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Personality Structure and Human Interaction

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How has a theory of man as a social being to be formulated if we are to do justice to his individuality, to the subtle ways in which his love and hate compete within his relations with others and to the anxieties and resistances he shows when he seeks to change himself? To answer this question is the task which the author sets himself. After assessing Freud's basic principles, Guntrip proceeds to make a uniquely comprehensive review of subsequent theoretical contributions to psychoanalysis with special emphasis on the work of Fairbairn and Melanie Klein.From a background of philosophy, theology and social studies, Dr. Guntrip went on to take a personal psychoanalysis and to become a full time psychotherapist, and it is from this combination of wide knowledge and intensive work with people beset by conflicts in their relations with themselves and others that he evolves his views. After assessing Freud's basic principles, he proceeds to make a uniquely comprehensive review of subsequent theoretical contributions to psychoanalysis with special emphasis on the work of Fairbairn and Melanie Klein, as it is in their writings that he considers the most needed developments have been made, namely, the placing of the theory of personality squarely in the realm of human interaction. In the first part of Dr. Guntrip's book all students of personality will find an arresting survey of the development of psychoanalytic thought; in the latter they will meet highly stimulating and profound views on the origins and nature of the conflicting forces in human relationships. In particular he traces the progress of research beyond the problems of guilt and depression to the deeper and graver problems of the inadequate and Schizoid personality; thus finding the causes of mental ill health not in he secondary conflicts over sex and aggression, but in the primary problem of fear, and the struggle to cope with the frightened and helpless child in the depths of the unconscious.

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1. Introduction : Practical and Theoretical Purposes

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’HISTORY shows that scientific effort tends to flow along channels leading to discoveries which contemporary society consciously needs and is ready to pay for. It is no coincidence that methods for working out the longitudinal position of any point were simultaneously discovered by two or more scientists at a time when geographical exploration appeared likely to pay a dividend.’ (The Social Sciences: A Case for their Greater Use.) It has often been maintained that scientific enquiry is motivated by a pure disinterested love of knowledge for its own sake. This notion of simple inquisitiveness divorced from practical needs is now recognized as a substitution of thinking for living. The idea of the ’scholar’ as a musty, eccentric bookworm who has lost all genuine contacts with real life must surely be restricted to very narrow circles to-day. Urgent needs light up the areas of our ignorance, and we must ’know’ in order to ’live’. Schizoid detachment from the pressing emotional realities of human relationships may always play a part in the scientific attitude of mind, but is more likely to invalidate scientific thinking in psychology and sociology than it would do in mathematics and physics.

 

2. Psychology and Psycho-Analysis

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THE development of psychology in general, and of psychoanalysis in particular, reveals an increasing degree of sociological orientation. Hartmann writes: ’Many schools of psychology have completely disregarded the individual’s social relationships. They speak of laws governing thought processes without taking into account the world to which thought refers: they speak of laws of affectivity, neglecting the objects of the emotions and the situations which provoked them. In other words, they do not take into account the concrete objects in relation to which the behaviour occurred, nor the roots of the behaviour in concrete life situations. This is due to their studying the individual as if he were completely isolated from the world of social phenomena. The phenomena of group psychology are, therefore, completely inaccessible to this type of psychological approach. Such a separation of the individual from the world in which he lives is completely artificial.’ (Psycho-analysis and Sociology, Lorand, 1948, pp. 326-7.)

 

3. Psychiatry and Psycho-Analysis

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SINCE we are here studying psychodynamic theory with a practical aim in view, namely its ultimate bearing on the problems of psychotherapy, it is necessary to consider the relationship of psycho-analysis not only to general psychology on the one hand, but also to general psychiatry on the other. This raises in an acute form the validity of the psychodynamic, and therewith the psycho-analytical, approach to human problems, since psychiatry has always leaned heavily on neurology and physiology, the approach to the mind through the body. It is all the more necessary to consider this matter since Freud developed psycho-analysis out of his own prior physiological, neurological and biological standpoint : and psycho-analysis, in its inception, was deeply influenced by that standpoint.

