Medium 9781945349362

The New Art and Science of Teaching Writing

Views: 174
Ratings: (0)

For educators to be effective, they must intentionally select and implement research-based instructional strategies and conduct assessments. Using a clear and well-organized structure, the authors apply the strategies and techniques originally presented in The New Art and Science of Teaching by Robert J. Marzano to the teaching and assessment of writing skills, as well as some associated reading skills. In total, the book shares more than 100 strategies across grade levels and subject areas.

Use effective teaching methods to reach desired writing learning outcomes and student success:

  • Understand which instructional strategies are best suited to teaching writing skills, and gain specific examples for implementing these strategies.
  • Learn how to utilize general and specific strategies to improve the learning environment of the classroom and obtain desired student learning outcomes for writing.
  • Fine-tune your writing curriculum to achieve student success by developing and assessing writing skills with the book's instructional techniques.
  • Examine samples of writing rubrics, proficiency scales, and checklists, and learn effective teaching methods to use them as assessment and instructional tools.
  • Utilize an advance organizer as a quick reference of all strategies to assist you in designing writing curriculum and planning lessons.
  • Access and download free reproducible activities, rubrics for assessing student writing, writing assessment examples, writing checklists, and more for classroom use.

Contents:
Introduction
Chapter 1: Providing and Communicating Clear Learning Goals
Chapter 2: Using Assessments
Chapter 3: Conducting Direct Instruction Lessons
Chapter 4: Conducting Practicing and Deepening Lessons
Chapter 5: Conducting Knowledge Application Lessons
Chapter 6: Using Strategies That Appear in All Types of Lessons
Chapter 7: Using Engagement Strategies
Chapter 8: Implementing Rules and Procedures and Building Relationships
Chapter 9: Developing Expertise
Conclusion
Appendix A
Appendix B
References and Resources

List price: $33.99

Your Price: $27.19

You Save: 20%

Remix
Remove

12 Chapters

Format Buy Remix

Chapter 1

PDF

FEEDBACK

CHAPTER 1

Providing and Communicating Clear Learning Goals

When teachers design and communicate learning goals well, students benefit. They not only know what they are supposed to be learning but also know where they stand relative to that targeted content. Additionally, within The New Art and Science of Teaching, teachers should communicate clear learning goals so that students understand the progression of knowledge teachers expect them to master and where they are along that progression.

The elements within this first teacher action of providing and communicating clear learning goals include the following.

• Element 1: Providing scales and rubrics

• Element 2: Tracking student progress

• Element 3: Celebrating success

Think of these three elements as a linked set: scales and rubrics are essential for students to track their progress, and tracking progress is necessary for celebrating success.

Element 1: Providing Scales and Rubrics

 

Chapter 2

PDF

FEEDBACK

CHAPTER 2

Using Assessments

During writing instruction, some teachers use assessments only as evaluation tools to quantify students’ current status relative to mastery of specific writing skills. While this is certainly a legitimate use of assessments, their primary purpose should be to provide students with feedback they can use to improve. When teachers use assessments to their full capacity, students understand how their test scores and grades relate to their status on specific progressions of knowledge and skill they are expected to master.

There are two elements within this category.

• Element 4: Using informal assessments of the whole class

• Element 5: Using formal assessments of individual students

Element 4: Using Informal Assessments of the Whole Class

Rather than formal assessments of individual students—the emphasis of element 5—the focus here is on informally assessing the whole class. This provides the teacher with a barometer of how students are progressing with specific skills along a continuum of growth to inform their instructional moves. Figure 2.1 presents the self-rating scale for this element so teachers can gauge their professional performance.

 

Chapter 3

PDF

CHAPTER 3

CONTENT

Conducting Direct Instruction Lessons

Students benefit greatly from direct instruction on new content. This type of instruction commonly suffers from the perception that it is straight presentation in lecture format. This is far from the truth. As this chapter illustrates, direct instruction has a number of essential components that teachers can deliver in a wide variety of ways. Regardless of the specific strategies that a teacher uses, the net effect of direct instruction should be that students understand the key parts of the new content and how together they form a unified whole.

This teacher action includes the following elements.

