Medium 9781780641935

Tomatoes, 2nd Edition. Crop Production Science in Horticulture

Views: 45
Ratings: (0)

This new edition of a successful, practical book provides a comprehensive and accessible overview of all aspects of the production of the tomato crop, within the context of the global tomato industry. Tomatoes are one of the most important horticultural crops in both temperate and tropical regions and this book explores our current knowledge of the scientific principles underlying their biology and production. Tomatoes 2nd Edition covers genetics and breeding, developmental processes, crop growth and yield, fruit ripening and quality, irrigation and fertilisation, crop protection, production in the open field, greenhouse production, and postharvest biology and handling. It has been updated to reflect advances in the field, such as developments in molecular plant breeding, crop and product physiology, and production systems. It includes a new chapter on organic tomato production and presents photos in full colour throughout. Authored by an international team of experts, this book is essential for growers, extension workers, industry personnel, and horticulture students and lecturers.

List price: $75.00

Your Price: $60.00

You Save: 20%

Remix
Remove
 

11 Slices

Format Buy Remix

1 The Global Tomato Industry

PDF

1

The Global Tomato Industry

J. Miguel Costa and Ep Heuvelink

CLASSIFICATION AND TAXONOMY

Tomato is one of the world’s major fresh and processed fruit and is the second most important vegetable crop after the potato worldwide. Tomato belongs to the Solanaceae (nightshade family), genus Solanum, section Lycopersicon. The

Solanaceae family includes other important (vegetable) crops like chilli and bell peppers (Capsicum spp.), potato (Solanum tuberosum), aubergine (Solanum melongena), tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa), tamarillo or tree tomato (Solanum betaceum) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Information on the genetic variation within Solanum, section Lycopersicon (13 species: tomato and its wild relatives), is provided in Chapter 2.

In 1753, Linnaeus named tomato Solanum lycopersicum. Fifteen years later, Philip Miller moved it to its own genus, naming it Lycopersicon esculentum. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules. Although the name Lycopersicon lycopersicum may be found, it is not used because it violates the International Code of Nomenclature barring the use of tautonyms in botanical nomenclature. Genetic evidence has now shown that

 

2 Genetics and Breeding

PDF

2

Genetics and Breeding

Sjaak van Heusden and Pim Lindhout

INTRODUCTION

Tomato breeding is a success story, as illustrated by the many cultivars ­available now that are grown all over the world in a variety of conditions and that harbour a wide range of traits such as vigorous growth, resistances to pests and diseases, high fruit quality, etc. Tomato breeding follows the classical approach of identifying superior genotypes, making of crossings and selection in the progenies. Nowadays, breeding is facilitated by molecular marker techniques and the known high-quality tomato sequence. Genetic transformation is possible, but genetic modification is not used in commercial tomato breeding. The future trend is genomics-based breeding.

GENETIC VARIATION WITHIN SOLANUM L. SECT.

LYCOPERSICON

The cultivated tomato reached its present form and place in the human diet/ lifestyle after many centuries of domestication. Initial development was probably reached by selecting preferred genotypes in existing germplasm. In a predominantly inbreeding species genetic variation tends to decrease, even without selection. Tomato has suffered from severe genetic bottlenecks in the past 600 years as the crop was carried from the New World to Europe, then back to North America where breeding programmes were initiated with the materials available in these regions. As a consequence, genetic variation in the cultivated tomato species has always been considered as extremely limited. It is likely that no crosses with related wild species were deliberately made until the 20th century.

 

3 Developmental Processes

PDF

3

Developmental Processes

Ep Heuvelink and Robert C.O. Okello

INTRODUCTION

Growth and development in plants are strongly related, but the interpretation of plant responses to environmental factors is facilitated by making a distinction between these two processes. Plant development is defined as a series of identifiable events resulting in a qualitative (germination, flowering, etc.) or quantitative (number of leaves, number of flowers, etc.) change in plant structure. Growth is defined as an irreversible increase in plant or organ dimensions over time, e.g. length, width, diameter, area, volume and mass (Dambreville et al., 2015).

Plant development starts with fertilization. Fertilization, the fusion of pollen and egg nuclei, produces a diploid zygote, which differentiates into the embryo, the vital next generation of the plant. Embryo development, or embryogenesis, is accompanied by production of storage tissues, such as endosperm or megagametophyte, and maternal integument layers, which in mature seed become the testa (seed coat). Hormones (e.g. auxin) play important roles in seed development and maturation. Precocious germination (vivipary) is controlled by abscisic acid (ABA) during late stages of seed development. However, Wang et al. (2016) reported vivipary occurring in one accession of tomato rin mutant fruit not directly associated with ABA, and concluded that hypo-osmolality in rin fruit may be an important factor in permitting limited viviparous germination. Single-gene mutations leading to defects in synthesis or sensitivity to

 

4 Crop Growth and Yield

PDF

4

Crop Growth and Yield

Ep Heuvelink, Tao Li and Martine Dorais

INTRODUCTION

The fresh fruit yield of a tomato crop can be calculated from total crop biomass production, biomass partitioning (harvest index) and fruit dry matter content (Fig. 4.1). Besides affecting yield, these attributes also influence product quality (e.g. fruit size and taste; see Chapter 5).

