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Who Owns Jung?

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This book has a similar, though not identical, format to Who Owns Psychoanalysis? in being divided into sections as follows: academic, clinical, history, philosophy, science. Who Owns Jung aims to be a celebration of the diversity and interdisciplinary thinking that is a feature of the international Jungian community. Many of the contributors are practising analysts and members of the International Association for Analytical Psychology; others are scolars of Jung whose work has been influential in disseminating his ideas in the academy, though it is worth noting that a number of the analysts also work in academe.Contributors:James Asto; Astrid Berg; Joe Cambray; Ann Casement; Andrea Cone-Farran; Roberto Gambin; Wolfgang Giegerich; Joseph Henderson; George B. Hogenson; Mario Jacoby; Hayao Kawai; Toshio Kawai; Thomas B. Kirsch; Jean Knox; Roderick Main; Denise Gimenez Ramos; Sonu Shamdasani; Michael Sinason; Hester McFarland Solomon; David Tacey; and Margaret Wilkinson.

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1. Jung in Japanese academy

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Toshio Kawai

The reception of Jung in the Japanese academy started only after the death of C.G. Jung in 1961 so is a development of the last 40 years. Before this period, experimental psychology had been dominant in the Japanese academy while clinical psychology had been only a very small part of psychology in general. The methodology of clinical psychology was defined by a scientific research model of statistics and psychological tests where psychotherapy and case studies did not play a central role. As a school and technique of psychotherapy the client-centered-therapy of Rogers was the most popular and prevailing one. But in the last 40 years Jung's psychology has rapidly and continuously spread in the Japanese academy. In fact, it is no exaggeration to say that Jung's psychology is better accepted in Japanese society and the academy than in any other country. Among various schools and theories of psychotherapy it has been the most influential in Japan, although the situation is a little changed in the last few years with the increasing influence of a scientific model and ideas where, for example, cognitive psychotherapy is gaining more and more interest among patients and therapists.

 

2. Ruptured time and the re-enchantment of modernity

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Roderick Main

In this chapter I would like to look at some factors possibly inhibiting the interdisciplinary engagement of analytical psychology with academic sociology. This issue concerns me both as an instance of the general problem of C.G. Jung's (1875-1961) relationship to the academy and, more particularly for the reason that I work in a Centre for Psychoanalytic Studies (at the University of Essex in the United Kigdom) which, as it happens, maintains close ties for research purposes with the same university's Department of Sociology. I shall address the issue by considering Jung's response to a situation with which both disciplines have been deeply concerned: the disenchantment of the modern world.

The pioneering social scientist Max Weber (1864-1920) described modern culture as characterised by capitalism, rationalisation, disenchantment, subjectivist culture, and democratisation (Scaff, 2000, pp. 103-7). These features of modernity are intimately interlinked in Weber's thought, and any one of them gives access to the overall problem of modernity as he saw it. I shall focus on the feature of disenchantment, in its particular form as “loss of myth”, and shall explore one attempt, of a kind foretold and observed by Weber, to re-enchant or, as I shall also refer to it, to re-mythologise or re-sacralise modernity. So what does Weber mean when he writes of the “de-magification” (Entzauberung) or “disenchantment of the world?” As Lawrence Scaff summarises:

 

3. Who owns Jungian psychology? Jung in Brazilian academia

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Denise Gimenez Ramos

Jungian thought and the clinical tradition of Analytical Psychology have been present in Brazil since the country's first psychology courses were taught in the early 1950s. Initially Analytical Psychology appeared sporadically in university psychology training through course programs such as Studies on Personality and Theories and Psychotherapy Techniques. Over time, Jungian psychology secured its place within academia, beginning with areas of teaching from group study and basic university training to today's post-graduate courses in various research fields.

One of the pioneers responsible for this growth was Dr Nise da Silveira (1905-1999), a Brazilian psychiatrist who had a major influence on everyone in the domestic field who followed this path. Unhappy with the Cartesian and biomedical view, as well as the classical methods for treating mental illnesses (which included elec-troshock, insulin shock therapy, lobotomies, and so on), in the early 1930s she began questioning traditional psychiatric practices. In daily sessions with psychiatry patients at Dom Pedro II Hospital in Rio de Janeiro, she adopted a non-orthodox stance on mental health treatment. The image of a doctor committed to working with psychiatric patients, and completely in harmony with human suffering, forms a backbone of the Brazilian Jungian movement and expresses the spirit of battling mental illness in this country.

