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Sustainable Diets: Linking Nutrition and Food Systems

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This book takes a transdisciplinary approach and considers multisectoral actions, integrating health, agriculture and environmental sector issues to comprehensively explore the topic of sustainable diets. The team of international authors informs readers with arguments, challenges, perspectives, policies, actions and solutions on global topics that must be properly understood in order to be effectively addressed. They position issues of sustainable diets as central to the Earth's future. As an affiliated project of the One Planet Sustainable Food Systems Programme, this book provides a way forward for achieving global and local targets, including the Sustainable Development Goals and the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition commitments. This resource is essential reading for scientists, practitioners, and students in the fields of nutrition science, food science, environmental sciences, agricultural sciences, development studies, food studies, public health and food policy.

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1 Sustainable Diets: a Bundle of Problems (Not One) in Search of Answers

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Sustainable Diets: a Bundle of

Problems (Not One) in Search of Answers

Tim Lang and Pamela Mason

Abstract

This chapter reflects on the status of policy debate about sustainable diets. That the scientific case for shifting the population’s diet into a more sustainable direction is now as certain as science can be. The effect of food on ecosystems, health, the economy and society has turned what could be positive into too negative effects. Yet a policy approach to the food system has remained largely in place, which perpetuates these impacts, seemingly unaffected by the evidence. The policy approach to food centres on output, maximizing consumer choice and cheaper prices.

A gap has thus been created between what the evidence suggests needs to be addressed and what society actually delivers, eats and aspires to. The chapter uses the Nuffield Council of Bio-Ethics’ Ladder of Interventions to gauge why action on sustainable diets is relatively so weak. The ladder posits that the lowest rung one is minimal intervention, and rises higher to invoke tough measures such as fiscal and legal action, and at the top of the ladder on rung eight, choice is totally reframed. The chapter argues that attention needs to be given to how to move up the ladder, so that policy on sustainable diets encourages the radical change suggested by the evidence. Attempts to create international and national policy frameworks for sustainable diets have been few. The reluctance even to step onto the ladder’s first rung is remarkable. While the majority of politicians and food system actors seem reluctant to change, the chapter outlines developments tried by a number of countries and actors at various policy levels. These suggest that the ‘business-as-usual’ policy framework may be fraying at the edges. The chapter concludes by outlining policy arguments that have emerged in what it describes as a process of democratic experimentation, and proposes that policymakers should adopt multicriteria approaches to sustainable diets.

 

2 Sustainable Diets: the Public Health Perspective

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Sustainable Diets: the Public Health

Perspective

Mark Lawrence, Phillip Baker, Kate Wingrove and Rebecca Lindberg

Abstract

Sustainable diets are a prerequisite for public health directly through their impact on nutrition and indirectly through their impact on the environment. Dietary patterns have implications for the use of finite resources, biodiversity and the production of waste including greenhouse gas emissions. In turn, these environmental implications affect the quantity, quality, safety and diversity of the food supply, food and nutrition security and, ultimately, public health. In this chapter we present a review that: conceptualizes the relationship between sustainable diets and public health; describes current dietary patterns and their impacts on the environment and nutrition; explains the characteristics of sustainable diets for protecting public health; and provides policy and practice suggestions for promoting sustainable diets. Current diets have been shaped by transitions in the supply of and demand for food driven by economic, agricultural and food policies, combining with technological innovations and the interests of powerful transnational corporations. The diets are characterized by over consumption and, in particular, a relatively high consumption of animal sourced foods, vegetable oils, caloric sweeteners and ultra-processed food products. These food supply transitions are both a cause and effect of once food literate citizens who were actively engaged with food supply chains becoming progressively passive food consumers whose food demands are mediated via external influencers. Consequently, current diets are having adverse impacts on the environment and nutrition. They are non-sustainable and the leading contributors to the global burden of disease. The literature consistently identifies four key characteristics of sustainable diets to promote public health: moderate consumption; shift current dietary patterns to more plant-based diets; reduce consumption of ultraprocessed food products; and reduce food waste. Priority activities for promoting sustainable diets for public health are: policies to promote sustainable diets; empowering people to consume sustainable diets; and research to better understand and promote sustainable diets.

