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Tourism and Animal Welfare

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Animals are among the most sought after tourist attractions and the impact on them is a matter of concern to an increasing number of people.åÊTourism and Animal WelfareåÊuniquely addresses the issue of animal welfare within the tourism experience. It explores important foundations such as the meaning of 'animal welfare' and its relation to ethics, animal rights and human obligations to animals. It also explores the nature and diversity of the position and role of animals within tourism. From students and academics to vets and those working within the tourism industry, this book will provide an engaging and thought-provoking read. It will also appeal to those with an interest in animal welfare, particularly in relation to the tourism industry. 'Tales from the front line' is the section of the book that provides the reader with the views and experiences of animal welfare organisations, individual leaders, tourism industry organisations and operators, and academic experts. These case studies and opinion pieces will encourage the reader to consider their own position regarding animals in tourism and their welfare.

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2 Animal Sentience, Ethics and Welfare

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2

Animal Sentience,

Ethics and Welfare

Introduction

This chapter provides a discussion of the concept of animal welfare and the development of our understanding of this. This discussion is set within the wider discussion of animal sentience, recognizing that an awareness of the sentience of animals is related to concerns about and our definition of their welfare. While recognizing that our understanding of animal sentience and welfare and operationalization of the latter are situated within the reality of a human-centric world, the chapter argues that analysis of the welfare of animals must be led from a scientific perspective, which identifies how animal behaviour and welfare can be objectively assessed.

However, to close the loop on the relation between animals as independent entities and their position within a human-dominated world where their welfare, directly and indirectly, is almost always influenced by humans, it is necessary to think about evaluation of happiness and human perception of animal welfare. The balancing act required by this is both controversial and potentially problematic, as it may bring into conflict the epistemological and ontological beliefs of those concerned with animal welfare. Yet within a postmodernist world that seeks to understand the complexity of the world rather than engage in reductionist rhetoric, there is arguably no reason why all methodological perspectives should not be able to come together to gain a better understanding of animal welfare for the benefit of animals. Following on from a discussion of the measurement of animal welfare, the chapter ends with a brief examination of the position of animal welfare in law.

 

3 The Position of Animals in Tourism

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3

The Position of Animals in Tourism

Introduction

In this chapter we aim to provide a discussion of the myriad ways in which animals exist within and in relation to tourism. As part of this, the chapter is concerned with identifying how animals can be, and often are, defined as objects that provide sources of entertainment for humans in their leisure time. Consequently, we talk about how these animals are used or consumed, dead or alive and sometimes both, and why people seek out animal experiences while they are on holiday. There is also explanation of how animals are increasingly being presented and utilized as employees and guests of the tourism industry. Many of the animals discussed in the chapter are those we, as humans, wish to see and potentially engage with. However, the tourism industry and the people it caters to have significant impacts on other animals. These animals and the ­impacts on them are also dealt with in this chapter when looking at the animals that the industry seeks to airbrush out of the tourism experience. Some of these animals are the ones that we hate or fear, while others are those that are, to employ the banal language of the modern-day military, simply collateral damage, an incidental cost of tourism development. The chapter builds towards an analysis of whether animal welfare and tourism are mutually exclusive or potentially inclusive of one another, the issue that is at the heart of the discussion in

 

4 Animal Welfare and Tourism: Are the Aims Mutually Exclusive or Potentially Inclusive?

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4

Animal Welfare and Tourism:

Are the Aims Mutually Exclusive or Potentially Inclusive?

Introduction

In this chapter we build on the previous two, which looked at the concept of animal welfare and the position of animals in the tourism experience, to discuss and provide evidence of the extent to which the aims to ensure that animal welfare is good and to promote tourism are mutually exclusive or can be potentially inclusive of one another. In other words, the chapter is focused on assessing whether a tourism experience and industry does, or can, exist that takes into consideration and meets the needs of animals so that their welfare is good. To do this, the chapter begins by exploring some topics where we have information about the history and current situation of animal welfare in tourism. This section builds on Chapter 2 by recognizing that, as well as having a scientific grounding, concern for animal welfare is a social phenomenon and as such varies culturally and has varied over time as attitudes have changed. This raises the point that we must be careful to avoid claims of cultural imperialism when examining animal welfare issues in different human cultures. There is also a need to view the historical position of animals in relation to tourism through the social values of the time rather than through a contemporary lens.