The attitude of psychiatrists to psycho-analysis is anything but uniform. Some welcome the light it throws on mental illness. Thus O’Connor writes:

It must be conceded that, were it not for the stimulating and energizing work of Freud and of those who have come after him, we might still be blundering along among the psychiatric catacombs of last century. Much of what Freud first propounded has undergone modification, both by himself and by some of his brilliant successors and equally brilliant secessionists : in this respect we find him in the illustrious company of scientists of all ages. Much of his psychoanalytic therapy and speculation has become so much a part of psychiatric materia medica that the identity of the originator is liable to become lost in a wealth of long-accepted concepts and hypotheses. (1948, p. 136.)

 

4. The Development of Psycho-Analytical Theory

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PSYCHO-ANALYTICAL theory has been in a state of continuous development from the beginning. The genius of its creator, Sigmund Freud, so dominated this process that during his lifetime theoretical developments were almost if not quite wholly determined by himself. Here and there he adopts suggestions from some fellow-workers while their contributions were in the main elaborations and developments of new theories which he himself propounded. In sober truth all the fundamental new ideas did come from Freud himself.

Though we await the judgment of an impartial historian of psycho-analysis (if such there can be in matters so closely touching human emotions), it is probably not unfair to state that the works of men like Jung, Reich and Rank, each in different ways, exhibited ultimately a speculative bent rather than the predomin-andy scientific, analytical, clinical line of Freud, while Adler may be said to have raised the problem of ego-analysis prematurely and too superficially. It must be admitted that Freud’s own speculative bent broke out in his theory of the death instinct. He himself regarded it as ’far-fetched speculation’ and expected readers to accept or reject it according to their own point of view. (1920, p. 27.) Nevertheless, he thereafter refers to the conclusions of this book as if they were now established facts. His speculations in the realm of the application of psycho-analysis to sociology have less bearing on basic matters of theory than have those in the book just quoted.

 

5. The Starting-Point. Classic Freudian Psychobiology

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i. Introduction

To show clearly that developing trends in psycho-analysis have moved towards an increasing emphasis on human relations, and therefore towards a potentially sociological and personal rather than a basically biological orientation, we must deal with the main stages in chronological order. This does not mean attempting a history of psycho-analysis in detail, but rather a survey of those major theoretical positions which have a particular bearing on this orientation. After the first acts in the creation of psychoanalysis, namely Breuer’s treatment of an hysteric patient in 1880-1, and Breuer and Freud’s joint study, at Freud’s instigation, from 1886 onwards culminating in their joint preliminary paper on Hysteria in 1893, Breuer fell away. Freud, having abandoned hypnosis, built up his technique of psycho-analysis and his theory of neurosis. Even at this early stage it emerged that this would ultimately overstep the borders of biological and purely medical concerns, since Freud discovered a social and moral factor at work in the creation of nervous illness. This was not so with Breuer. Freud writes that Breuer

 

6. The Later Freudian Structural Theory and Analysis of the Ego

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i Ego-Analysis and Endopsychic Conflict

ANNAFREUD has stated that:

When the writings of Freud, beginning with Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego and Beyond the Pleasure Principle, took a fresh direction, the odium of analytical unorthodoxy no longer attached to the study of the ego and interest was definitely focussed on the ego-institutions. Since then the term ’depth-psychology’ certainly does not cover the whole field of psycho-analytical research. (1936, p. 4-)

The publication of Freud’s The Ego and the Id (1923) and Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety (1926) may be taken as marking the maturing of the new development that came about in his writings from 1920 to 1926. Its practical importance appears with the publication of Character Analysis by Wilhelm Reich (1935) and The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence by Anna Freud (1936), where it is clear that ego-analysis had taken a central place in psycho-analytical therapy. W. Reich realized that to analyse id-material (i.e. deep unconscious infantile material) direct, without analysing first the ’character-armour’ of the ego with its defences and resistances against the deep unconscious, is to court failure or to arrive at intellectual insight only, unaccompanied by any dynamic emotional change in personality-structure.

