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The Handbook for the New Art and Science of Teaching

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Part of The New Art and Science of Teaching series

Rely on this comprehensive guide to help you implement the teaching methods of Dr. Robert J. Marzano's The New Art and Science of Teaching framework, which includes over 330 specific instructional strategies, 43 instructional elements, and 10 design questions. Each chapter outlines actionable steps, tips, and examples of implementation that will set you (and your students) up to succeed with this powerful framework in your classroom.

Added insight into Marzano's research-based instructional strategies and teaching methods:

  • Learn the history of Robert J. Marzano's framework of teaching methods first laid out in his best-selling The Art and Science of Teaching.
  • Thoroughly examine the updated The New Art and Science of Teaching framework for competency-based education.
  • Explore numerous instructional strategies that correspond to each of the 43 elements of The New Art and Science of Teaching.
  • Acquire examples that will assist in the realization of the instructional strategies discussed throughout the book.
  • Discover strategies that will improve both the mental and physical environment of the classroom to better support student success.
  • Reimagine how to develop relationships with students and generate student engagement. Access free reproducibles that will assist in implementing The New Art and Science of Teaching framework in classrooms.

A joint publication of ASCD and Solution Tree

Contents:
Introduction

Part I: Feedback
Chapter 1: Providing and Communicating Clear Learning Goals
Chapter 2: Using Assessments

Part II: Content
Chapter 3: Conducting Direct Instruction Lessons
Chapter 4: Conducting Practicing and Deepening Lessons
Chapter 5: Conducting Knowledge Application Lessons
Chapter 6: Using Strategies That Appear in All Types of Lessons

Part III: Context
Chapter 7: Using Engagement Strategies
Chapter 8: Implementing Rules and Procedures
Chapter 9: Building Relationships
Chapter 10: Communicating High Expectations

Appendix
Reproducibles
References and Resources

Books in The New Art and Science of Teaching series:

  • The New Art and Science of Teaching
  • The Handbook for the New Art and Science of Teaching
  • The New Art and Science of Teaching Reading
  • The New Art and Science of Teaching Writing
  • The New Art and Science of Classroom Assessment

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Chapter 1

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FEEDBACK

CHAPTER 1

Providing and Communicating Clear Learning Goals

Effective feedback begins with clearly defined and clearly communicated learning goals. The goal of this design area is for students to understand the progression of knowledge they are expected to master and where they are along that progression. Teachers are able to meet that goal by answering the question, How will I communicate clear learning goals that help students understand the progression of knowledge they are expected to master and where they are along that progression? The three elements and associated strategies in this chapter help the teacher do just that.

Element 1: Providing Scales and Rubrics

An effective educator provides a clearly stated learning goal accompanied by a scale or rubric that describes levels of performance relative to the learning goal. Research has shown that setting goals or objectives increases student achievement (Lipsey & Wilson, 1993; Walberg, 1999; Wise & Okey, 1983).

 

Chapter 2

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FEEDBACK

CHAPTER 2

Using Assessments

Assessment is a feedback mechanism for both students and teachers. Assessments should provide students with information about how to advance their understanding of content and teachers with information about how to help students do so.

The goal of this design area is for students to understand how test scores and grades relate to their status on the progression of knowledge they are expected to master. Teachers are able to meet that goal by answering the question, How will I design and administer assessments that help students understand how their test scores and grades are related to their status on the progression of knowledge they are expected to master? The two elements and associated strategies in this chapter help the teacher do just that.

Element 4: Using Informal Assessments of the Whole Class

An effective educator uses informal assessments to get a general sense of how the class is doing regarding a specific topic. Research shows that classroom assessments should be frequent and formative in nature, encourage students to improve, and give students a clear picture of their progress on learning goals (BangertDrowns, Kulik, Kulik, & Morgan, 1991; Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, & Kulik, 1991; Black & Wiliam, 1998;

 

Chapter 3

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CHAPTER 3

CONTENT

Conducting Direct Instruction Lessons

In a direct instruction lesson, a teacher is presenting new content. Teachers generally teach simpler content, including factual information, vocabulary, and details from the proficiency scales directly. This method of instruction is most effective at communicating new and simpler content because it allows teachers to guide students through unfamiliar concepts and lays the foundation for more complex explorations of the topic.

The goal of this design area is for students to understand, when content is new, which parts are important and how the parts fit together. Teachers are able to meet that goal by answering the question, When content is new, how will I design and deliver direct instruction lessons that help students understand which parts are important and how the parts fit together? The three elements and associated strategies in this chapter help the teacher do just that.

Element 6: Chunking Content

 

Chapter 4

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CHAPTER 4

CONTENT

Conducting Practicing and Deepening Lessons

Once teachers introduce content through direct instruction, they must further develop student knowledge.

Practicing and deepening lessons encourage students to investigate a topic more rigorously. During these lessons, students begin developing the ability to employ skills, strategies, and processes fluently and accurately. Teachers can utilize these lessons to assist students in connecting their understanding of the topic with previously learned content and to facilitate the practice of essential skills.