 

4. The challenge of teaching Jung in the university

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David Tacey

When I first tried to explore the exclusion of Jung from the universities in the 1970s numerous Jungian analysts told me that Jung did not belong in the university and is best not taught there. One of the strongest advocates of this view was Marie-Louise von Franz, who wrote to me that Jung in the university might degenerate into a “head trip” (1976). That is, he might become an object of purely intellectual study, and the emotional and psychological process that makes Jung's work meaningful-namely one's own personal encounter with unconscious contents-would be missing. Effectively, this view maintained that analytical psychology in its clinical practice owned Jung, and that universities could not participate in this ownership, since they could only view Jung externally and superficially, and not from the inside.

Searching through the Jungian literature to find explicit statements about the clinical ownership of Jung is a difficult process, and yields few results. Mostly, this problem is expressed in personal remarks and letters, and not in the public domain. Andrew Samuels, however, can always be relied on to be outspoken about what others do not divulge. In his Preface to Post-Jungian Criticism, Samuels writes:

 

5. Analytical psychology and Michael Fordham

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James Astor

Michael Fordham, was the last of the founders of a movement in analysis, and like the other founders,—for instance Melanie Klein, Donald Winnicott, or Wilfred Bion,—he tapped into something essential in analysis.

Certainly the historical circumstances which gave him the opportunity to do so will never be repeated, any more than the Freud/Jung collaboration will ever be repeated. Fordham seized an opportunity and positioned analytical psychology between psychoanalysis and Jung's original formulations. His work was a turning point in Jungian studies. He co-edited the collected works of C.G. Jung, was a leader in setting up a Society of Analytical Psychology to train clinicians interested in Jung's ideas, made significant contributions to analytic theory and practice and pioneered the Jungian analysis of children.

Fordham, through the forum of the British Psychological Society's Medical Section, disseminated Jung's ideas in the post war period, making them known to a wide group of clinicians, who for the most part were not familiar with Jung's work or when it became available in English did not read it for political reasons (loyalty to Freud). In practice this meant that he was, in return, open to the work of other analysts in the British object relations school, followers of Freud.

 

6. Can we prevent colonization of the mind? Traditional culture in South Africa

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Astrid Berg

It could be said that 2005 has become the year of Africa: It has been declared as such by the British government and it has been the main item on the agenda of the G8 summit in Scotland. The laudable motive of reducing poverty on the continent may not be entirely altruistic; the not inconsiderable oil reserves off the west coast of Africa may be the real reason behind this goodwill. With the Middle East becoming an increasingly complicated and fatal nexus of power play the “dark continent” may yet be wooed by the so-called developed world with a hope that it will be able to keep the industrial, economic machinery of the western world going. This will bring once again into Africa explorers and seekers of gold, whatever its color might be, and with it a western view of the world. The danger of a psychological occupation is real and could be as, or even more devastating than the arbitrary division of countries and assumption of political power by Europe was some 120 years ago. “Colonial destruction of a country seeks to do away with traditional custom. Such destruction can lead only to a suffocation of the cultural creativity and potential of its people” (Funani, 1990, p. 57).

 

7. The new, the now and the nowhere in Kalsched's archetypal self-care system

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M.D.A. Sinason and A.M. Cone-Farran

In this chapter the authors explore their experience of reading Donald Kalsched's book "The Inner World of Trauma: Archetypal Defenses of the Personal Spirit” (Kalsched, 1996) and also examine one of his subsequent papers "Archetypal affect, anxiety and defence in patients who have suffered early trauma” (Kalsched, 1998). In these works he describes an internal autonomous agency that can take over a patient's decision making and actions. This experience can be very disturbing and is often seen by the patient as damaging to self or others. However, Kalsched makes the case for it not being destructive in its aims. He considers its origins to arise from a reaction to severe childhood deprivation or trauma and to be aimed at survival. In the view of the authors, patients in other diagnostic groups can also experience the undermining of their own self agency. A different explanation of the experience will therefore be offered that addresses the much wider ramifications of it across the diagnostic spectrum.