 

7. Process Theory and Personal Theory

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i. Freud’s Early Terminology

CHAPTERS III and V have raised a problem so fundamental to the development of psycho-analytical theory that we must now give it particular attention. The work of Marjorie Brierley (Trends in Psycho-Analysis, 1951) has introduced specifically into psychoanalysis the question of whether its theory should be cast into the form of an impersonal theory of mental functioning or a personal theory of the active, purposive whole self in its living human relationships. Brierley has worked out psycho-analytical theory along both lines, as, first, a ’Process Theory’, and, secondly, a ’Personology’. This is at bottom the problem of whether psycho-dynamics is a ’natural science’ or whether it calls for a new type of theory which can take account of that ’individuality’ of the human ’person’ which is lost in any presentation of ’general laws of mental functioning’. Metapsychology is an attempt to present psycho-analysis as a natural science. Brierley writes :

The word ’personology’ is borrowed from Smuts as a convenient term to distinguish the science of personality from metapsychology. Referring to academic psychology, Smuts writes : ’… The procedure of psychology is largely and necessarily analytical and cannot therefore do justice to Personality in its unique wholeness. For this a new discipline is required, which we have called Personology, and whose task it would be to study Personality as a whole and to trace the laws and phases of its development in the individual life… . Personology would study the Personality not as an abstraction or bundle of psychological abstractions, but rather as a vital organism, as the organic whole which par excellence it is; and such a study should lead to the formulation of the laws of growth of this unique whole, which would not only be of profound theoretical importance, but also of the greatest practical value.’ (Smuts, Holism and Evolution, 1926, p. 293.) (1951, p. 124.)

 

8. The ‘Culture Pattern’ Theory and Character Analysis.

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(ADLER, KAREN HORNEY, ERICH FROMM)

WE shall group together four writers in this section: Adler, Karen Horney, Erich Fromm and Harry Stack Sullivan. Though the last three would hardly regard Adler as their spiritual father, they do, nevertheless, pursue his general type of approach and the orientation of all four has a sociological trend in common. They do not deny unconscious motivation, yet they sit so loosely to Freud’s discoveries in ’depth-psychology’ that they do not really make use of ’the unconscious’ in the all-important Freudian sense of the term. They analyse conscious and pre-conscious motivations, and particularly analyse the more deeply unrealized character-traits manifested by an individual in his human relationships in the present day. Valuable as this is, we feel that their contribution is condemned to an ultimate superficiality from the point of view of psychodynamic theory. Whatever inadequacies may be discovered in Freud’s theories, his was the true pioneering work, and the most fruitful developments have come by building on his foundations, as Melanie Klein, Fairbairn and others are to-day doing, in this matter of ’depth-psychology’, rather than abandoning them as did Adler, Horney, Fromm and Sullivan.

 

9. H. S. Sullivan’s Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry.

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FROMM and Horney went to America from Europe where they both began as classic Freudians, Harry Stack Sullivan was an American psychiatrist of the school of William Alanson White and Adolf Meyer, and it was round him that the Washington Group formed. He is the least influenced of the three by psychoanalytical orthodoxy in the sense that while Fromm and Horney revolted from it, Sullivan never belonged to it. He cannot, however, be omitted from this survey because of his importance for the ’culture-pattern’ school of thought and his links with psychoanalysis. He brackets Freud with Meyer and White as making the the modern psychiatric outlook possible, but he says : ’My psychoanalytic reading began with Hart: The Psychology of Insanity. He mentions two books of Jung, one of Ferenczi, three of Freud {Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex, Traumdeutung and Psychopathology of Everyday Life), along with Freud’s discussion of the Schreber case, Kempf and Groddeck, and says that, aside from these, his ’subsequent reading of the more purely psychoanalytic contributions has fallen under the law of diminishing returns’. (1955a, p. 178.)

 

10. The Relation of Melanie Klein’s Work to Freud

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(THE DEVELOPMENT OF MELANIE KLEIN’S CONCEPTIONS)

THIS study of the development of psycho-analytical theory has so far traced the first two phases of a dialectical pattern. The original thesis of psychobiological theory, postulated by Freud, provoked an antithesis of psychosociological theory which really began with Adler in the first decade of the twentieth century, and developed from around 1930 in America into an elaborate challenge to Freudian orthodoxy. Both thesis and antithesis flourish together side by side to-day, but they call for a further development towards a true synthesis. In this, both emphases must be reconciled in one more specifically psychological theory. What this might mean can be seen from Fairbairn’s view that the proper object of psychological investigation is the person, not the organism, especially if we add, ’nor the cultural community’. Psycho-dynamic theory calls to be developed in such a way as distinguishes it from both biology on the one hand, and from sociology and social psychology on the other. It is the present writer’s view that such a synthesis has already begun to emerge in British psychoanalysis, in the work of Melanie Klein and W. R. D. Fairbairn.