 

3 The Challenges of Sustainable Food Systems Where Food Security Meets Sustainability – What are Countries Doing?

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The Challenges of Sustainable Food

Systems Where Food Security Meets

Sustainability – What are Countries Doing?

Meredith Harper, Alon Shepon, Nir Ohad and Elliot M. Berry

Abstract

The evolutionary history of the concepts of food security (FS) and sustainability have run in parallel for many years. After the food crisis of 2008, stability was added to definition of FS as a short-term time dimension to express the ability to withstand shocks to the food system caused by natural or man-made disasters. We have proposed that sustainability be added as a fifth long-term time dimension, thus bringing together FS and sustainability. In 2015, the United Nations described the seventeen sustainable development goals. We believe that FS involves all the goals to a greater or lesser extent. The challenge ahead is to build and integrate FS on the sustainability agenda and vice versa. The final common pathway for all these efforts is for countries to develop their most appropriate sustainable food systems. As a practical exercise towards this aim, we have reviewed what eight different countries (United States, Brazil, France, Greece, Spain, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, and the Scandinavian nations) are doing regarding their food systems. We have compared their programmes according to an operational template for recommendations for Israel based on eight consensus criteria.

 

4 Climate Change and Sustainable and Healthy Diets

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Climate Change and Sustainable and Healthy Diets

Cristina Tirado von der Pahlen

Abstract

Promoting good nutrition, health and sustainable food systems in the context of population growth, dietary transition and a changing climate is a central challenge of our time. While climate change has an impact on our food systems and diets, our food systems and dietary patterns also affect climate change. This chapter presents an analysis of the interconnections of sustainable dietary patterns, health and nutrition in a context of climate-change mitigation. It outlines the global frameworks and agreements on climate change, food and nutrition, exploring the many, complex ways in which diet affects climate change, and vice versa. It looks at diets that boost health and are environmentally sustainable, as well as the measures needed to steer food production and consumption in that direction. The chapter identifies policies based on co-benefits to health and climate of dietary change and opportunities for joint action on nutrition, health, and climate policy. There are co-benefits of measures that reduce climate-altering emissions and, at the same time, improve health by shifting away from the overconsumption of meat from ruminant sources in high-meat-consuming societies. A general transition to more plant-based diets could lead to lower climate-altering emissions and likely reductions in diet-related non-communicable diseases. In this context, it is critical to promote demand-side climate mitigation options for the agriculture and food sector, such as changes in dietary patterns towards less emissions-intensive, healthier, more plant-based diets. From the health perspective, transitioning towards more plant-based diets in line with

 

5 Biodiversity Loss: We Need to Move from Uniformity to Diversity

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Biodiversity Loss: We Need to Move from Uniformity to Diversity

Emile A. Frison and Nick Jacobs

Abstract

Today’s food and farming systems have succeeded in supplying large volumes of foods to global markets but are generating negative outcomes on multiple fronts: wide-spread degradation of land, water and ecosystems; high greenhouse gas emissions; biodiversity losses; persistent hunger and micronutrient deficiencies, and the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related diseases; and livelihood stresses for farmers around the world. These problems are tied to the industrial model of agriculture that is increasingly dominant around the world. The uniformity at the heart of these systems leads systematically to negative outcomes and vulnerabilities, and particularly the use of an increasingly narrow pool of animal breeds and plant varieties. The ‘Green Revolution’ of the post-war period left a dual legacy: huge advances in the productivity of staple crops, and the concurrent marginalization of whole swathes of foods, crop varieties – and the communities depending on them. The low-diversity industrial model is locked in place by a series of vicious cycles. Highly compartmentalized approaches to research, education and policymaking allow one-dimensional productivity-focused solutions to prevail, and obscure the links between healthy ecosystems, a healthy planet and healthy people. Meanwhile, the way food systems are currently structured allows value to accrue to a limited number of actors, reinforcing their economic and political power, and thus their ability to influence the governance of food systems. To break these cycles, a fundamentally different model of agriculture is required, based on diversifying farms and farming landscapes, replacing chemical inputs, optimizing biodiversity and stimulating interactions between different species, as part of holistic strategies to build long-term fertility (i.e. ‘diversified agroecological systems’). There is growing evidence that these systems keep carbon in the ground, support biodiversity, rebuild soil fertility and sustain yields over time, providing a basis for secure farm livelihoods and diverse healthy diets.