The goal of this design area is for students to deepen their understanding and develop fluency in skills and processes after teachers present new content. Teachers are able to meet that goal by answering the question,

After presenting content, how will I design and deliver lessons that help students deepen their understanding and develop fluency in skills and processes? The three elements and associated strategies in this chapter help the teacher do just that.

 

Chapter 5

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CHAPTER 5

CONTENT

Conducting Knowledge Application Lessons

A third type of content lesson a teacher might employ involves knowledge application. Knowledge application lessons encourage students to move beyond the content and begin generating their own claims and conclusions. In these lessons, teachers facilitate students’ exploration of their knowledge by providing guidance and resources. Ultimately, knowledge application lessons not only help students master the content but also help them examine the intrinsic ideas within content and how these concepts might apply to the overarching unit.

The goal of this design area is for students to generate and defend claims through knowledge application tasks after teachers present new content. Teachers are able to meet that goal by answering the question, After presenting content, how will I design and deliver lessons that help students generate and defend claims through knowledge application? The three elements and associated strategies in this chapter help the teacher do just that.

 

Chapter 6

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CHAPTER 6

CONTENT

Using Strategies That Appear in All Types of Lessons

There are a number of strategies that commonly appear in all three types of lessons: (1) direct instruction,

(2) practicing and deepening lessons, and (3) knowledge application lessons. Teachers can use these strategies to systematically guide students through the learning of content and to provide students with multiple opportunities to more deeply engage with and understand curriculum. When teachers use these strategies in tandem with one another, they can provide cohesion to lessons and longer units.

The goal of this design area is for students to continually integrate new knowledge with old knowledge and revise their understanding accordingly. Teachers are able to meet this goal by answering the question,

Throughout all types of lessons, what strategies will I use to help students continually integrate new knowledge with old knowledge and revise their understanding accordingly? The eight elements and associated strategies in this chapter help the teacher do just that.

 

Chapter 7

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CHAPTER 7

Using Engagement Strategies

CONTEXT

Engagement is a critical component of deepening students’ knowledge. Effective engagement strategies often encourage students to interact with the content in purposeful but unexpected ways and allow students to personally respond to the information presented to them. Teachers should notice when students seem disinterested and employ strategies to enhance students’ motivation to learn.

The goal of this design area is for students to be paying attention, energized, intrigued, and inspired.

Teachers are able to meet this goal by answering the question, What engagement strategies will I use to help students pay attention, be energized, be intrigued, and be inspired? The ten elements and associated strategies in this chapter help the teacher do just that.

Element 23: Noticing and Reacting When Students Are Not Engaged

An effective teacher scans the room, making note of when students are not engaged and taking overt action to re-engage them. Research has shown that engagement increases student achievement (Bloom, 1976;

 

Chapter 8

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CHAPTER 8

Implementing Rules and Procedures

CONTEXT

Part of a mental set conducive to learning is the perception that the classroom environment is orderly and safe. The teacher fosters such a perception through well-articulated rules and procedures. Rules and procedures are a facet of classroom management that provide the framework for student behavior and practices throughout the school year. An effective teacher should clearly define all established rules and procedures and help prevent behavior that might interfere with students’ learning. In addition, good classroom management also considers students’ needs and how certain routines might encourage, or discourage, students’ learning habits. In this set of strategies, rules refer to general expectations or standards for the classroom, while procedures more specifically delineate how students are to behave or perform certain tasks.

The goal of this design area is for students to understand and follow rules and procedures. Teachers are able to meet this goal by answering the question, What strategies will I use to help students understand and follow rules and procedures? The five elements and associated strategies in this chapter help the teacher do just that.

 

Chapter 9

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CHAPTER 9

Building Relationships

CONTEXT

Important aspects of a mental context conducive to learning are a sense of being welcome and that teachers and peers value basic human needs. When teachers satisfy these needs, a student feels relaxed and comfortable. Teachers can help students feel this way by focusing on teacher-to-student relationships and studentto-student relationships.

The goal of this design area is for students to feel welcome, accepted, and valued. Teachers are able to meet this goal by answering the question, What strategies will I use to help students feel welcome, accepted, and valued? The three elements and associated strategies in this chapter help the teacher do just that.

Element 38: Using Verbal and Nonverbal Behaviors That Indicate

Affection for Students

When appropriate, an effective teacher uses verbal and nonverbal behaviors that indicate affection for students. Research has shown that teacher behaviors such as gestures, smiles, and encouraging remarks are associated with gains in student achievement and other positive outcomes (Harris & Rosenthal, 1985; Marzano,

 

Chapter 10

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CHAPTER 10

Communicating High Expectations

CONTEXT

The final design area to develop an effective context for learning is to communicate high expectations for all students. In effect, teachers must pay special attention to students for whom educators wittingly or unwittingly have developed low expectations. It is not so much that these students need dramatically different strategies to feel valued and respected, but sometimes teachers don’t use typical instructional strategies as rigorously or completely with these students as they do with other students.

The goal of this design area is for reluctant students to feel valued and to not hesitate to interact with the teacher or their peers. Teachers are able to meet this goal by answering the question, What strategies will I use to help typically reluctant students feel valued and comfortable interacting with me and their peers? The three elements and associated strategies in this chapter help the teacher do just that.

 

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