Yields of field crops usually range between 40 and 100 t/ha, whereas yields from year-round cultivation in greenhouses in north-west Europe or

North America easily exceed 500 t/ha, and yields as high as 700–900 t/ha are obtained in high-tech greenhouses without supplementary light (SL).

With the use of SL, over 1000 t/ha have been produced, according to Verheul et al. (2012), who estimated that for Norway a yield potential of tomato production of 125–140 kg/m2 using artificial light is realistic. The main reasons for a much higher yield for greenhouse crops compared with field-grown tomato crops are: (i) the length of the cultivation period (11–12 months; over 35 trusses harvested per stem) and thus higher cumulative light interception and biomass production; (ii) the control and optimization of environmental factors (carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, humidity and light); and

 

5 Fruit Quality

PDF

5

Fruit Quality

Nadia Bertin

INTRODUCTION

Quality of fleshy fruit is a complex trait including multiple variables. While the commercial quality relies mainly on external attractiveness (e.g. colour, shape, size), firmness and shelf-life, the organoleptic quality depends on physical (texture or firmness) and biochemical traits determining the overall taste and flavour. On the other hand, the health benefits rely on the composition in vitamins and antioxidant compounds (lycopene, β-carotene, ascorbic acid and polyphenol) as well as minerals (potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium), whereas the sanitary quality is defined by residues of pesticides or other unhealthy compounds such as allergens, mycotoxins, antibiotics, environmental persistent pollutants and pathogenic microorganisms. In past decades, genetic improvement mainly favoured the producers and distributors, by derivation towards resistant productive cultivars and long-life products, whereas consumer preferences were generally overlooked (see Chapter 2). At the same time, yields have steadily increased by improvement of technical crop management in horticulture, so that intensive production systems launched on the market homogeneous, firm but tasteless products suitable for large distribution networks. Recently, the social demand for tasty, healthy fruits rich in vitamins and antioxidant compounds, but also for environmentally friendly production of fruits free of pesticides and residues, has given rise to new research concerning these traits. Meanwhile, fresh fruits have been recognized as a major source of vitamins and antioxidants and as important components of human diet and welfare on account of their nutritional value. Thus, increasing their consumption became a worldwide priority, in particular to limit the risks of chronic diseases and nutritional deficiencies. Tomato also represents a major economic issue as it is the second highest vegetable (first fruit) consumed worldwide (see Chapter 1). This changing social and environmental context led to the search for new cultivars adapted to more sustainable modes of production and able to maintain yield and produce high quality fruits.

 

6 Irrigation and Fertilization

PDF

6

Irrigation and Fertilization

Bielinski M. Santos and Emmanuel A. Torres-Quezada

INTRODUCTION

This chapter deals with the basic principles of water and fertilizer management in tomato, as well as discussing the practical application of these topics in both open field and greenhouse production of the crop, with recommendations for soil and soilless conditions. Where applicable, a clear distinction between these two production environments is made on the particular aspects of irrigation and plant nutrition. However, there is a great degree of overlapping information that is equally pertinent to greenhouse and field production. Decisions on the use of certain irrigation and fertilization practices will depend on the specific growing conditions (e.g. soil, soilless, tomato types and cultivars, cultural practices) of each grower, as described elsewhere in this book. The basic principles on irrigation and fertilization cover the influence of water quality, irrigation requirements, plant nutrition and fertigation on tomato growth and yield. Sonneveld and Voogt (2009) provided specific information on water and fertilizer management in greenhouse crops (see also Chapter 9). Fertilization in organic tomato production is discussed in Chapter 11.

 

7 Crop Protection: Pest and Disease Management

PDF

7

Crop Protection: Pest and Disease

Management

Gary E. Vallad, Gerben Messelink and Hugh A. Smith

ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL IMPORTANCE OF TOMATO

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United

Nations (FAOSTAT database), nearly 177 million metric tons (t) of tomatoes were produced globally from 4.8 million hectares in 2016, an average yield of

37 t of tomatoes for every hectare of land in production throughout the world.

The level of tomato production throughout the world demonstrates the cultural importance of this New World vegetable (see also Chapter 1). The efficiency of tomato production, represented here as the average yield of fruit per hectare of land, varies greatly throughout the world, ranging from 1.5 t/ha for Somalia to

650 t/ha for greenhouses in The Netherlands. This vast discrepancy is further illustrated by the fact that Somalia produces tomatoes on an estimated 11,200 ha of open field production, compared with only 1750 ha of mostly greenhouse production in The Netherlands (FAOSTAT database). It is logical to assume that much of the discrepancy in production efficiency observed globally is directly related to the level of key inputs that have become standard for modern agriculture, including infrastructure (irrigation systems and protected structures), machinery, fertilizer and the assorted pesticides utilized for the management of weeds, pests and diseases. It is paramount that food production keeps up with global population growth; and an expanding middle-class population in many developing areas of the world is likely to increase the demand for tomatoes.