 

6 Agroecology and Nutrition: Transformative Possibilities and Challenges

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Agroecology and Nutrition:

Transformative Possibilities and Challenges

Rachel Bezner Kerr, Maryam Rahmanian,

Ibukun Owoputi and Caterina Batello

Abstract

Agroecology is a holistic approach to agriculture, which takes into account the ecological, social, political and economic dimensions of producing food in order to build sustainable and resilient food systems that ensure food security and nutrition. It is thus an approach that resonates closely with sustainable diets. Positive nutritional outcomes should be one important outcome of such an approach; however, there has been limited research to date on the relationship between agroecology and nutrition. Building on a series of dialogues on agroecology hosted by the Food and Agriculture Organization, as well as relevant scientific literature, this chapter presents several dimensions of agroecology that seem to be relevant for nutrition. On the technical side of agroecology, some promising studies point to the role that biodiverse farming systems and agroforestry have in ensuring positive nutritional outcomes. Other studies contend that agroecology, when linked to questions of social inequality such as gender or class, can lead to improvements in nutrition. Areas of interest and further investigation are outlined in this chapter: biodiverse production systems, social empowerment, local knowledge, culture and diets, livelihoods and rights.

 

7 Indigenous Food Systems: Contributions to Sustainable Food Systems and Sustainable Diets

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Indigenous Food Systems:

Contributions to Sustainable

Food Systems and Sustainable Diets

Harriet Kuhnlein, Paul Eme and Yon Fernandez de Larrinoa

Nana and Baba the creators told us: We have given you everything, you will not be poor if you are close to us, there will always be food. This is why the Guna are always respecting the Forest and the Oceans, and everything created by Baba and Nana (Guna Yala Chief  ).

(López, 2017)

Abstract

Indigenous food systems are remarkable reservoirs of unique cultural knowledge grounded in historical legacy and spirituality that acknowledge the inextricable link of people with their sustainably managed resources. These sustainable food systems can provide essential understanding about sustainable diets and their importance to many of the Sustainable Development Goals. Unique practices of land and plant and animal management are now threatened by extreme weather and overall climate variability that compound the risks of a long list of environmental assaults upon indigenous lands. Despite vast knowledge of the world’s territories and guardianship of

 

8 Can Cities from the Global South be the Drivers of Sustainable Food Systems?

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Can Cities from the Global South be the Drivers of Sustainable

Food Systems?

Jorge M. Fonseca, Jane Battersby and Luis Antonio T. Hualda

Abstract

Urbanization has been associated with significant transformations in our society, with paramount influence in agriculture and the world food industry, and subsequently in consumers’ diets. Arguably, the current food consumption trend is non-sustainable given the non-regenerative, and rather disruptive, ways of using natural resources for meeting the growing food demand and the growing inequality for food affordability across regions.

Cities have been an easy target to promote non-sustainable consumption, due to a lifestyle that encourages it and where ‘convenience’ is the prominent sought-after feature in food. Moreover, the food systems feeding urban populations need to be not only environmentally sustainable, but also socially and economically sustainable, and these pillars of sustainability are inextricably linked. It is within this context that this chapter asks: how can cities be drivers of food system sustainability? It specifically focuses on cities of the South due to their rapid urbanization and particular persistent challenges of poverty and food insecurity. Indeed, in cities of the global South, population in slums, where poverty is prevalent, constitute nearly four out ten of the total urban dwellers in developing countries, and as high as seven out of ten in African countries, revealing cities can no longer afford to treat slums as an excluded part or ‘exception’ to the rest of the city. We reviewed the global context and identify current opportunities that cities can exercise to drive what can be the sustainable food systems of the future. It is highlighted that social and environmental inclusion in city-linked food systems can be effectively articulated through:

 

