Medium 9781786392688

World Heritage Sites: Tourism, Local Communities and Conservation Activities

Views: 63
Ratings: (0)

Heritage is a growing area of both tourism and study, with World Heritage Site designations increasing year-on-year. This book reviews the important interrelations between the industry, local communities and conservation work, bringing together the various opportunities and challenges for different destinations.ÊWorld Heritage status is a strong marketing brand, and proper heritage management and effective conservation are vital, but this tourism must also be developed and managed appropriately if it is to benefit a site. As many sites are located in residential areas, their interaction with the local community must also be carefully considered.ÊAn important read for academics, researchers and students of heritage studies, cultural studies and tourism, this book is also a useful resource for professionals working in conservation, cultural and natural heritage management.

List price: $140.00

Your Price: $112.00

You Save: 20%

Remix
Remove
 

10 Chapters

Format Buy Remix

1 World Heritage Sites – An Introduction

PDF

Historic Centre of Oporto, Luiz I Bridge and Monastery of Serra do Pilar, Portugal.

1

World Heritage Sites – An Introduction

1  Aim and Scope of the Book

This book brings together opportunities and challenges associated with the designation of

World Heritage Sites (hereafter WHSs). From among diverse themes surrounding WHSs, the book focuses on three key themes: tourism; local communities; and heritage management and

© T. Jimura 2019. World Heritage Sites (T. Jimura)�

conservation activities. The impact of WHS listing can be either positive or negative for tourism, local communities, and heritage management and conservation activities. The book explores such opportunities and challenges.

Firstly, proper heritage management and conservation activities are vital for WHSs before and after inscription. If they are not managed

1

2

Chapter 1

and conserved appropriately they will be added to the List of World Heritage in Danger (LWHD).

 

2 Heritage Management and Conservation Activities at World Heritage Sites

PDF

2

Heritage Management and Conservation

Activities at World Heritage Sites

1 Introduction

1.1  Heritage management and World

Heritage Sites

It could be stated that the heritage industry has started growing since the 1970s or 1980s in developed countries, and then in less-developed countries (LDCs). However, this phenomenon is associated chiefly with ‘cultural heritage’. The movement for the protection of nature can be traced back to the late 19th century in the USA, evidenced by the establishment of Yellowstone

National Park, the world’s first national park, in

1872 (National Park Service, n.d.). Diverse international organizations for nature conservation were established in the 20th century, such as the International Union for Conservation of

Nature (IUCN) in 1948, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) in 1961 and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 1972.

Nevertheless, ‘nature’ does not appear to have been understood or managed as ‘heritage’ until

 

3 Tourism Development at World Heritage Sites

PDF

Conwy Castle: part of the Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd, United Kingdom of Great

Britain and Northern Ireland.

3

Tourism Development at World Heritage

Sites

1  Tourism Development

1.1 Introduction

However, the following definition and context is one of the most widely accepted among tourism researchers:

To establish a definition of tourism that can satisfy all stakeholders seems to be almost impossible, mainly due to its multi-disciplinary nature and the range of sectors and activities involved.

Definition:

‘Tourism is defined as the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and

34�

© T. Jimura 2019. World Heritage Sites (T. Jimura)

Tourism Development at World Heritage Sites

other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.’

 

4 Tourism Marketing at World Heritage Sites

PDF

Historic Centre of Brugge, Belgium.

4

Tourism Marketing at World Heritage Sites

1  Tourism and Destination

­Marketing

1.1  Marketing for tourism

The tourism industry consists of a range of

­businesses, organizations and facilities that are intended to meet specific needs and wants of

© T. Jimura 2019. World Heritage Sites (T. Jimura)�

tourists (Leiper, 1979). Figure 3.1, in Chapter 3, i­ndicates key stakeholders in tourism, and major sectors of the tourism industry are found in the

‘Tourist destination (hosts)’ part of the figure.

All of them are more or less engaged in marketing activities for tourism, consciously or subconsciously. Of these, marketing activities for tourism are particularly important for accommodation,

49

50

Chapter 4

catering, visitor attraction, the retail sector, transport, and tour operators at a local level, whilst marketing activities for a destination are a key part of its destination marketing organization (DMO). In the business world, products can be divided into goods and services. In the tourism industry, products are services. Key characteristics of services as products are intangibility, inseparability, variability and perishability. Moreover, the satisfaction of consumers who purchase services is obtained not via ownership but via actions, performances or experiences. In tourism businesses, people who receive services include passengers, guests, customers and visitors. For a tourist destination, consumers are visitors who include day trippers and tourists. At a tourist destination, what visitors have is, ultimately,

 

5 Local Communities in and around World Heritage Sites

PDF

 The Trulli of Alberobello, Italy

5

Local Communities in and around

World Heritage Sites

1  Local Communities and Local People

1.1  Concepts of local communities and local people

The term ‘local community’ is another key theme for this book. This chapter examines local

© T. Jimura 2019. World Heritage Sites (T. Jimura)�

communities in terms of tourism and conservation activities, referring to examples from World Heritage Sites (hereafter WHSs). First, the concept of local people is explored. According to English dictionaries, those having a continuous residency in a specific area for a certain period are seen as

‘local people’. This understanding appears to be

65

66

Chapter 5

similar in other l­anguages. Nowadays, many people work in a place apart from where they live. Therefore, whether people are ‘local’ or not should be judged not on where they work but on where they live. Regarding the length of time, people who temporarily stay in a place should not be treated as local people as their ties with the place are limited. To be viewed as local residents, people must keep living in a place continuously for a certain period and the place must be their usual environment.