 

11. The Psychodynamic Theory of Melanie Klein

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WE have traced the gradual emergence in Mrs. Klein’s work of a central emphasis on aggression, especially on that fusion of sexuality and aggression known as sadism. This she found to be entrenched in the Freudian super-ego and operating in theOedipal situation, the origins of both of which she traced back into the first year of life. We saw how this was referred even farther back into the hereditary constitution, in terms of Freud’s innate conflict between Life and Death, or libidinal and destructive, instincts. J. O. Wisdom remarks that

(It appears to be a non-object-relation theory for her as for Freud.) There is just as much difficulty in seeing what clinical bearing or explanatory power it has with her approach as with Freud’s; just the same difficulty in understanding why it is regarded as needed at all; and just the same difficulty in admitting it to the status of a scientific theory. (1956, p. 108.)

Wisdom further remarks that ’hers is throughout an object-relations theory’ (op. cit., pp. 108-9), thus stressing its incompatibility with instinct-theory. We agree with Wisdom that her work is ’definitely incompatible with Freud’s theories of primary narcissism and libido and … require[s] revision of ego-theory.’ (Op. cit., p. 109.) The view we have taken is that her work’is a development from and beyond Freud’s ego-analysis and his structural theory. This we must now study in more detail.

 

12. Melanie Klein: Theory of Early Development and ‘Psychotic’ Positions

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i. The Depressive and the Paranoid-Schizoid Positions MELANIE KLEIN’S work on the early years of childhood led, not only to a theory of psychical structure based on the concept of the ’internal object’, but also to new clinical concepts of early infantile development. Abraham’s important paper on the ’Theory of Libido Development’ in 1924, the year Mrs. Klein began her analysis with him, no doubt represents her position at that date. It was the theory of a psyche at first objecdess and auto-erotic, which developed through oral, anal, phallic and genital phases; these determined its object-relationships, as its originally auto-erotic and narcissistic libido and aggression became extra-verted. Fixations at these stages accounted for the various psychoses and neuroses. The early oral fixation gave rise to schizophrenia, the late oral fixation led to depressive psychosis, the early anal to paranoia, the late anal to obsessional neurosis and the phallic to hysteria.

In 1934 Melanie Klein read a paper entitled ’A Contribution to the Psychogenesis of Manic-Depressive States’. (1948, p. 282.) E. Glover regards that as marking a ’second phase’ in her views, and quotes her statement that in her opinion ’the infantile depressive position is the central position of the child’s development’. He comments: ’The publication of this paper marked the commencement of an entirely new orientation in psycho-analysis in a section of the British Society. The trend of discussions at subsequent meetings and the content of various papers soon indicated that a school of thought was developing based exclusively on a new hypothesis of development. Thus … Joan Riviere … in a subsequent paper on “The Genesis of Psychical Conflict in Earliest Infancy” … endeavoured to establish a systematic metapsychological basis for the new views. Clinically, the most significant point in this paper was contained in a footnote where she committed herself to the explicit statement. “We have reason to think since Melanie Klein’s latest work on depressive states that all neuroses are different varieties of defence against this fundamental anxiety, each embodying mechanisms which become increasingly available to the organism as its development proceeds.”’ (E. Glover, 1945.) He compares this with ’Rank’s deviation’. ’Instead of Rank’s birth trauma, we have offered us a “love trauma” of the third month, which, it is maintained, is as fateful for subsequent development as Rank thought the birth trauma to be… . In my considered opinion the concept of a three-months-old love-trauma due to the infant’s imagined greedy destruction of a real loving mother whom it really loves is merely a matriarchal variant of the doctrine of Original Sin.’ (Op. cit., p. 43.)

 

13. The Relation of Fairbairn’s Work to Freud

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I. Fair bairn and Freud

PSYCHO-ANALYSIS itself implies that different types of theoretical orientation will be developed by different types of personality. Brierley warns us that ’The form of any hypothesis is always influenced by unconscious determinants, since we can only apprehend things in ways permitted by the specific structure of our individual minds.’ (1951, p. 96.) This is a factor that can either facilitate insight or falsify it. One type of mind is liable to see certain things otherwise than as they are; we all to some extent project our own mental structure on to the outer world. Another person can recognize those same things as they are, in a way that other thinkers may miss. Probably more in psychology than in other scientific studies, the initial approach of an investigator is determined by his mental make-up and his previous education and experience of living. A comparison of the personalities and work of, say, Pavlov, J. B. Watson, Janet, McDougall, Spearman and Freud shows that each investigator studies those phenomena that his type of mind is most ready to accept as significant, and is liable to undervalue or even deny the reality of other parts of the total field that others see clearly enough.