9 Consumer-level Food Waste Prevention and Reduction Towards Sustainable Diets

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Consumer-level Food Waste

Prevention and Reduction Towards

Sustainable Diets

Silvia Gaiani, Rosa Rolle and Camelia Bucatariu

Abstract

Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development is a global commitment that includes a set of 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) and 169 targets. Food systems are at the heart of this agenda. SDG 12 seeks to ‘ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns’. The third target under this goal, target 12.3, calls for reducing by half per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels, and reducing food losses along production and supply chains (including post-harvest losses) by 2030. SDG target 12.3 has the potential to embed prevention and reduction of food loss and waste in public and private sector strategies and to contribute to more sustainable diets and consumption patterns around the world. Food systems today are confronted with, among other issues, increasing non-communicable diseases linked to diets as well as socioeconomic and environmental concerns related to food waste. The macro- and micro-food environment within which consumers find themselves is multidimensional and they − alongside national governments and food supply chain stakeholders − can play a role in preventing and reducing food waste and contributing to sustainable diets. This chapter identifies six major challenges related to food waste prevention and reduction and sustainable food systems. Challenges range from recognition that the global food system is impacted by the attitudes and behaviours of local, national, regional and global food supply chain actors, to the definitions of food waste, measurement methodologies, data collection, and the need for agro-industry productivity and behavioural change thinking. A matrix policy analysis – based on a combination of initiatives at macro, meso and micro-level – is then recommended as a possible approach to successful food waste prevention and reduction.

 

10 Attaining a Healthy and Sustainable Diet

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Attaining a Healthy and Sustainable

Diet

Jessica Fanzo and Haley Swartz

Abstract

The world continues to struggle with the multiple burdens of malnutrition that affect billions of individuals and the countries in which they live. One major contributor to nutrition outcomes is the consumption of diverse, safe and high-quality diets. However, diets are not static – they are changing, and rapidly so, with income growth, migration and urbanization. Unhealthy diets (those high in salt, unhealthy fats, sugar, processed red meats, and highly processed packaged foods and sugar-sweetened beverages) are considered to be one of the major risk factors for the global burden of disease, of which more people are dying of diet-related non-communicable diseases everywhere including low- and middle-income countries. Food systems and food environments serve to provide the foods that make up the diets that people eat; however, both barriers and opportunities exist across those systems and environments to accessing healthy diets. Physical proximity, affordability, marketing and acceptability all play roles in the decision-making process of consumers when purchasing and consuming food. The foods that are consumed not only impact health, but also the environment. While food choices affect the environment, the environment also impacts food choices making the consumption of sustainable diets – those diets with low environmental impacts which contribute to food security and nutrition and to healthy life for present and future generations – all the more challenging. But there are solutions by way of individual, community and institutional levels that can move us towards healthy, sustainable diets for ourselves and for the planet.

 

11 Highlighting Interlinkages Between Sustainable Diets and Sustainable Food Systems

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Highlighting Interlinkages Between

Sustainable Diets and Sustainable Food

Systems

Alexandre Meybeck and Vincent Gitz

Abstract

Sustainable food systems and sustainable diets are increasingly being called upon as ways to orient action ­towards the eradication of hunger and malnutrition and the fulfilment of the sustainable development goals. This chapter explores the links between the two notions and how these links can orient policies and consumption choices. To do so, it first considers the relationships between food systems and diets, how food systems condition the availability and accessibility of foods that can be part of a diet, and also how demand determines the foods that are made available and accessible. Diets are thus both the results and the drivers of food systems. A sustainable food system can be defined as a food system that ensures food security and nutrition for all in such a way that the economic, social and environmental bases to generate food security and nutrition of future generations are not compromised. The concept of a sustainable diet combines two totally different perspectives: (i) a nutrition perspective, which is person focused; and (ii) a global sustainability perspective, in all its dimensions – environmental, economic and social. Understanding the links between these two notions can help design policies and incentives to improve the sustainability of food systems and diets, building upon the motivation of various actors, consumers and private actors, which are often related to very different dimensions (health, environment, social and cultural).

 

