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Behavior:The Forgotten Curriculum

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To fully prepare students for college, careers, and life, it is essential for educators to nurture students' behavioral skills along with their academic skills. With Behavior: The Forgotten Curriculum, you will learn how to employ the most effective behavioral and social skills activities for your particular class and form unique relationships with each and every learner. Through this personalized classroom behavior-management approach, you can anticipate potential problem areas and confidently respond to students in need of intensive and differentiated supports.

Use behavior-management strategies based on response to intervention to:

  • Understand the importance of communicating the why of behavioral learning to students.
  • Identify and define the behavioral skills that will most benefit your students.
  • Model and teach behavioral skills simultaneously with academic skills.
  • Learn how and when to employ behavioral system supports across all three RTI tiers (MTSS).
  • Implement formative assessment and other tools for measuring behavioral-skill development and success.
  • Hear from educators who have successfully applied behavioral-skill teaching in their classroom-management strategies.

Contents:
Introduction
Chapter 1: Identifying and Defining Behavioral Skill Priorities
Chapter 2: Teaching and Modeling
Chapter 3: Measuring Student Success, Providing Feedback, and Differentiating in Tier 1
Chapter 4: If It's Predictable, It's Preventable: Considerations for Tiers 2 and 3
Chapter 5: Predictable Challenges and Considerations for Implementation
Epilogue
Appendix
References and Resources

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Introduction

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Introduction

Behavior is a form of communication providing clues about what is missing in a young person’s life.

—J ohn S eita

Jacob is a fourth-grade student in an urban school district.

After losing his mom three years earlier, Jacob, his older brother, and younger sister now live in a single-parent home. Their father works two jobs to take care of the family, but he doesn’t earn enough wages to pay all the family’s living expenses. Jacob’s aunt often cares for him and his siblings along with her three younger children. Some days,

Jacob’s aunt asks the older children to watch the younger children. Jacob’s role as caregiver means he often makes his brother, sister, and cousins breakfast, helps them get dressed, organizes their lunches and backpacks, and walks them to their classrooms. Jacob is sometimes late to his own class or absent on these mornings.

Jacob and his siblings have witnessed varying degrees of violence and drug use in the community. His dad’s work demands make it hard to have routines, like a set bedtime or homework time. Jacob and his siblings sometimes don’t have meals at home. Jacob is often hungry but feels ashamed to ask for extra food at school, while watching other students waste theirs.

 

Chapter 1

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chapter

Identifying,

Defining, and

Making Sense of

Behavioral Skills

ONE

Psychological factors—often called motivational or noncognitive factors—can matter even more than cognitive factors for students’ academic performance.

— �C arol S. D weck ,

G regory M. W alton , and G eoffrey L. C ohen

If it’s predictable, it’s preventable. This core phrase is at the heart of RTI. It allows us to identify, anticipate, and prepare for our students’ needs, and to proactively respond to these before frustration and disengagement set in. We as educators predict and take measures to prevent student difficulties in academic skills—but how can this predict-and-prevent attitude apply to our model of behavioral RTI?

We can predict that a lack of adequate core instruction in the behavioral skills as the introduction describes will compromise student success—both behavioral and academic. We can predict that not all students will possess the mindsets, social skills, perseverance, learning strategies, and academic behaviors that will lead to success in school and life when they arrive in our classrooms.

 

Chapter 2

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chapter

Modeling,

Teaching, and

Nurturing

Behavioral Skills

TWO

When noncognitive factors are in place, students will look—and be—motivated. In fact, these noncognitive factors constitute what psychological researchers call motivation, and fostering these mindsets and self-regulation strategies is what psychological researchers typically mean by motivating students.

— �C arol S. D weck ,

G regory M. W alton ,

G eoffrey L. C ohen

and

Consider Billy’s story: Billy is a student who cannot successfully divide three-digit numbers by two-digit numbers. Most students in Billy’s class come into the grade knowing how to divide multidigit numbers, even though this standard is an expectation at

Billy’s grade level. Billy is not behind in relation to grade-level standards but he does appear behind in relation to his classmates.

Billy’s teacher notices this struggle, tells Billy that his errors are unacceptable, and informs Billy that he has one more chance to demonstrate his ability to correctly solve a multidigit problem.

 

Chapter 3

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Measuring Student

Success, Providing

Differentiated

Supports, and

Intervening

Appropriately

chapter

THREE

In my world, there are no bad kids, just impressionable, conflicted young people wrestling with emotions and impulses, trying to communicate their feelings and needs the only way they know how.

— �J anet L ansbury

In the previous chapter, we learned to model, teach, and nurture behavioral skills, both explicitly within minilessons and also as part of an integrated curriculum within rich academic learning experiences. We as educators must now discover how effective we have been in helping students develop these skills. We must know which students are successfully displaying these behaviors and which students require additional supports so that they too will develop these critical skills. We need to know with which behavioral skills students are relatively successful and those with which they need more attention. To do this, we must gather evidence and assess behavioral skills, just as we assess academic knowledge.

