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Islamic Tourism: Management of Travel Destinations

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Islamic tourism is not purely motivated by religion; it also includes participants pursuing similar leisure experiences to non-Muslims, within the parameters set by Islam. Destinations are therefore not necessarily locations where Shari'a or full Islamic law is enforced.ÊThis book offers an engaging assessment of the linkages and interconnections between Muslim consumers and the places they visit. It provides an important analysis for researchers of religious tourism, pilgrimage and related subjects. Demand for Islamic tourism destinations is increasing as the Muslim population expands, with the market forecast to be worth around US$238 billion. This book explores the ever-widening gap between the religious, tourism, management and education sectors. It provides practical applications, models and illustrations of religious tourism and pilgrimage management from a variety of international perspectives, and introduces theories and models in an accessible structure.Ê

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19 Chapters

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1 Introduction to Islamic Tourism



Introduction to Islamic Tourism

Ahmad Jamal, Razaq Raj* and Kevin A. Griffin

Scholars have long shown a keen interest in understanding the role of religion within the travel and tourism industry, and the relationship between Islam and the tourism industry is gaining an increased interest and attraction as evidenced by a growing scholarly work published under the title of Halal or Islamic tourism in recent years (e.g., Henderson, 2009, 2016; Jafari and Scott, 2014;

Carboni and Janati, 2016; Battour and Ismail, 2016; El-Gohary, 2016; Mohsin et al., 2016; Samori et al., 2016; Battour et al., 2017).

In 2015, the global Muslim population was an estimated 1.8 billion, making up about 24% of the world population (Pew Research Center, 2017a). Islam is a dominant religion in some parts of the world such as in South Asia, Central Asia, the Middle East, Indonesia and North Africa. Islam is also the second largest religion in Europe after Christianity, making up 4.9% of Europe’s population in 2016 and is estimated to increase to 7.4% by 2050 (Pew Research Center, 2017b).


2 Islamic Tourism: The Role of Culture and Religiosity



Islamic Tourism: The Role of Culture and Religiosity

Ahmad Jamal* and Noha El-Bassiouny


Tourists are among the least understood collectivities, despite their ubiquitousness and still growing number worldwide. (Jafari, 1987, p.151)

The quote from Jafari (1987) is interesting in the sense that despite the recent growth in Halal tourism, there has been no effort in developing a better understanding of Muslim religious tourists. Accordingly, this chapter aims to provide insights into the consumer behaviour of Muslim tourists and their significance as a potential target segment within the context of Halal tourism. More specifically, the chapter intends to discuss the role of religious commitment and culture in impacting Muslim tourist decision-making processes within the Halal tourism sector.

The next section presents a brief overview of Halal tourism sector, highlighting the need to target Muslim consumers. This is followed by a section that discusses Muslim tourist travel motivations, particularly in the context of guidance provided by the holy Qurān. The chapter then presents and evaluates a stimulus–response model that assesses the extent to which the Muslim tourist consumer responds to the marketing efforts by the Halal tourism industry, and in doing so presents a conceptual framework of the industry–customer interface.


3 Religion and Islamic Tourism Destinations



Religion and Islamic Tourism


Rukeya Suleman* and Balal Qayum


The 21st century has been marked by symbolic clashes and a preoccupation with representation. The meaning of places to people, matters. The meanings carried symbolically through tourism heritage, matter. These phenomena form the backdrop against which this chapter is set. Tourism is a powerful force in the making of the world and our own individual understandings of the world; in our dialectic understandings of different cultures and spiritualties, of people, places and pasts (…and futures). In a broad sense, this chapter takes a closer look at some of the intricacies of Islamic tourism and its management, but more to the point, the priority here is to approach seemingly ‘given’ terms in this sub-discipline of religious tourism with caution, criticality and an awareness of the audience. Some of the questions raised by this chapter are hoped to serve as a primer for tourism management, offering guidance in navigating the complexities that percolate Islamic tourism destinations and their management.