 

6 The Economic Impacts of World Heritage Site Designation on Local Communities

PDF

Historic District of Old Québec, Canada

6

The Economic Impacts of World Heritage

Site Designation on Local Communities

1  The Economic Impacts of Tourism

1.1 Introduction

The economic aspect of the triple bottom line of sustainability and tourism development is discussed in Section 1.2 in Chapter 3. This section discusses the economic impacts of tourism on

­local communities and economic changes in local communities caused by tourism. Page (2015,

© T. Jimura 2019. World Heritage Sites (T. Jimura)�

p.  383) states: ‘The economic measurement of tourism has a long history in many countries.’

This history can be traced back to the 1930s

(Page, 2015), and possible economic benefits have been a key justification for tourism development (Page and Connell, 2014). The World

Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) summarizes the scope to which the terms used to evaluate and analyse, ‘tourism industry’ and ‘tourism economy’, can be defined (Page and Connell,

81

 

7 The Sociocultural Impacts of World Heritage Site Designation on Local Communities

PDF

Medina of Fez, Morocco

7

The Sociocultural Impacts of World Heritage

Site Designation on Local Communities

1  Sociocultural Impacts of Tourism

1.1 Introduction

The sociocultural aspect of the triple bottom line of sustainability and tourism development is

96�

­ iscussed in Section 1.3 of Chapter 3. Section 1 d explores the sociocultural impacts of tourism on local communities and sociocultural changes in local communities instigated by tourism. Social impacts of tourism include changes in individual and collective value systems, behaviour patterns,

© T. Jimura 2019. World Heritage Sites (T. Jimura)

The Sociocultural Impacts of World Heritage Site Designation on Local Communities

community structures, lifestyle and quality of life (Hall, 1995). In local people’s everyday lives, changes may occur in traffic, shopping, ­privacy and overcrowding. ‘Culture’ is difficult to define since it encompasses numerous complex ideas

 

8 The Environmental Impacts of World Heritage Site Designation on Local Communities

PDF

Geirangerfjord: part of West Norwegian Fjords – Geirangerfjord and Nærøyfjord, Norway

8

The Environmental Impacts of World Heritage

Site Designation on Local Communities

1  The Environmental Impacts of Tourism

1.1 Introduction

The environmental dimension of the triple ­bottom line of sustainability and tourism development

114�

is argued in Section 1.4 in Chapter 3. Section 1 investigates environmental impacts of tourism on local communities, and environmental changes in local communities originated by tourism. The environment surrounding local communities is categorized into two types, natural and built environments. Furthermore, the built environment

© T. Jimura 2019. World Heritage Sites (T. Jimura)

The Environmental Impacts of World Heritage Site Designation on Local Communities

can be subdivided into three clusters, basic infrastructure primarily for local communities (e.g. gas), infrastructures for local people and visitors

 

9 Contemporary Developments in and around World Heritage Sites and Their Implications

PDF

Yakushima, Japan

9

Contemporary Developments in and around World Heritage Sites and Their Implications

1 Introduction

A discussion of World Heritage Sites (hereafter

WHSs) involves diverse matters both within and around their conceptual framework. Hence it is also important to discuss these topics to achieve a more comprehensive and exhaustive understanding of WHSs. Contemporary developments

© T. Jimura 2019. World Heritage Sites (T. Jimura)�

within the concept of WHSs are discussed in

Section 2. These developments include the List of World Heritage in Danger (hereafter LWHD), the notion of ‘Cultural Landscape’ and the concept of ‘Historic Urban Landscape’ (HUL). Next, contemporary developments around the notion of WHSs are examined in Section 3; they can be further categorized into culture-­ focused and

131

132

Chapter 9

2.1  The List of World Heritage in Danger

1 Buildings and development;

2 Transportation infrastructure;

 

10 Reflection (Summary)

PDF

Alhambra: part of Alhambra, Generalife and Albayzín, Granada, Spain

10

Reflection (Summary)

1  World Heritage Sites

1.1  Key agencies

The concept of World Heritage Sites (WHSs) is one of the core initiatives adopted by UNESCO for conservation of cultural and natural heritage at an international level. There are key agencies

© T. Jimura 2019. World Heritage Sites (T. Jimura)�

­ ssociated with WHSs. The UNESCO World Hera itage Centre (WHC) was founded in 1992, and it works as the principal point and coordinator within UNESCO for all concerns on WHSs, and serves the daily management of the World Heritage Convention (WH Convention) (WHC, 2017a).

The countries that ratified the WH Convention are called States Parties. The World Heritage

147

148

Chapter 10

(WH) Committee is an intergovernmental committee that aims to protect cultural and natural heritage holding Outstanding Universal Value

(OUV) (WHC, 2017b). The WH Committee is supported by official advisory bodies: the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property

 

Details

Print Book
E-Books
Chapters

Format name
PDF
Encrypted
No
Sku
BPP0000295417
Isbn
9781786392671
File size
5.11 MB
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Format name
PDF
Encrypted
No
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Sku
In metadata
Isbn
In metadata
File size
In metadata