12 Understanding the Food Environment: the Role of Practice Theory and Policy Implications

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Understanding the Food

Environment: the Role of Practice Theory and Policy Implications

Dalia Mattioni, Francesca Galli and Gianluca Brunori

Abstract

The last decade has witnessed an increase in the number of malnourished people worldwide, and particularly of people suffering from overweight and obesity. Research has shown the link between diet quality and the underlying food systems through the intermediation of the food environment. Specifically, a number of studies have analysed the role of the food retail environment and its impact on dietary intake largely by using quantitative geospatial tools – an approach that has been criticized on the grounds of its limited integration of social aspects linked to people’s daily paths and lifestyles. This chapter contributes to a better understanding of the food environment by using social practice theory. Social practice theory can help complement the ‘objective’ measures used to study the retail environment, with more ‘subjective’ measures linked to its more symbolic and social dimensions by using more qualitative and/or mixed methods. With a view to changing people’s food patterns, it is of fundamental importance to understand how food environments shape practices and vice versa, and where change can come about. In some cases, change can be triggered at the level of the material aspects of the food environment, such as the physical outlets where people buy their foods, and sometimes it can be triggered (also) by a change in the meaning attributed to food. This has implications for the types of policies adopted by governments and relevant stakeholders: policies need to be consistent and coherent, and aimed at changing both the material aspects of the food environment as well as the competence people need to make it work and the meaning attached to healthy eating.

 

13 Sustainable Diets: Social and Cultural Perspectives

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Sustainable Diets: Social and Cultural

Perspectives

F. Xavier Medina and Alicia Aguilar

Abstract

The incorporation of sustainability issues into the international agri-food and nutritional agenda has been increasingly discussed over the last decades. In this framework, anthropological concerns with food and nutrition have increased greatly in the last five decades, and the development has been across the subdisciplines of anthropology and in conjunction with other academic disciplines. Nevertheless, social and cultural aspects related to food are, even today, frequently neglected, regarded as secondary or less important in comparison to other ‘main’ subjects like health or economy. In this sense, the aim of this chapter is to focus on the social and cultural perspective of food and its intrinsic relationship with diets, territories and sustainability, highlighting this point of view as an essential part of a very complex panorama, helping to have a more comprehensive and less partial view of the situation.

 

14 Nutritional Indicators to Assess the Sustainability of the Mediterranean Diet

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Nutritional Indicators to Assess the Sustainability of the Mediterranean Diet

Lorenzo M. Donini, Sandro Dernini, Denis Lairon, Lluis Serra-Majem and Marie-Josèphe Amiot-Carlin

Abstract

There is increasing evidence of the multiple effects of diets on public health nutrition, society and environment.

Sustainability and food security are closely inter-related. The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) is recognized as a healthier dietary pattern with a lower environmental impact. As a case study, the MD may guide innovative inter-sectorial efforts to counteract the degradation of ecosystems and loss of biodiversity and homogeneity of diets due to globalization, through the improvement of sustainable healthy dietary patterns. This chapter defines a suite of the most appropriate nutrition and health indicators for assessing the sustainability of diets based on the MD. Thirteen nutrition indicators of sustainability were identified in five areas: biochemical characteristics of food (A1. Vegetable/animal protein consumption ratios; A2. Average dietary energy adequacy; A3. Dietary energy density score; A4. Nutrient density of diet and foods); food quality (A5. Fruit and vegetable consumption/ intakes; A6. Dietary diversity score); environment (A7. Food biodiversity composition and consumption; A8. Local/ regional foods and seasonality; A9. Organic/eco-friendly production and consumption); lifestyle (A10. Physical activity/physical inactivity prevalence; A11. Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern); and clinical aspects

 

15 Assessing the Environmental Impact of Diets

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Assessing the Environmental

Impact of Diets

Corné van Dooren

Abstract

At the global level, the planetary boundaries approach addresses the current global environmental state and helps to prioritize the most pressing issues related to the agri-food system as a driver. These issues are climate change, nitrogen and phosphorus cycle disruption, land-use change and freshwater use. At the national level, the footprints approach is used to identify indicators. This footprint family includes ecological, land, carbon, energy and water footprints. At the product level, life cycle assessment includes eleven pressure indicators. We conclude that greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) and land use fulfil the selection criteria and address most of the environmental impact of diets well. In the future, these indicators should be supplemented with an indicator addressing the nitrogen and phosphorous efficiency of food products. The function of food is to deliver required nutrients to the human body, not only filling (volume) or fuel (kcal). In order to find an appropriate unit, we analysed and evaluated existing nutrient density scores, quantifying the amounts of essential nutrients per gram or kcal. We propose the nutrient density unit – at least for solid foods – since it reflects the food’s function of supplying the essential macronutrients within human metabolic energy needs. Greenhouse gas emissions and land use are the most frequently used indicators in diet studies. Some examples (i.e. the Netherlands) of those studies are given.