 

8. Some memories and reflections concerning my time at the C.G. Jung Institute in Zürich (1956 until 2006)

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Mario Jacoby

It is quite a complicated business to write about the Jung-Institute in Zürich. I would not have chosen to undertake such a task myself, yet I was asked to do it by the editor and had first of all to reflect upon my legitimation and my own standpoint. What I especially esteem in Jung's own attitude was his insistence on taking into account the personal equation. From what standpoint can I best approach this task? I am not a historian but what finally made me accept this task is my long experience with and in this place. This dates back to the year 1956 when I entered the Instiute for the first time just to hear a lecture given by Jolande Jacobi. The long term result of this first visit was that I applied for a full training to become a Jungian analyst. But as I was at the time a performing violinist, musician and teacher, I had first, or at the same time, to study at the University to get an academic degree. This means that my presence at the Institute as a trainee lasted over nine years until 1965 when I received my diploma. After graduation I soon began lecturing at the Institute and already by 1970 I was advanced by the Curatorium to the status of a training analyst. At about the same time I was elected to be President of the Swiss Society of Analytical Psychology, and this implied also being an ex-officio member of the Patrons of the Institute. In 1980 I was elected to be a member of the Board of Directors, the Curatorium of the Institute, until I stepped back from this responsibility in 1997. Since then I have worked as senior training and supervisory analyst and was a personally elected Patron of the Institute until March 2006, when I definitely left the Institute and joined fully the newly founded ISAP (International School for Analytical Psychology). Thus I experienced the Institute for 50 years from a variety of functions over the course of time.

 

9. The legacy of C.G. Jung

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Thomas B. Kirsch

Who owns Jung is a question that can be answered in two words. No one. One may rightfully ask how someone can own another person's name. I could end my article right now. However, since I was asked to consider this question I have been mulling over the notion of ownership of Jung as a symbol. Having been in and around Jung's psychology since my childhood, which is coming upon 60 years, I thought this might be a time to write about the issue. The present impetus for discussing this topic came up when psychoanalysts of different persuasions in the UK hotly debated who owns the title “psychoanalyst” and, therefore, who is entitled to be registered as a psychoanalyst. At that time, it was concluded that only members of the British Psycho-Analytical Society could be registered as psychoanalysts, and everyone else had to use some other title such as psychoanalytically-oriented psychotherapist for their identity. Ann Casement, at the time the head of the licensing body for psychotherapists in the UK was then asked to edit a book entitled Who Owns Psychoanalysis? to discuss this topic generally. This book was a success, and the editor thought that a companion book on who owns Jung also would prove to be of interest.

 

10. Philemon Foundation

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Ann Casement, in collaboration with Sonu Shamdasani

The Philemon Foundation, a non-profit [501(c) (3)] foundation was established in 2003 with the analytical psychologist, Steve Martin, as its President and the historian of psychology, Sonu Shamdasani, as its General Editor. The foundation is governed by a board and has a growing team of scholars. Its mission statement is laid out in a beautifully illustrated pamphlet distributed at the International Association for Analytical Psychology's (IAAP) XVIth International Congress in Barcelona in August 2004. It is preparing for publication the complete corpus of C.G. Jung's work to become available in editions that will meet the highest scholarly standards. These will appear in 30 volumes beyond the existing volumes of the Collected Works of Jung. The ensuing publication, The Complete Works of C.G. Jung in English and German,

will comprise manuscripts, seminars, and correspondence hitherto unpublished or formerly believed lost that number in tens of thousands of pages. The historical, clinical and cultural importance of material equals and, in some instances, surpasses the importance of that which has already been published. [Philemon Foundation, 2003]

 

11. The incomplete works of Jung

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Sonu Shamdasani

To date, the principal source for studies of Jung and for works in analytical psychology have been his Collected Works and the two volumes of Letters. This has had hitherto unsuspected consequences for how his work has been understood, as both are far from complete. To comprehend their effect requires an explication of the genesis of these works.

When first presented by Jack Barrett of the Bollingen Foundation with a copy of the first volume of the Collected Works to be published, Jung complained that it looked like a coffin.2 The project of a collected edition of Jung's writings was proposed by Herbert Read, who was at that time an editorial director at Kegan Paul in 1945 (Kegan Paul became Routledge & Kegan Paul in 1947). At the same time, the Bollingen Foundation, founded by Mary and Paul Mellon, put forward a similar proposal.3 An agreement was reached in 1947 to jointly publish the works, which were funded by the Bollingen Foundation.