• Element 6: Chunking content

• Element 7: Processing content

• Element 8: Recording and representing content

Element 6: Chunking Content

Learning new information can be overwhelming; however, breaking it down into manageable increments can facilitate student learning. Figure 3.1 presents the self-rating scale for teachers to use.

 

Chapter 4

PDF

CHAPTER 4

CONTENT

Conducting Practicing and Deepening Lessons

Practicing and deepening strategies are different for procedural and declarative knowledge. This is a very important distinction to keep in mind when considering the use of specific instructional strategies. Procedural knowledge involves large comprehensive processes and the basic skills and tactics that are the components of the larger processes. Certainly, writing qualifies as an example. While we can describe the overall phases of writing, the process includes many embedded skills and strategies like brainstorming for ideas, revising for overall logic and attention to word choice, editing for correct spelling and punctuation, and the like. Students must practice procedural knowledge to the point where they can execute fluently and without significant error.

Declarative knowledge is informational in nature. It involves details such as facts and terminology, but also more broad information about generalizations, principles, and concepts. Subject areas like history largely comprise declarative knowledge because they involve learning about people, events, concepts, and generalizations. However, even procedural topics contain a fair amount of declarative knowledge. For example, to effectively engage in the writing process, students must understand appropriate ways to cite sources, information about types of narrative and expository structures, characteristic elements of specific genres, and so on.

 

Chapter 5

PDF

CHAPTER 5

CONTENT

Conducting Knowledge Application Lessons

Once students experience the content from direct instruction lessons and engage in practicing and deepening lessons, they are ready to apply the newly acquired information and skills. During knowledge application lessons, teachers require students to use what they have learned in unique situations. By definition, this means students must go beyond what they have learned in class. Also by definition, knowledge application tasks generate new awareness in students about the content. The following elements are important to this type of lesson.

• Element 12: Engaging students in cognitively complex tasks

• Element 13: Providing resources and guidance

• Element 14: Generating and defending claims

Teachers should use these elements in conjunction with one another. That is, they should typically employ all three when assigning knowledge application tasks.

Element 12: Engaging Students in Cognitively Complex Tasks

 

Chapter 6

PDF

CHAPTER 6

CONTENT

Using Strategies That Appear in All Types of Lessons

Chapters 3, 4, and 5 represent specific types of lessons each with unique purposes and unique strategies.

Chapter 3 deals with direct instruction lessons, chapter 4 with practicing and deepening lessons, and chapter

5 with knowledge application lessons. The instructional strategies we discuss in those chapters would most probably appear in the context of their respective lessons. For example, teachers use chunking primarily when they are introducing new content, they use structured practice sessions primarily when they wish to develop fluency in a procedure, and they use cognitively complex tasks primarily when they wish to have students apply their knowledge.

In contrast, there are a number of strategies that teachers can and should use within all three types of lessons previously discussed. As a set, these strategies help students continually integrate new knowledge with old knowledge and revise their understanding of the content accordingly. The following elements and the strategies embedded within them in this chapter help students perform these functions.

 

Chapter 7

PDF

CHAPTER 7

Using Engagement Strategies

CONTEXT

As stated in the introduction, context—the third of the overarching three categories—refers to students’ mental readiness during the teaching-learning process. For students to be ready, their needs relative to engagement, order, a sense of belonging, and high expectations must be met.

Many people use the term engagement; however, it is a term that does not always have a clear definition.

In fact, educators ascribe a wide variety of meanings to the term. For example, some educators might use the term to mean the simple behavior of paying attention to what the teacher is doing in class, while others might use it to mean students being intrinsically motivated by what occurs in class. The New Art and Science of Teaching (Marzano, 2017) addresses engagement from four perspectives. One is the traditional notion of attention. That is, some of the elements are designed to ensure that students attend to what occurs in the classroom. Another perspective is energy level. Some elements involve strategies designed to increase students’ energy levels, particularly when those levels are getting low. A third perspective is intrigue. Some of the elements address techniques that help stimulate high levels of student interest in such a way that students seek further information about the content on their own. The fourth perspective is motivation and inspiration.