4 Marketing Approaches and Problems of Islamic Destinations



Marketing Approaches and Problems of Islamic


Yasin Bilim*, Ferdi Bişkin and İbrahim Hakkı Kaynak


Many researchers (Henderson, 2003; Martin and Mason, 2004; ZamaniFarahani and Henderson, 2010; Jafari and Scott, 2014; Rahman, 2014) suggest that Islam does not oppose travel, and Timothy and Iverson (2006) emphasize that the Islamic doctrine encourages travel and the holy book Qurān often refers to travel. Referring to some parts (Surat) of the Qurān, they indicate some discourses about travel and tourism where Muslims are encouraged to gain knowledge, to associate with others, to spread God’s word and to appreciate God’s creations (Din, 1989; Timothy and Iverson, 2006). More importantly, there are five pillars of the Muslim religion, and one of those is the Hajj (pilgrimage to

Makkah). According to Aziz (1995, p. 6; c.f. Martin and Mason, 2004), ‘the pilgrimage is not simply religious travel, but it is a cultural encounter in which pilgrims are encouraged to communicate and exchange experiences’. On the other hand, Islam and Islamic education suggest that leisure, recreational activities and tourism are good ways to waste time, time that would be better spent developing the physical, mental and social gains both individually and sociologically (El-Sayed, 1997). This teaching also directs followers to establish and strengthen the links across the Muslim community and to expand knowledge of other cultures (Kovjanic, 2014). However, there has been a conflict between touristic practices and Islamic values in several Muslim destinations (Din, 1989).


5 The Impact of Hajj Satisfaction on Islamic Religious Commitment: A Theoretical Framework



The Impact of Hajj Satisfaction on Islamic Religious

Commitment: A Theoretical


Sulistyo B. Utomo*, Noel Scott and Xin Jin


The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is the custodian of Makkah and Madinah, the holiest cities of Islam. As the Muslim population of the world grows, demand for Hajj, the pilgrimage to Makkah, is increasing. To accommodate these pilgrims, the KSA has built an infrastructure providing additional access to Ka’aba, railways, shopping malls and luxurious five-star hotels. As a result, however, the Hajj pilgrimage experience is significantly different to that of 50 years ago.

Arguably, the Hajj is becoming perhaps more secular and focused on a pilgrim’s physical rather than spiritual welfare. Indeed, the impact of Hajj on the spiritual outcomes of pilgrims has not previously been studied. The aim of this chapter is to discuss the impact of the Hajj experience on Islamic religious commitment in Indonesia. To do so the chapter adopts the investment model of commitment (IMC) used in the psychology literature to provide a theoretical framework for studying Hajj experiences.


6 Islamic Tourism and Use of Social Media



Islamic Tourism and Use of Social Media

Tahir Rashid* and Sorur Adwik


This chapter discusses the use of social media on consumer behaviour and assesses some of the implications of social media use on Islamic/Muslimfriendly tourism. While social media use has been widely researched, there is no uniform definition of the term. This chapter provides a definition of social media with a view to providing better insights into Islamic tourism, which is also a recent phenomenon. Islamic tourism generally means providing a tourism-­ related product or service that is compatible with Islamic law and meets the needs of 21st century Muslim travellers. The chapter begins by discussing the development of social media through a discussion of the application of Web2.0 in technology, and then provides a definition of social media and terms used to define it. Furthermore, an understanding of the importance of Halal and