At Jung's suggestion, Michael Fordham was appointed as the editor. As Fordham was not fluent in German, Jung suggested that Gerhard Adler be appointed to check the translations. Jung considered it absolutely necessary to have this done by a native German-speaker.4 For Jung, the manner in which he used language was an integral part of his psychology. On June 17, 1952, he wrote to Zvi Werblowsky

 

12. The founding of The Journal of Analytical Psychology

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Ann Casement

The Journal of Analytical Psychology (JAP) celebrated its 50thanniversary in 2005 with a conference at Oxford where I was invited to give a paper as a member of a plenary panel chaired by Murray Stein, the former President of the International Association for Analytical Psychology (IAAP). My interest in writing the present chapter on the founding of the Journal was sparked by the research entailed in putting together the paper for that event. It seems appropriate to look back after fifty years and reflect on the early beginnings of such a prominent fixture in the worldwide Jungian community. Another contributing factor is that I have been a member of the Journal's lively Editorial Board for some time.

The Journal of Analytical Psychology made its first appearance on the 31st October, 1955 under the editorship of Michael Fordham. As James Astor states in his authoritative book on Fordham's work: “Fordham was also the inspiration behind the Journal of Analytical Psychology (JAP), and its first editor, a position he held for fifteen years, establishing a tradition of scientific rigour, which for most of its subsequent life it has maintained” (Astor 1995, p. 7).

 

13. Reconsidering imitation

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Joe Cambray

The enigma of the title of this volume, Who Owns Jung? raises many questions. Any impulse to reply is tempered by the complexity just beneath the surface of our question. What is it we are being asked to ponder? Straightforward replies to the question seem not to yield adequate answers alone though they may hint through reflection at implied mysteries of identity and possession. Likewise, the sister volume to the present text is filled with thoughtful engagements seeking purchase on that seemingly related question, Who Owns Psychoanalysis? Vicissitudes of owning, ownership, etc., are discussed there as applied to a system of thought, with theories of the mind and culture including scientific and historical perspectives as well as forms of clinical practice, all with political and economic ramifications—the reader is encouraged to explore the range of arguments put forward there as a context for the present volume. Although significant discernments are made in the 400 pages of ensuing articles, much of which are applicable here, our question differs in its explicit focus on a single individual, Jung, rather than the field of “Analytical Psychology”, the closest parallel to “Psychoanalysis”.

 

14. Psychology-the study of the soul's logical life

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Wolfgang Giegerich

In 1956 Jung lamented that “my later and more important work (as it seems to me) is still left untouched in its primordial obscurity”.1 This is probably still true today to a large extent. What Jung suggests in this statement is that there is a considerable difference between his earlier and his later work. His later work is not just a further elaboration in more detail and expansion of his beginnings, nor merely a partial modification. It is something in its own right and, as he felt, more important.

From Jung's assessment we could conclude that now, more than four decades after his death, it is our task to finally do justice to his late work. But I think that this would not be enough. Or, to do justice to his late work would have to mean more than simply trying to understand it and basing our own work on it. Rather, we have to go with Jung beyond Jung.

It is not enough to listen to and be faithful to the letter of the explicit Jungian teachings. As Nietzsche once pointed out, it would be a poor way of repaying one's teacher to stay his disciple forever. We have to further develop the impulses lying in his work, impulses that Jung himself did not fully develop and base his work on. Our loyalty has to be to the living spirit stirring from within Jung's work, to the unresolved problems that have come up through his work, to its internal necessities. Orthodoxy is not the best way to be true to Jung. This attitude, by the way, corresponds to Jung's own attitude toward Freud. In the same letter he wrote: “The problem nearest to Freud's heart was unquestionably the psychology of the unconscious, but none of his immediate followers has done anything about it. I happen to be the only one of his heirs that has carried out some further research along the lines he intuitively foresaw”.2 What Jung here implies is that he was the only true heir to Freud's project precisely by having deserted the literal Freudian school, and instead having taken over as his personal responsibility the deeper concern that was the driving force behind Freud's research.

 

15. The transcendent function and Hegel's dialectical vision

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Hester McFarland Solomon

In this chapter I will explore the parallels between Jung's concept of the transcendent function and the notion of dialectical change, first expounded by the German Romantic philosopher, Frederick Hegel (1770-1831).

Hegel's formulation of the method arrived at a particular time and place in European history, in Germany, at the time of the Romantic revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, a time of enormous social, political and economic turbulence and change. It formed an essential core of important 20th century European philosophical traditions, such as phenomenology and its derivatives, as well as the version of psychoanalysis developed by Lacan and his followers in France.