 

14. Fairbairn. A Complete ‘Object-Relations’ Theory of the Personality. (1) Libido Theory

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(i) LIBIDO THEORY

W E have seen in Fairbairn’s early writings the signs of a particular point of view, implicit in his emphasis on object-relations rather than instincts, and becoming explicit in his development of a concept of endopsychic structure based on ego-splitting as a result of object-relations in infancy. The development of this point of view was hindered by the need to deal with the problem of aggression. He needed Mrs. Klein’s concepts of the ’internal object’ and the ’inner world’ to complete his own concepts of ego-splitting in such a way as to make possible a full theory of endopsychic structure in terms of internal object-relations, i.e. a psycho-dynamic theory of the personality that would be genuinely ’personal’. The issues, however, were obscured by the fact that aggression was presented, by both Freud and Mrs. Klein, as a problem of instinct, as an innate drive in the same sense as libido. A sharp intellectual conflict must have developed as a result of the struggle to reconcile ’Instinct psychology’ and ’Internal-objects psychology’, and it was borne in upon him that this was an impossibility. At the same time his attention was more and more arrested by the deep psychopathological significance of schizoid processes. These two factors coinciding in his thought about 1939-40 cleared the ground for an outburst of original and creative thinking. In five papers from 1940 to 1944 (see 1952a, p. 1) he achieved a far-reaching reformulation of the main body of psycho-analytic theory which changes it from a psychobiology based on the instinct-concept, into a truly psychodynamic theory of the development of the personality in and through the medium of personal object-relationships: (1) ’Schizoid Factors in the Personality’, 1940, a primarily clinical paper which was unfortunately not published at the time; (2) ’A Revised Psychopathology of the Psychoses and Psychoneuroses’, 1941 (Int. J. Psych-An., Vol. XXII, Pts. 3 and 4); (3) The Repression and Return of Bad Objects’, 1943 (Brit. J. Med. Psych., Vol. XIX, Pts. 3 and 4); (4) ’The War Neuroses, Their Nature and Significance’, 1943, then published, again unfortunately, only in a much abbreviated form in the British Medical Journal, 13 Feb., 1943; a clinical paper; (5) ’Endopsychic Structure Considered in Terms of Object-Relationships’, 1944 (Int. J. Psycho-Anal., VoL XXV, Pts. 1 and 2). It was an unhappy circumstance, first that the two clinical papers, which were essential to support the three theoretical ones, were not available to readers, and second that the entire body of material was produced in wartime when there was so much to distract people from calm thought.

 

15. Fairbairn. A Complete ‘Object-Relations’ Theory of the Personality, (2) Endopsychic Structure

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(2) THEORY OF ENDOPSYCHIC STRUCTURE

W E have traced how Fairbairn worked out a full-scale revision of the classical libido theory, or theory of psychodynamic development, on the basis of the view that libido was primarily and inherently object-seeking, not pleasure-seeking. For Freud, pleasure meant basically the experience of organic de-tensioning, so that Fairbairn shifted the emphasis from the organism to the person, and from psychophysical processes to personal relationships. He presented the problem of normal development as that of growing out of the starting-point of infantile dependence on the mother to a capacity for the mature dependence of ’equals’ in an adult relationship. Correspondingly the problems of psychopathological development are seen to represent various kinds of failure to outgrow infantile dependence, so that the physically and intellectually ’grown up’ person is compelled to struggle to sustain an adult role with the emotional equipment of an insecure child.