 

Chapter 8

PDF

CHAPTER 8

Implementing Rules and Procedures and Building Relationships

As we mention in this book’s introduction, The New Art and Science of Teaching framework features the three overarching categories (feedback, content, context), ten teacher actions, forty-three elements, and over 330 accompanying strategies. Teachers intentionally select elements and embedded strategies to build a wellrounded, effective instructional program based on a unit’s learning goals of what students should come to know, understand, and do. Since our focus in this text is on writing and to some degree reading, this chapter highlights only one of the five elements within the category of Implementing Rules and Procedures and one element within the category of Building Relationships.

• Element 34: Organizing the physical layout of the classroom

• Element 39: Understanding students’ backgrounds and interests

We encourage readers to study The New Art and Science of Teaching (Marzano, 2017) to take advantage of learning about all the strategies related to each category so they are fully aware of what contributes to excellence in teaching.

 

Chapter 9

PDF

CHAPTER 9

Developing Expertise

As the previous chapters illustrate, The New Art and Science of Teaching Writing offers a comprehensive framework that can help writing teachers develop their expertise and, in turn, increase their students’ learning.

This relationship between teacher expertise and student learning is well established. For example, in one of the most rigorous studies of the relationship between teacher effectiveness and student achievement, Barbara

Nye, Spyros Konstantopoulos, and Larry V. Hedges (2004) estimate that the difference in student achievement between a teacher who is “average” and a teacher who is “very effective” is about 13 percentile points in reading and 18 in mathematics. They note, “These effects are certainly large enough to have policy implications” (Nye et al., 2004, p. 253).

This relationship underscores the importance of helping teachers continually develop their expertise. The more skilled teachers become, the more their students learn. It’s as simple as that. Fortunately, there is a great deal of research and theory on how to improve one’s expertise in any complex domain such as teaching (see

 

Afterword

PDF

Afterword

The New Art and Science of Teaching  (Marzano, 2017) presents a comprehensive model of teaching that organizes all or most of the instructional strategies available to teachers. The science reference is predicated on the fact that these strategies are founded on decades of research and theory and contribute to effective teaching. The art component indicates that factors other than research attribute to student learning, such as which strategies are used together and how teachers use them for express purposes. This analogy can help elucidate this point:

Instructional strategies are best likened to techniques an artist might develop and refine over years of practice. The artist then uses these techniques to create works that are not only unique and complex but elegantly focused. The more skill the artist exhibits with available techniques, the better his or her creations. Likewise, the more skill the classroom teacher has with the instructional strategies that research and theory have uncovered over the decades, the better the teacher will be able to create lessons that optimize student learning. (Marzano, 2017)

 

Appendix A

PDF

Appendix A

Framework Overview

We have further divided each of the three overarching categories—feedback, content, and context—into ten teacher actions. These categories give rise to forty-three elements which, on a more granular level, comprise

333 associated instructional strategies. Figure A.1 (page 156) presents a comprehensive list of the forty-three elements and their associated strategies. The instructional strategies that appear in bold typeface are those that we feature in this book as they relate to writing instruction and to some degree reading since these areas of literacy are closely linked.

155

Feedback

Category

1. �Students understand the progression of knowledge they are expected to master and where they are along that progression.

2. �Students understand how test scores and grades relate to their status on the progression of knowledge they are expected to master.

Chapter 2:

Using

Assessments

Desired Student

 

Appendix B

PDF

Appendix B

List of Figures and Tables

Visit go.SolutionTree.com/instruction for free reproducible versions of figures and tables with an asterisk.

Figure I.1: The teaching and learning progression. .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. 2

Table I.1: Teacher Actions and Student Mental States and Processes .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. 3

Table I.2: Design Questions .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

3

Table I.3: Elements Within the Ten Design Areas .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

5

Figure I.2: General format of the self-rating scale. .

.

 

Details

Print Book
E-Books
Chapters

Format name
PDF
Encrypted
No
Sku
BPP0000274980
Isbn
9781945349379
File size
3.07 MB
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Format name
PDF
Encrypted
No
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Sku
In metadata
Isbn
In metadata
File size
In metadata