Islamic (Shari’ah) law will lead to conclusions of why Muslims are interested in


7 Islamic Customer Relationship Marketing (ICRM) and Inspirations for Religious Tourism



Islamic Customer Relationship

Marketing (ICRM) and Inspirations for Religious Tourism

Md Javed Kawsar* and Tahir Rashid


The aim of this chapter is to explain and expand the understanding of Islamic customer relationship marketing (ICRM) and its factors for the purpose of religious tourism business. There is considerable literature available on customer relationship marketing, its related factors and religious tourism, but there is an absence of studies that interrelate the Islamic business concept of customer relationship marketing (CRM) with religious tourism. This is despite the fact that Muslims make up approximately one-third of the world’s consumer population; the Islamic religious scripture encourages followers to travel with a view to achieving spiritual, physical and social goals; and Islam guides Muslims in relation to ‘how’ and ‘what’ to trade and how to communicate with others as part of business transactions. Hence, there is a need to address this gap through a comprehensive and extensive literature review. ICRM generally postulates that developing long-term relationship with customers, by satisfying them more efficiently than competitors, is one of the ways to achieve long-term success for an organization. In addition, religious tourism has been considered to be vital to the economy of those cities that host religious centres. Adopting an interpretive approach, an extensive literature review of various business disciplines, including marketing, relationship marketing, customer relationship marketing,


8 The Impact of Umrah Quality Attributes on Religious Tourist Loyalty in Saudi Arabia



The Impact of Umrah Quality

Attributes on Religious Tourist

Loyalty in Saudi Arabia

Ibrahim Alsini, Erdogan Ekiz* and Kashif Hussain


The purpose of this chapter is to elaborate on how quality attributes for tourism activities are linked with tourist loyalty for a religious destination. The chapter reports findings of a research study that assessed Umrah quality attributes as presented in four dimensions (Islamic life and belief, Umrah package services,

Umrah destination quality and religious tourist loyalty). These attributes are frequently used by researchers when investigating the quality of experience and loyalty and this chapter utilizes them to gauge religious tourists’ perceptions after performing Umrah in Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

Tourism in Saudi Arabia

Tourism activities promote several economic benefits for countries across the globe that significantly contribute to their national gross domestic product (GDP) and generates employment. The Saudi Arabian tourism industry mainly depends on religious tourism (Ekiz et al., 2017). The following figures are reported by the


9 Sufi Tourism: The Impact of Sufi Heritage on Islamic Religious Tourism



Sufi Tourism: The Impact of Sufi Heritage on Islamic

Religious Tourism

Tariq Elhadary*


This chapter attempts to explore the Sufi heritage and its effect on promoting

Islamic religious tourism. It presents the similarities between religious and Sufi tourism. Moreover, the chapter discusses how religious tourism embodies the essence of Sufism in its search for love, peace and knowledge. Sufism embraces love as a means of transformation to be better human beings and how to be close to others as illustrated in Sufi heritage. How can Sufi poetry be utilized to promote religious tourism? Religious-specific needs might encourage Muslims and non-Muslims to travel to a particular destination. Sufism entails its religious values and beliefs that can drive people to travel and follow certain religious routes. Can the experience of exploring the place and interacting with the people render any new meanings of love for both the Sufi as a religious tourist and the religious tourist as a Sufi mystic? Pilgrims often regard the journey they take as a physical manifestation of an inner spiritual journey, with the path travelled being a framework for the travel within (Hall, 2006).


10 Religious Tourism in the Sultanate of Oman: The Potential for Mosque Tourism to Thrive



Religious Tourism in the

Sultanate of Oman: The

Potential for Mosque Tourism to Thrive

Kristel Kessler* and Razaq Raj


Mosque tourism is a terminology that is rarely used as it is a relatively new area of study, recording a low number of academic publications and research projects. Islam and tourism have generated tremendous interest from academics with several publications on their relationships, particularities, similarities and differences (Din, 1989; Aziz, 2001; Al-Hamarneh and Steiner, 2004;

Stephenson, 2014), it is therefore only logical to finally include one of the most significant and visible symbols of Islam at the centre of this debate. Kessler

(2015) defined mosque tourism and its variables as a key element of Islamic tourism enabling tourists to have a meaningful experience. Mosque tourism takes into consideration tourists visiting mosques as part of their holidays regardless of their religions, motivations and expectations.