 

5 Public Aquariums in the 21st Century – What’s Next, Before It’s Too Late?

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5

Public Aquariums in the 21st

Century – What’s Next, Before

It’s Too Late?

Christopher Andrews*

California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, and Merlin

Animal Welfare and Development, Tennessee

*  Corresponding author: chris.andrews@merlinentertainments.biz

© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Animal Welfare (N. Carr and D.M. Broom)

75

C. Andrews

The United Nations Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020 is a key initiative . . . to halt and eventually reverse the loss of biodiversity. The very first target of this plan states that ‘by

2020, at the latest, people are aware of the values of biodiversity and the steps they can take to  conserve and use it sustainably.’ Zoos and aquariums worldwide, attracting more than

700 million visits every year, could potentially make a positive contribution to this target.

Moss et al. (2015, p. 537)

Public Aquariums: Their First 150 Years

The Age of Enlightenment emerged from the centuries-long Age of Exploration and developed into the Industrial Revolution, and Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species was published in 1859.

 

6 A Tale of Two Zoos: Tourism and Zoos in the 21st Century

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6

A Tale of Two Zoos: Tourism and Zoos in the 21st Century

Lee Durrell*

Honorary Director, Durrell Wildlife Conservation

Trust, Jersey, UK

*  Corresponding author: Lee.Durrell@durrell.org

© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Animal Welfare (N. Carr and D.M. Broom)

81

L. Durrell

My zoo has had to cope with a dual personality in the last few years. For most of its existence, it believed in itself to be a ‘zoo’. A decade ago it re-branded as a ‘wildlife park’, but now it is a ‘zoo’ again. This is Jersey Zoo, started by my late husband, Gerald Durrell nearly 60 years ago.

The somersault was caused by successive executive teams and their varying interpretations of the tourism they believe drives our success. Our single main source of income, as for most zoos, arises from our visitors – gate receipts and secondary spend – but we are located in a small catchment area. To make ends meet, we must be very attractive to visitors, local and non-local, perhaps more so than other zoos.

 

7 A Comparison of Tourism and Food-provisioning Among Wild Bottlenose Dolphins at Monkey Mia and Bunbury, Australia

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7

A Comparison of Tourism and

Food-provisioning Among Wild

Bottlenose Dolphins at Monkey

Mia and Bunbury, Australia

J. Mann1*, V. Senigaglia2, A. Jacoby1 and L. Bejder2&3

1

Georgetown University, Washington, DC; 2Murdoch University,

Perth, Western Australia; 3University of Hawaii, Honolulu

*  Corresponding author: Mannj2@Georgetown.edu

© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Animal Welfare (N. Carr and D.M. Broom)

85

J. Mann et al.

Introduction

Tourism focused on viewing and interacting with cetaceans has grown exponentially in the last

20 years, becoming a multi-billion dollar industry worldwide (O’Connor et al., 2009; Higham et al., 2014). Although most tour and commercial operations are boat-based (i.e. whale- and dolphin-watching trips) or swim-with-dolphin operations, feeding wild dolphins from boats or the shore has become another popular means of gaining access to wildlife. To address some of  the negative effects of food-provisioning wild marine mammals (e.g. Christiansen et  al.,

 

8 The Tourism Industry and Shark Welfare

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The Tourism Industry and Shark Welfare

Wilfred Chivell*

Marine Dynamics Tours and Dyer Island Cruises,

Gansbaai, South Africa

*  Corresponding author: wilfred@sharkwatchsa.com

© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Animal Welfare (N. Carr and D.M. Broom)

97

W. Chivell

Does the Tourism Industry Have Obligations to Ensure

Good Welfare of Sharks?