 

16 Sustainable Diets and Food-based Dietary Guidelines

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Sustainable Diets and Food-based

Dietary Guidelines

Rebekah Jones, Christopher Vogliano and Barbara Burlingame

Abstract

Food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) have been developed by countries around the world as simple policy instruments to promote better diets for individuals and populations. The guidance historically has been based on country-specific, diet-related morbidity and mortality. As the environmental impacts of food consumption and production push planetary boundaries, the case for inclusion of elements of environmental sustainability into FBDGs becomes compelling. Issues addressed include biodiversity, plant-based diets, meat and dairy consumption and production, sustainable fish consumption, processed foods, local, seasonal and organic production, standards of ethical treatment for livestock, waste and lifestyle behaviours. Examples from official FBDGs are presented, along with examples of quasi-official guidelines. Challenges and failures are also discussed, related to lack of political support and vested interests. With consideration given to all the international agreements signed by nations related to both nutrition and environmental sustainability, the logical integration should yield country-specific sustainable FBDGs.

 

17 Costs and Benefits of Sustainable Diets: Impacts for the Environment, Society and Public Health Nutrition

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Costs and Benefits of Sustainable

Diets: Impacts for the Environment, Society and Public Health Nutrition

Adam Drewnowski

Abstract

The four domains of food sustainability are nutrition, economics, society and the environment. Sustainable diets need to be nutritionally adequate, safe, affordable, acceptable and appealing, while sparing of both human and natural resources. Those multiple demands are contradictory and can be hard to satisfy at the same time. First, the most nutrient-rich diets are not necessarily the most affordable or environmentally friendly. It is empty calories of minimal nutritional value that are cheap. Second, the most nutrient-rich diets require more land, water and energy use; empty calories are more sparing of the environment. Third, some foods that are nutrient rich, affordable and environmentally friendly may not be socially or culturally acceptable. As a result, assessing the likely impact of sustainable diets on economic equity, food security and population health is a continuing challenge. Cost–benefit analyses rely on multiple inputs. Diet quality is measured through a variety of indices, both food- and nutrient-based. Affordability is measured in terms of calories and nutrients per penny. Cultural acceptance can be based on purchases and consumption frequencies across population groups. Environmental impact is measured in terms of land, water, and energy use, notably greenhouse gas emissions. However, relevant input data are scarce, especially at the local and regional level. Mainstream public health nutrition needs to pay more attention to food production and cost, sensory and cultural acceptance of foods, and the environmental impact of the recommended diets. The way forward is through multi-sector engagement and through sustainable food-based dietary guidelines.

 

18 The One Planet Sustainable Food Systems (SFS) Programme as a Multi-stakeholder Platform for a Systemic Approach

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The One Planet Sustainable Food

Systems (SFS) Programme as a Multistakeholder Platform for a Systemic Approach

Michael Mulet Solon, Patrick Mink, Sandro Dernini, Marina

Bortoletti and James Lomax

Abstract

Food production and consumption has a failing performance in terms of food security, nutrition and health, but also equality, environmental protection and climate change mitigation, posing a serious sustainability challenge as the planet’s population grows while consuming beyond planetary boundaries, compromising future generations’ well-being. Responses to the wicked problem posed by securing humanity’s food are more likely to succeed if built on two pillars, as championed by the One Planet Sustainable Food Systems (SFS) Programme. The first pillar refers to the need to adopt a food-systems approach, which enables identifying and addressing more holistic solutions. The second pillar proposes that multi-stakeholder, inclusive approaches are more likely to succeed, especially if they fulfil conditions for collective action, if they overcome polarization by embracing the inherent conflict in a locked-in system, and if they adopt a mindset that focuses on innovation. The SFS Programme has been built on both pillars, adopting five focus themes and organizing its work across four areas. Through its governance structure, the programme has launched a series of core initiatives that are participated in by coalitions of organizations from diverse sectors, and they were developed building on pre-existing projects, expertise and resources in order to leverage synergies and avoid effort duplication. They address key problems related to SFS and link several elements from production to consumption. The core initiatives are inclusive, enabling faster learning through constant communication and overall coordination, becoming mutually reinforcing activities to accelerate the shift to SFS, in support of the implementation of the Agenda 2030.

 

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