11 An Opportunity Unexploited: A Pilgrim’s Observations on the Potential of Muslim Pilgrimage (Hajj)



An Opportunity Unexploited:

A Pilgrim’s Observations on the Potential of Muslim

Pilgrimage (Hajj)

Mustafa Acar*


This chapter discusses why the Muslim pilgrimage to Makkah (Hajj) is a disturbingly underutilized or unexploited business opportunity for the Islamic tourism industry, and puts forward suggestions to improve the utilization of its potential.

There is no doubt that the Hajj is the single-most crowded gathering in the world today. The number of Muslims from around the world performing

Hajj has been increasing every year, and currently exceeds 4 million people.

This gathering creates a perfect opportunity to ‘charge the batteries’, providing refreshment to the soul and strengthening global Muslim solidarity, which would translate into economic, political and sociocultural gains. However, almost every year the reputation of the annual pilgrimage is damaged by negative media reports citing some unfortunate accidents, crushes or stampedes, raising important questions about the safety of pilgrims while on pilgrimage.


12 Halal Tourism: Insights from Experts in the Field



Halal Tourism: Insights from

Experts in the Field

Alfonso Vargas-Sánchez* and María Moral-Moral


Recent years have seen an increased interest in the study of tourism segments linked with religion, as in the case of Islam, but when tackling this topic, the first problem a researcher finds is the confusion caused by a number of terms intended to designate the same concept (Islamic tourism, Shari’ah-compliant tourism, Halal tourism, etc.). There is also no single or shared interpretation of what Islam requires tourism services to do to secure its acceptability. As stated by Mazrui (1997, p. 118):

Islam is not just a religion and certainly not just a fundamentalist political movement. It is a culture or civilization, a way of life that varies from one Muslim country to another but is spirited by a common core.

With this in mind, this chapter aims to achieve two objectives. First, the chapter presents a synthesis of current research on Halal tourism using a small-scale meta-analysis of previous literature. Second, the chapter presents findings of a study that was designed to provide insights into Halal tourism from the point of view of tourism experts with a special focus on the importance and offering of


13 Battlefield Tourism: The Potential of Badr, Uhud and the Trench (Khandaq) Battles for Islamic Tourism



Battlefield Tourism: The

Potential of Badr, Uhud and the Trench (Khandaq)

Battles for Islamic Tourism

Onur Akbulut* and Yakin Ekin


The aim of this chapter is to discuss the role of battlefield tourism within the context of Islamic tourism. Drawing insights from dark and heritage tourism literature, the chapter discusses why people are interested in visiting historical sites associated with famous battles. It then introduces three key battles that have very high significance within the religion of Islam. The chapter finally discusses implications for Islamic tourism.

To set the scene, we would like to present a famous quote:

For man, when perfected, is the best of animals, but, when separated from law and justice, he is the worst of all; since armed injustice is the more dangerous, and he is equipped at birth with the arms of intelligence and with moral qualities which he may use for the worst ends. (Aristotle, translated by Jowett, 1999)


14 Holy Foods and Religious Tourism: Konya and Mevlevi Cuisine



Holy Foods and Religious

Tourism: Konya and Mevlevi


Mustafa Yilmaz*, Eda Güneş and Ümit Sormaz


Tourism is perceived largely to be based on the trio of sea, sand and sun – that is, traditional mass tourism. However, based on economic and sociocultural factors this perception has changed, which has led to the development of alternative types of tourism (Reisigner, 2009). Many factors affect the development of tourism, and religion is said to be one of the most important of these motivations

(Vukonic, 1996). Visits to holy places and an increased interest in culture and faith has led to a growth in visits to the holy places, which has formed a new sector.

Religion is a integral part of followers’ daily lives, providing social tranquilty and peacefulness, as well as strengthening relationships with others. The concept of religious diversity in society has been known throughout history and will continue into the future. Faith tourism is generally defined as travelling to a holy place for religious reasons in order meet the spiritual needs of individuals (Yılmaz, 2000; Sargın, 2006). People may also travel to worship at certain sites, particularly those sites that are important for religious reasons. This has emerged as the biggest factor in the development of faith tourism.