Absolutely, we have to protect the species that we rely on for a living as well as ensure that the fragile marine ecosystem remains healthy and at optimal function for the diversity of marine life to thrive in the future. It is a sad fact that the South African great white shark population is not showing the expected recovery since its decline prior to protection. They face many threats: along our own coastline we can lose around 25 or more annually in the Kwazulu Natal shark nets and drumlines. These nets are based on historic fatal attacks on swimmers in that area by sharks and there are now many more beach users in Kwazulu Natal because of the warmer waters. The great whites also migrate to unprotected waters such as those off Mozambique and the Western Indian

 

9 Tourism, Wildlife Conservation and Animal Welfare

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Tourism, Wildlife Conservation and Animal Welfare

Dr Jane Goodall, DBE*

Founder – the Jane Goodall Institute and UN Messenger of

Peace (www.janegoodall.org)

*  Corresponding author: mlewis@janegoodall.org

102

© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Animal Welfare (N. Carr and D.M. Broom)

Tourism, Wildlife Conservation and Animal Welfare

In many developing countries, tourism is a major source of foreign exchange, and this means that governments are more likely to approve legislation to protect existing national parks,

­reserves and so on and to approve additional areas for conservation of wildlife. This applies to the central government and also to local governments in regions where tourism has been developed. The tourist industry creates a large infrastructure that benefits businesses, ranging from airlines, hotels and taxis to shopping centres and traders in local arts and crafts. But conservation of wildlife can only be successful in the long run if local communities buy into it, which means they too must benefit from tourism.

 

10 Managing Tourism’s Animal Footprint

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Managing Tourism’s

Animal Footprint

10

Daniel Turner*

Former Associate Director on Tourism and EU Compliance,

Born Free Foundation (www.bornfree.org.uk), now Founder and Director of Animondial (www.animondial.com)

*  Corresponding author: danielnicholasturner@gmail.com

106

© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Animal Welfare (N. Carr and D.M. Broom)

Managing Tourism’s Animal Footprint

We believe the way tourists interact with captive whales and dolphins needs to change and we want to play an active role in supporting this transition . . . We will not sign up any new

­attractions that feature captive whales and dolphins for theatrical shows, contact sessions (such as ‘swim-with’ ­programmes) or other entertainment purposes.

Virgin Holidays (February 2017)

… if an animal attraction is found not to be fully compliant with the ABTA Global Welfare

­Guidance for Animals in Tourism, Thomas Cook won’t sell it.

 

11 Elephants and Tourism

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11

Elephants and Tourism

Jan Schmidt-Burbach*

World Animal Protection

*  Corresponding author: JanSchmidt-Burbach@worldanimalprotection.org

112

© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Animal Welfare (N. Carr and D.M. Broom)

Elephants and Tourism

Revered, celebrated, exploited, feared: the relationship between people and elephants has been diverse throughout history. Once present in large numbers in the wild, relentless destruction and fragmentation of their habitat, hunting and capture has led to a steep decline of wild elephant numbers. The fate of the endangered Asian elephant is especially worrying: there are approximately one-tenth the number of animals remaining in the wild compared to their African relative. With the decline of the wild populations and the spread of industrialization throughout the elephant-range countries, the traditional uses for captive elephants have changed, too. As the largest land-based animal, elephants have always posed a special attraction to people. Elephants’ awe-inspiring stature and unrivalled strength inspired the development of practices to capture elephants for spiritual, religious and practical applications. Used to transport goods, participate in ceremonies, as war animals, as diplomatic gifts or for logging timber, they have been used to serve people for approximately 3000 years, with the earliest hints for capturing elephants dating back 4000 years (Kurt, 1992), approximately the same time that horses were first domesticated by people. Yet, unlike horses, elephants never underwent a domestication process (Roots, 2007).

