mrs M. L. J. Abercrombie, Dr Norbert Elias and Miss E. T. Marx.

 

15. Some basic concepts in group psychotherapy (1966)

ePub

This was given as one of the main papers at the Third International Congress of Group Psychotherapy in Milan, in July 1963. As on a number of other occasions, the subject of the paper had been proposed by the Congress Programme Committee.

Human living has always been in groups. These are always in a state of change, according to geographical, economical, historical, technical and cultural conditions. Correspondingly, the ideas that the human individual has of himself and his group, and of the relation between the two, are ever-changing also.

In recent times, in fact since the end of the Renaissance, and in a society that stresses individual property and competition, a configuration has arisen that has brought about the idea of the individual existing in isolation. The individual is then confronted with the community and the world as if they were outside of him. The philosophy of Descartes starts from this premise, and its strict subject/object juxtaposition is still responsible for many pseudo problems of our time. Yet one of the surest observations one can make is that the individual is pre-conditioned to the core by his community, even before he is born, and his personality and character are imprinted vitally by the group in which he is raised. This concerns his psychology even more than his genetic inheritance inasmuch as the former is developed in the interaction between him, objects and persons.

 

16. A Soviet view of group therapy: discussion of a paper by N. V. Ivanov (1966)

ePub

Ivanov was then Chief in the Department of Psychiatry at the S. M. Kirov Institute of Medicine at Gorky. His article focused on the orientation of group therapy in the Soviet Union, and its differences from the West. Some extracts from his paper are reprinted:

Under the socialist system the most important aspects of the social development of the personality are provided for by the government, and the clinician has no reason to substitute general social problems for clinical ones. The principal objectives of group psychotherapy abroad—the establishment of more harmonious relationships among human beings—are achieved in our country by our society’s organizations, and the fact that a man participates in a collective during all periods of his life.… The methods of Soviet psychotherapy have been developed in the direction of adding depth to the directly, clinical objectives of alleviating or completely eliminating morbid phenomena, of returning the patient as rapidly as possible to his primary activity in society as a member of a production team.

 

17. On group-analytic psychotherapy (1968)

ePub

This is an edited, shortened version of a paper read at the Fourth International Congress of Group Psychotherapy, Vienna, 1968, It provides a brief general introduction to Foulkes’ practice at that time, not long before his retirement from clinical work,

The best I can do is to tell you how I work today. Again, I can only select a few features which are specific, and perhaps characteristic by way of contrast to other approaches. In private practice, a number of colleagues work together, and we pool our patients in this ‘group-analytic practice’. This is a method I have always advocated and can recommend. We select our groups from patients referred to us. They are referred for all the disturbances of human behaviour and misfortune with which you are familiar and which I need not enumerate here. As they are referred individually, they are seen in one or two preliminary interviews. In deciding whether they qualify for inclusion into a group-analytic group, the most important points we wish to elucidate are their motivation in the true sense, their own ideas as to the reasons for their suffering, their attitude towards the ways in which they could be helped, their ability to make contact to express themselves, and so forth.

 

18. Group dynamic processes and group analysis (1968)

ePub

The American editors requested an article representing a ‘transatlantic view’ for their new journal. The article Foulkes wrote is in two parts, only extracts of Part II being reproduced here. In his introductory remarks Foulkes explains his objections to the term ‘group psychoanalysis’. [The journal has since dropped this part of its title.] He is of the opinion that ‘we need a theory of psychotherapy and psychopathology which is more comprehensive than that built on psychoanalytical premises alone’.

Referring to group dynamic concepts as elaborated by Kurt Lewin and others he states that he did not deliberately use them, but that he welcomes common ground, due probably to ‘the common inheritance of certain basic insights’ owed to Gestalt psychology. He stresses that, in contrast to his own strict adherence to psychoanalysis, Lewin, like many others, was at the time ‘consciously and unconsciously driven to find alternatives against … the over-whelming onslaught of Freud’s psychoanalysis’.

 

Load more


Details

Print Book
E-Books
Chapters

Format name
ePub
Encrypted
No
Sku
B000000020833
Isbn
9781781810316
File size
604 KB
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Format name
ePub
Encrypted
No
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Sku
In metadata
Isbn
In metadata
File size
In metadata