15 The Halal Tourism: A Business Model Opportunity



The Halal Tourism: A Business

Model Opportunity

Paolo Pietro Biancone* and Silvana Secinaro


This chapter explores the issues and concepts associated with ethical tourism.

By focusing on Halal tourism, which is rooted in the Islamic culture and religion, we demonstrate that the way to discover the world is changing and ethical tourism is moving forward. Ethical is based on environmental sustainability and respect for places and people. Tourism (in any form) is also an economic activity because there are organizations that offer a set of goods/services to the market and, in doing so, employs staff, invests financial capital, supplies other companies and targets consumer segments interested in that particular ‘product’. The well-known stakeholder model also applies to the tourism industry –

Freeman compares the management of an enterprise to that of wheel hub, where the spokes are composed of numerous legitimate stakeholders (Savoja, 2009).


16 Religious Practices and Performance in Syrian Shi’ite Religious Tourism



Religious Practices and

Performance in Syrian

Shi’ite Religious Tourism

Shin Yasuda*


Religious practices and rituals are considered to be the embodiment of i­ ndividual and collective religious beliefs and solidarity among the followers. It is also recognized as a framework for people’s religious experiences. Because pilgrimages to religious places are often accompanied by numerous religious practices, researchers have analysed the meaning and function of visitors’ religious practices during pilgrimages in order to clarify their beliefs and religious dispositions.

The spread of mass tourism and the formation of the international tourism market have strongly influenced and transformed the activities at religious sites. The literature on tourism studies shows the influence of commercialization in religious activities by focusing on the change of religious practices from religious and traditional ‘rituals’ to touristic and contemporary ‘performances’. People have started to consume these practices as ‘fun’ activities, which is frequently conceptualized as ‘commodification of religion (or culture)’


17 Constructs of Foot Pilgrimage in Islam: The Case of Arbaeen Ziyara



Constructs of Foot Pilgrimage in Islam: The Case of

Arbaeen Ziyara

UmmeSalma Mujtaba*


Pilgrimage structure entails how a pilgrimage is performed. Walking to the sacred place, that is, performing the pilgrimage on foot, falls in the premise of a pilgrimage’s structure, as it indicates how the pilgrimage is performed (Bremborg,

2013). In order to realize foot pilgrimages, specific routes are developed for pilgrims to embark on the physical journey. Route-based pilgrimage involving ‘foot pilgrimage’ is increasingly becoming a subject of academic inquiry (González and Medina, 2003; Hayes and MacLeod, 2008; Kim et al., 2016). Other than tourism disciplines that by default deem pilgrimage to be part of tourism studies (a pilgrim is ‘half a tourist’, according to Turner and Turner [1978, p. 20]), foot pilgrimage studies have attracted interest from variety of disciplines such as business processes and models, sociology of religion, anthropology, physiology and other associated specialisms (Galbraith, 2000; Lourens, 2007; Bremborg,


18 Tablighi Jamaat: A Multidimensional Movement of Religious Travellers



Tablighi Jamaat: A

Multidimensional Movement of Religious Travellers

Abdus Sattar Abbasi*


A group of around a dozen Muslims with backpack beds, medium-length beards, trousers (shalwar) ending above their ankles, walking with their eyes downcast through the streets and city centres is not an uncommon sight in

South Asia, the Far East, Middle East and Central Asia. These dedicated religious travellers are part of a successful religious movement called Tablighi Jamaat, which has experienced consistent growth over decades. Devotees of Tablighi

Jamaat form a unique organization of religious preachers who spend a significant part of their lifetime travelling with holdalls, spreading the message of prescribed Islamic persona among their fellow Muslims. Their extensive outreach in Muslim communities attracts the interest of many segments of society.

In most parts of the world people respect them, greet them and extend support for their voluntary quest to reform lives of others by knocking on their doors and inviting them to join the movement and join travelling regimens for the development of self and the development of society according to principles set by the founder of the movement.


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