 

12 Lessons from Winnie-the-Pooh: How Responsible Bear Tourism Can Teach Us Respect and Compassion, and Benefit Bears

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12

Lessons from Winnie-the-Pooh: How

Responsible Bear Tourism Can Teach Us

Respect and Compassion, and Benefit Bears

Sara Dubois*

University of British Columbia and British Columbia SPCA Chief

Scientific Officer, Canada

*  Corresponding author: sara.dubois@ubc.ca

© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Animal Welfare (N. Carr and D.M. Broom)

119

S. Dubois

Life is a journey to be experienced, not a problem to be solved.

A.A. Milne, Winnie-the-Pooh

The most famous bear tourist attraction to date is perhaps Winnie at the London Zoo from

1915 to 1934, who inspired author A.A. Milne’s collection of stories for his son Christopher

Robin. Named for the Canadian city of Winnipeg, the pet orphaned bear cub was purchased by a Canadian veterinarian in Ontario while en route to England to volunteer for cavalry service during the First World War (Walker, 2015). Later donated to the zoo, Winnie was a star attraction at a time when zoological collections were the only way most people could see a bear from a foreign and distant land.

 

13 Donkeys and Mules and Tourism

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13

Donkeys and Mules and Tourism

Stephen Blakeway1* and Glen Olivier Cousquer2

1

Self-employed One Welfare Specialist, Devon, UK; 2Lecturer and Programme Coordinator in Conservation and One Health

Medicine, University of Edinburgh, UK

*  Corresponding author: stephen.blakeway@outlook.com

126

© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Animal Welfare (N. Carr and D.M. Broom)

Donkeys and Mules and Tourism

Introduction

Tourists in the 21st century are diverse, multinational citizens of an increasingly interconnected world and are in a unique position to report injustice and to grow and spread humanity. Tourism can play and does play a significant role in tackling exploitation and safeguarding the welfare of non-human animals. Of the many animals who suffer exploitation in the name of tourism, mules and donkeys are attracting increasing attention.

Tourists may encounter donkeys and mules in a variety of situations. Both species are often found offering riding activities whether on beaches, in cities or in the countryside. Both species have earned a reputation as pack animals, ideally suited to mountainous terrain. They are also commonly found in sanctuaries where they serve as visitor attractions for tourists.

 

14 Cats and Dogs International

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14

Cats and Dogs

International

Darci Galati*

President/CEO of CANDi

*  Corresponding author: dgalati08@gmail.com

132

© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Animal Welfare (N. Carr and D.M. Broom)

Cats and Dogs International

The idea for CANDi – Cats and Dogs International – was born when my three young daughters and I were on a family vacation in Mexico in 2006. We were literally astounded by the staggering number of stray cats and dogs in the vicinity. There did not seem to be any animal welfare laws in place to protect them, let alone humane shelters or even veterinary care. Most of the animals were emaciated and in desperate need of medical attention. This had a profound effect on my children, who were distraught at the notion that they would soon be flying back home and leaving behind the cats and dogs they had fed and helped to fend for themselves. I knew I had to do something and I promised my daughters that I would make a difference. That was the impetus behind the creation of CANDi, a non-profit global organization with a mission to save the lives of stray animals at tourist destinations.

 

15 Animal Welfare – Driving Improvements in Tourism Attractions

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Animal Welfare – Driving

Improvements in Tourism

Attractions

Clare Jenkinson* and Hugh Felton

Association of British Travel Agents, London, UK

*  Corresponding author: cjenkinson@abta.co.uk

© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Animal Welfare (N. Carr and D.M. Broom)

135

C. Jenkinson and H. Felton

Viewing and interacting with animals can be a popular and rewarding part of a holiday. ABTA consumer research found that one in four people had some kind of interaction with animals as part of their trip and it was recognized that the travel industry can play an important part in enabling the experience to be a positive one for customers, local people and, most importantly, the animals themselves.