 

8 Production in Open Field

PDF

8

Production in Open Field

Bielinski M. Santos and Teresa P. Salamé-Donoso

INTRODUCTION

Tomato open field production throughout the world has changed dramatically in the past 3 decades from mostly bare ground plantings to a larger share of polyethylene-mulched fields, with the bulk of production in the latter system occurring in developed countries. Worldwide production (see Chapter 1) of fresh tomato focused primarily on beefsteak, cherry, grape and round cluster types, whereas for the processing industry Roma cultivars are utilized the most. The worldwide tomato growing area has increased during the past decade, with the highest increases occurring in Africa and Asia (FAO, 2018). This might be partly attributed to increased awareness of the importance of vegetable consumption for human diets. This chapter discusses the most important field procedures for managing the crop, including soil preparation and disinfection, planting techniques, crop management and harvesting.

 

9 Greenhouse Tomato Production

PDF

9

Greenhouse Tomato Production

Cheiri Kubota, Arie de Gelder and Mary M. Peet

GREENHOUSE INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

Although definitive numbers are not available, the greenhouse area used for the production of vegetables worldwide has been increasing over the years. In comparing different geographical areas, large differences are seen in climatic conditions (light intensity and temperature), greenhouse design and equipment, as well as technical expertise (Montero et al., 2011). This results in yield differences between regions. While it might be expected that regions with higher light would have higher production, the level of greenhouse technology utilized is often a more important factor. For example, average tomato yields in

Almeria, Spain, are far lower (28 kg/m2) than in The Netherlands or Canada

(60 kg/m2) (see Chapter 1), even though the daily light sum or daily light integral (DLI) is on average 5 times higher in winter and 60% higher on an annual basis in Spain than in The Netherlands (Costa and Heuvelink, 2000). This difference is partly caused by a difference in cropping season. In Almeria, the temperature in summer is too high for balanced crop growth and good product quality of tomatoes, therefore greenhouses are left empty in summer. On the other hand, in arid or semi-arid regions such as Mexico and south-western USA, tomatoes are grown very successfully in summer in greenhouses equipped with advanced climate control technology. Differences in yield between regions are also due to cultivar choice. For ­example, pink-type cultivars grown widely in Japan have been shown to be less productive than modern Dutch cultivars.

 

10 Postharvest Biology and Handling of Tomatoes

PDF

10

Postharvest Biology and Handling of Tomatoes

Mikal E. Saltveit

INTRODUCTION

Originally, the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) had an indeterminate growth habit; continuously producing flowers and fruit during the entire growing season. Cultivars (i.e. cultivated varieties) with this indeterminate growth habit are grown where multiple harvests are economically justified, e.g. in the greenhouse, or in the field when plants are supported by a pole or trellis. These indeterminate fresh market cultivars have fruit at various stages of maturity on the plant, and hand harvesting is often necessary to maximize yield through multiple harvests. While this labour-intensive practice is economically justified for some fresh market field and glasshouse-grown fruit, processing tomatoes must be culturally managed to produce maximum yields with once-over mechanical harvests.

Breeding and cultural practices have modified the growth habit of processing cultivars and most field-grown fresh market tomatoes into a determinate growth habit in which the bush-like form produces side shoots that terminate in inflorescences. Determinate cultivars lend themselves to once-over mechanical harvesting and are therefore well suited for processing, since the plants are destroyed during harvest and the mechanical injuries the fruit sustain during harvest precludes their marketing as fresh fruit. Foliar sprays of ethylene-releasing chemicals are used before harvest to hasten the maturity of processing tomatoes and reduce the variability among the ripening fruit.

 

11 Organic Tomato

PDF

11

Organic Tomato

Martine Dorais and Dietmar Schwarz

PRINCIPLES AND STANDARDS OF ORGANIC

AGRICULTURE

Organic agriculture is defined by the International Federation of Organic

Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) as a ‘production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people’. Organic agriculture endeavours to minimize system inputs and adverse environmental impact through sustainable waste management, minimal use of energy, nutrient-balanced approaches, and mechanical and biological control of pests. It excludes genetically modified varieties, synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, sewage sludge, synthetic hormones or antibiotics. In most countries, plants have to be grown in soil.

For most of the European countries and for all member states of the

European Union (EU), organic farming is strictly defined by the European

Commission (EC). In 2009, the Commission revised guidelines from 1999 for the production of organic crops, including tomato (EC 834/2007; EC

 

Details

Print Book
E-Books
Slices

Format name
PDF
Encrypted
No
Sku
BPP0000281611
Isbn
9781780641942
File size
6 MB
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Format name
PDF
Encrypted
No
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Sku
In metadata
Isbn
In metadata
File size
In metadata