At this point a further problem arose. By what means, and in what form, does this infantile dependence persist in the psyche after infancy itself is past ? This represents the problem of mental organization or Endopsychic Structure as the necessary complement to the Libido Theory which represents the nature of emotional development. He turned to this further problem in the two papers of 1943-4, ’The Repression and the Return of Bad Objects’ (1952a, ch. Ill) ancl ’Endopsychic Structure Considered in Terms of Object-Relationships’ (1952a, ch. IV.) The material used by psycho-analysis is mental content presented mainly in the form of phantasy, but this has an enduring basis in the structural organization of the psyche, which it represents. It was Melanie Klein’s contribution to explore inf antile phantasy and to recognize from that material the fact that the ego had relationships with mentally internalized objects both good and bad. Here were the beginnings of a revision of the theory of endopsychic structure, but Mrs. Klein did not consider the bearings of her discoveries on the orthodox id-ego-super-ego theory. Ernest Jones writes:

 

16. Melanie Klein and Fairbairn

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SOME fundamental differences emerge as between the views of Melanie Klein and Fairbairn, which we can now consider. It is important for the clarification of theoretical issues to discover where the root cause of these differences lies. Elizabeth Zetzel in her paper ’Recent British Approaches to Problems of Early Mental Development’ (1955) writes:

A theoretical framework which rests on such a definite and controversial premise as that of the death instinct has marked limitations. For this reason, if for no other, Mrs. Klein’s theory will not be acceptable to the majority of psycho-analysts in its present foim (p. 542).

In ’Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms’ (1952, pp. 292-320) Mrs. Klein states the points on which she agrees and those on which she differs from Fairbairn. Those on which she differs all arise from her determined retention of the theory of an innate, instinctive force which is specifically destructive in aim and which manifests its specific destructive impulses from the very moment of birth, co-existent with libidinal impulses from the very beginning of life, i.e. Freud’s concept of a death instinct.

 

17. The Basic Forms of Human Relationship

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A. COMPARISON OF FREUD, ’CULTURE-PATTERN’THEORY, KLEIN AND FAIRBAIRN

W E have surveyed the wide sweep of developing psychoanalytical theory from its early classic form to its latest innovations. No science can stand still, and the value of Freud’s work lies as much in what he started as in what he himself discovered. The dialectical pattern of development suggested in Part I was not meant to be a rigid form, but it has been useful in ordering the mass of material. There is nothing metaphysical or mystical about a dialectical process. One need not be an Hegelian to observe that the enunciation of a clear-cut theory is likely to provoke fresh minds to the assertion of the opposite, and out of the clash of opposites there will slowly emeige a synthesis of what is true in both. Something like that has been taking place in psycho-analysis. The original Freudian biological emphasis provoked an antithetical sociological and cultural emphasis. This swing of the pendulum of thought had, however, already taken place in Freud himself to some extent, when he turned from his earlier instinct-theory to his later ’super-ego’ theory. Even from the very beginnings Freud recognized the part played by the social pressures operating through conscience. Some Americans, or perhaps in the first place Europeans like Horney arid Fromm who became domiciled in America, developed the sociological emphasis in a more one-sided manner than did Freud. Meanwhile there was emerging in Britain a third type of theory which quite unintentionally provides a synthesis of the two earlier points of view; for this theory centres in the concept of a ’double environment’, internal and external, psychic and material, unconscious and deeply involved in the life of the body and also conscious and deeply influenced by human relationships and all the pressures of the social culture. This type of theory, now known as ’object-relations theory’, provides a more complete psychodynamic theory while still taking account of the involvement of the body in the life of the personality. We are now in a position to summarize and compare these three great bodies of psycho-analytical thought.

 

18. Theory and Therapy

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IT was stated in chapter I that the ultimate purpose of theoretical enquiry was to further the aims of psychotherapy. We seek to understand human nature so that we may solve the serious and dangerous problems of human maladjustment in personal relationships. The opinion is frequently voiced that in our time the failure to solve these problems might well lead to the extinction of this phase of civilization, if not of the human race: for at present all peaceful and constructive uses of scientific knowledge are overshadowed by its use to increase our capacity for mutual destruction. Can scientific knowledge about the human mind be saved from the fate of being put to destructive uses? Hate-ridden and destructively motivated dictators, and rulers with paranoid and psychopathic personality trends, could make use (and perhaps have already made use) of scientific knowledge of the weak spots in human personality to further their ends of power-politics. I have expressed the view elsewhere that ‘psycho-analysis as a purely scientific technique of investigation ? …may discover facts about the way the human mind develops from infancy onwards, that could be used for the shaping of psychological conditioning techniques of diabolical efficiency. The mobilization of childhood guilt in political prisoners to “soften them up” before trial, is a case in point.’ (1956b, p. 165.)

 

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