Travel provider members of ABTA’s Animal Welfare Working Group analysed the rapid growth of animal attractions and animal interactions experiences within the supply chain. Strong links have developed between tourism destinations and animal attractions, and for customers good animal welfare standards were becoming increasingly important. Our members were

 

16 Animal Welfare and Tourism: The Threat to Endangered Species

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Animal Welfare and Tourism:

The Threat to Endangered

Species

John M. Sellar*

Retired, formerly of CITES, Switzerland

*  Corresponding author: john.m.sellar@globalinitiative.net

138

© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Animal Welfare (N. Carr and D.M. Broom)

Animal Welfare and Tourism: The Threat to Endangered Species

Introduction

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was established in 1973 and, for over four decades, has sought to ensure that trade in the animals and plants listed in its Appendices is legal and sustainable (see CITES, n.d.a). This piece of international law only addresses aspects of welfare in relation to the transportation of live animals across borders and at no other time.

Its existence does, however, provide a legal basis for national authorities in one part of the world to investigate the circumstances following the discovery of, for example, non-indigenous specimens in their territory. Regrettably, the need to do so has been demonstrated on several occasions in recent years.

 

17 Sport Hunting Tourism

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Sport Hunting Tourism

Dr Jane Goodall, DBE*

Founder – the Jane Goodall Institute and UN Messenger of

Peace (www.janegoodall.org)

*  Corresponding author: mlewis@janegoodall.org

© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Animal Welfare (N. Carr and D.M. Broom)

145

J. Goodall

There is a section of tourism that is devoted to ‘sport’ hunters. Recently this became an

­international news item when a Minnesota dentist, Walter Palmer, killed Cecil the lion with a crossbow. Cecil was not killed outright but spent 40 hours wounded and in pain before he was found and finished off. Subsequently a rival male killed one of Cecil’s cubs who were abandoned by Cecil’s brother, Jericho. Almost certainly the other cubs have been killed as well. This is what lions do when they take over a pride, thus eliminating the genes of their rivals.

Palmer’s behaviour was despicable on many counts. But the reason that his behaviour b­ ecame the subject of anger and hatred around the world was because Cecil was a known individual.

 

18 Ethical Hunting

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Ethical Hunting

Brent Lovelock*

University of Otago, New Zealand

*  Corresponding author: Brent.lovelock@otago.ac.nz

© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Animal Welfare (N. Carr and D.M. Broom)

147

B. Lovelock

Hunting is indefensible. That is, unless, for example, you are a Maasai youth hunting a lion as part of a centuries-old cultural rite of passage; or a Papuan highlander hunting boar to support the meagre protein diet that you and your clan manage to survive upon. Few of us, even those most adamantly opposed to hunting, would go so far as to criticize such hunting practices, undertaken for subsistence and cultural reasons. While these are not examples of touristic hunting, they do, however, have some similarities with it.

I was in my local hunting store the other day, as the ‘roar’, our hunting season, is soon upon us, that joyous time of year when we find excuses to linger for hours over hunting magazines, and buy new gear, a new rifle, perhaps a new scope, a knife, ammo, new boots.

 

19 The Future and Moving Forward Together

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19

The Future and Moving

Forward Together

Introduction

In a traditional book, this would be the place to have a ‘conclusion’. However, ‘conclusion’

­suggests an end. Instead of wishing to see this as the point to conclude the discussion, this part is constructed as the position from which to move forwards, in research, industry and activist senses, in how we look at the relation between tourism and animal welfare and how we encourage the tourism industry and tourists towards preventing poor welfare of animals. We hope that the book, in addition to being a source of information and opinion, can help to drive improvements in animal welfare. Consequently, the chapter provides a brief look at the potential future of tourism and animal-related tourism, and animal welfare debates. What is the likely future of animal welfare in tourism? Finally, what should be the research agenda to improve welfare?

What is the Future of Tourism and Animal-related Tourism?

 

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