 

Chapter 4

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chapter

Preparing for

Tiers 2 and 3

Behavioral

Supports

FOUR

Only praise that places no judgments on a student’s character or personality makes the classroom a safe place in which students are free to try and to make mistakes.

— �C arlette H ardin

We firmly believe that if educators consistently and effectively complete the steps that we have outlined in the previous chapters of this book, with high expectations in themselves and their students, there will be far, far fewer students in need of Tiers 2 and 3 supports. However, we know that educators will need to provide

Tier 2 and Tier 3 behavioral supports to some students, so it is important to be prepared.

There are solid research-based and proven methods of supporting students’ supplemental behavioral skill needs. We as educators can do a better job of putting these methods into action. This chapter will discuss how to appropriately and effectively provide, at Tiers

2 and 3, resources and processes for addressing the antecedents and root causes of students’ difficulties. It will discuss questions to ask when designing behavioral interventions and determining students’ specific behavioral needs for both Tiers 2 and 3. It will then provide tools for interventions at Tier 2 as well as resources for monitoring interventions until educators observe success.

 

Chapter 5

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chapter

Navigating the

Predictable

Challenges and

Considerations for Implementation

FIVE

One child, one teacher, one book, and one pen can change the world. Education is the only solution. Education first.

— �M alala Y ousafzai

This final chapter has two interrelated goals: (1) to help educators anticipate common obstacles to successfully implementing behavioral RTI and (2) to suggest ways of patiently persisting through these obstacles, based on our experiences with schools and districts. The chapter will discuss challenges stemming from:

��

School culture

��

Administrative support

��

Schoolwide implementation

��

Parents

��

Time, staff, and resources

��

Data collection, management, and analysis

��

Beliefs and expectations

��

The need to teach all students

By the end of this chapter, readers should be able to successfully allocate time within the day and resources necessary to guide the work of behavioral RTI, despite any challenges or objections from staff. Leaders should convey their full support for a focus on student behaviors and the expectation that all staff devote time and supports to address all students’ behavioral needs.

 

Epilogue

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E pi l ogu e

The research is clear. We understand the realities. The nature of the futures for which we are preparing students is undeniable. We, as educators, are the answer we’ve been waiting for to help students develop the behavioral skills they need to succeed in school, college, work, and life.

It is my hope that Behavior: The Forgotten Curriculum; An RTI Approach for Nurturing Essential Life Skills illustrates the clear need for educators to teach behavioral skills to students with the same emphasis that they place on academics. I have provided strategies and templates for teaching these skills to all students at the

Tier 1 level, tips for implementing and monitoring supports at Tiers 2 and 3, and assistance in providing effective feedback and differentiation. I have identified predictable challenges that may occur and listed ways to overcome these. The task is now up to you!

Perhaps most significantly, I have aligned a process for behavioral RTI to the more familiar process of academic RTI with which I and others have had experience and success, from PLC at Work through the three tiers of RTI. In addition, I have encouraged educators’ understandings of behavior from beyond social skills to include mindsets, learning strategies, perseverance, and academic behaviors.

 

Appendix A

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A p p en d ix A:

Fu n ction al Beh avior a l Anal ysis

The practical Functional Behavioral Analysis (FBA) and the Behavior Support Plan (BSP; appendix B, page

165) are original designs based on exceptional, more formal FBAs and BSPs. See, for example, the FBA and

BSP guidance from the Connecticut State Department of Education (http://www.portal.ct.gov/-/media/SDE

/Publications/edguide/FunctionalBehavioralAssessmentandModelForm.pdf). We also drew inspiration from

Crone, Hawken, & Horner (2015) and Buck, Polloway, Kirkpatrick, Patton, & Fad (2000). We started from scratch in designing an FBA and BSP to ensure that general education teachers, and administrators who are former general education teachers, could use these tools confidently and competently. We attempted to keep jargon out to enable users to link the FBA to the BSP whenever possible.

139

REPRODUCIBLE

140

Observation Form for Functional Behavioral Analysis

Observations

 

Appendix B

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A p p en d ix B:

B eh av ior Su p p ort Pl an

165

166

REPRODUCIBLE

Behavior Support Plan

Target

Identify the target misbehaviors, desired behaviors, and goal from functional behavioral analysis.

Clearly define and describe the misbehavior.

Clearly define and describe the desired behavior.

Specifically define the frequency and duration at which the student will display the desired behavior to achieve success.

page 1 of 5

Behavior: The Forgotten Curriculum; An RTI Approach for Nurturing Essential Life Skills © 2018 Solution Tree Press

SolutionTree.com • Visit go.SolutionTree.com/RTI to download this free reproducible.

REPRODUCIBLE

167

Preventative Supports

Match redirection, prevention, and de-escalation strategies and replacement behaviors.

Describe how the student and staff will redirect misbehaviors when they begin to occur or after they begin to occur.

Describe precorrections that staff will provide and preventative supports that staff will employ before the misbehavior is likely to occur.

 

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