Hegel's dialectical model is a schema for understanding how change happens throughout all living systems; essentially, it is about the development of self-consciousness as it unfolds both internally and across society, in what he calls the World Spirit (Geist). Hegel's model finds a parallel in Jung's theory of how the individual develops a sense of identity or selfhood over time through the interplay between inner and outer, and between collective and personal psychological contents, both located at conscious and unconscious levels. Hegel expounded a philosophy that reflects a deep structural view of the reality of the world (Hegel, 1807a, 1812, 1817, 1820). It has had a profound effect on the thinking of those schooled in European culture since the 19th century. Hegel's dialectical vision reflects an understanding of fundamental truths, including psychological truths, concerning reality, and how the self is brought into being and attains its fullest actualization through the interaction between self-consciousness and consciousness of an other. Both Hegel and Jung expounded models that are concerned with those deeply embedded, inherited structures and dynamic processes that underlie the ways in which we perceive ourselves and our reality, and the ways in which we become the individuals who we are. Both employ an archetypal model of the self expressed in terms of an image of wholeness, achieved through successive conflict-ridden steps towards individuation and integration.

 

16. From moments of meeting to archetypal consciousness: emergence and the fractal structure of analytic practice

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George B. Hogenson

How does analysis effect change? This question is perhaps the oldest and most persistent methodological issue in the analytic tradition. Given its persistence, and the variety of proposed answers, one wonders whether it is worthwhile attempting once more to address the issue. This concern notwithstanding, I hope, in this paper to identify certain specific features of the analytic process that may allow us to probe the question of change more deeply. In order to do this I will begin by linking two clinically oriented papers which, I believe, share an organizing feature that opens the possibility of a deeper appreciation of the analytic process. The feature in question is the time horizon of the analytic process; one might say the temporality of analysis. I will then link this feature to a way of thinking about phenomena in general—specifically the dynamics of complex systems, with the organizing concepts of emergence and fractal structure—that I hope will open up a space for reflection on the analytic process that has only begun to be explored in both psychoanalysis and analytical psychology. I will then conclude with some reflections on the nature of the analytic process and developments in our understanding of the process of change that we will have to consider as we move ahead in our development of theory and practice.

 

17. Who owns the unconscious? Or Why psychoanalysts need to “own” Jung

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Jean Knox

The word “own” can mean two different things. It may imply possession, ownership or it may mean to acknowledge something as important and valuable. Jung himself did seem to fear that Freud wanted to own him, in the sense of possessing him. Much of the acrimony in the final letters between Freud and Jung arose partly from Jung's struggle to assert his intellectual independence; Freud responded with injured dignity, refuting the charge of intellectual tyranny (Freud & Jung, 1974, p. 492). However Jung's frustration with Freud finally erupted in the vitriolic letter of December 18th, 1912, in which he castigates Freud for “sniffing out all the symptomatic actions in your vicinity, thus reducing everyone to the level of sons and daughters who blushingly admit the existence of their faults” (ibid., p. 535). Their personal friendship and professional collaboration could not survive Jung's increasing resentment over Freud's resistance to “own”, in the sense of acknowledge, any of Jung's original contributions to psychoanalytic theory (Shamdasani, 2003, pp. 50-51).

 

18. Jung and neuroscience: the making of mind

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Margaret Wilkinson

As I consider the question “Who owns Jung?” I find that, in contrast to Jung ("thank God I am Jung and not a Jungian"), I have an increasing sense of pleasure that I am a Jungian, that is a “contemporary Jungian”, living in this particular period when contemporary neuroscience offers analytical psychologists the opportunity to explore the mind-brain relationship anew in the hope of grounding both theory and clinical practice in the science of the 21st century. In the discussion after Jung's Second Tavistock Lecture Bion asked Jung whether he considered that there was a connection between mind and brain. Jung replied “The psychic fact and the physiological fact come together in a peculiar way … We see them as two on account of the utter incapacity of our mind to think them together ( Jung 1935, par. 135-136). As Solomon (2000, pp. 126-137) and Casement ( 2001, pp. 133-134) have predicted, the continuing relevance of Jung's insights are being confirmed by research into neuroscience just as so many aspects of his thought remain relevant in our modern world.

 

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