Medium 9781780646169

Capacity Building for Sustainable Development

By: James, V.
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Capacity building is a topic of intense focus in many industrialized countries. This book explores the theoretical underpinnings of capacity building to sustain the natural, cultural and human resources of communities. It reviews the extensive literature on capacity-building strategies and policies and examines the implications of sustainable development in communities around the world. The book's approach is both theoretical and applied. It offers methods of operationalizing sustainable development and sustainability theories and explores capacity building methods at different levels of government. Successful practices in non-governmental and governmental agency roles are examined. By considering the path towards embracing whole, or partial, sustainability, it provides a comprehensive analysis and examination of how to build capacity in tackling many development problems, especially those linked to infrastructure accumulation and land-use development. Contributors shed light on the overall impact of globalisation and many concepts related to sustainable development and sustainability of the economic socio-cultural and environmental systems. This book is recommended for research libraries, for graduate studies in economic development, sustainable development, environmental management; and undergraduate studies relating to developing and emerging countries. It is also useful for government officials, researchers, decision makers and policy analysts involved in sustainable development.

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1 Building the Capacities of Developing Countries to Protect the Environment

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Building the Capacities of Developing

Countries to Protect the Environment

Valentine Udoh James1

Clarion University of Pennsylvania, USA

Introduction

The ideals of planning suggest that development and public infrastructure can be implemented in an atmosphere of complete harmony and that environmental, social and economic disruption can be minimized. This assumes that there is full knowledge of the social, economic, political and physical systems within which such development is operating and that assumes that development is generally biased toward the public interest rather than motivated by private or individual objectives and incentives. In the ideal atmosphere, development is weighted in favour of the benefits of future as well as current populations and such benefits tend to be available to all levels of society and not create a restriction to a part of society or present a barrier to a particular group.

In all development there is bound to be a segment of the population that suffers from negative impacts of development and some segment of the population that will benefit from the economic growth that results from the development. Practice, however, may dictate quite a different result as the differing social structures of a country may form the basis of the atmosphere in which development is produced and both how and by whom the resources of society are utilized. One must recognize that there are, in fact,

 

2 Operationalizing Concepts of Sustainable Development in Africa

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Operationalizing Concepts of

Sustainable Development in Africa

Valentine Udoh James1

Clarion University of Pennsylvania, USA

Introduction

Since the achievement of political independence in most African countries, there have been efforts by African governments to find the right formula for development strategies that would bring sustained economic, social and political advancement and stability. African economies have invariably depended on export of renewable and non-renewable natural resources and cash crops for their foreign exchange earnings. This reliance on commodities and natural resources has made it difficult to sustain development efforts. The current literature on Africa’s development is replete with descriptions of economic, social and ecological systems that have declined significantly.

The stress that African economic, social and ecological systems are experiencing can be attributed to many endogenous and exogenous factors.

 

3 Sustainability of Agriculture and Food Shortage: a Brief Analysis of the African Condition

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Sustainability of Agriculture and Food

Shortage: a Brief Analysis of the African

Condition

Valentine Udoh James1

Clarion University of Pennsylvania, USA

Introduction

Food production in many parts of Africa was moderately sufficient for the people in the 1950s and 1960s but in the late 1970s and beyond, food shortages have been experienced in many countries (Barrett, 2006, 2007). The rising population and the declining domestic production of food crops in Africa have been at the centre of the food crisis on the continent. Adequate food supplies are the most fundamental of human needs. A history of rising population growth, poverty and political instability are just a few of the factors that have led to unsustainable agricultural development practices in Africa. It is readily apparent that the underlying factors creating the food crisis in Africa are very complex. Agricultural, cultural, economic and environmental issues must be addressed in a holistic way (Sarris and Morrison, 2010).

 

4 Globalization and Sustainable Development in Africa: the Imperatives of Capacity Building

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Globalization and Sustainable

Development in Africa: the Imperatives of Capacity Building

Chinyeaka Justine Igbokwe-Ibeto1

Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

Introduction

Globalization is a worldwide phenomenon that has turned the world into a global village. Theoretically, it is expected that such interactions would engender a new vista of opportunities as well as challenges. However, in the political economy of

African countries, its impact has been a mixed bag of the good, the bad and the ugly (Igbokwe-­

Ibeto et al., 2014). While there is increasing world involvement in Africa, the putative benefits of globalization on sustainable development are hardly visible on the continent, due to lack of capacity to take advantage of the opportunities created by globalization. This is where capacity building becomes a prime issue in developing human resources of developing countries so that each sector and industry can best tap the opportunities offered in globalization. Specifically, the new trend requires higher skills and knowledge and changes in the areas of decision and policy making, industrial production, skills training and education to cope with technological advancement and vagaries of the international market.

 

5 Understanding Capacity Building for Sustainable Tourism in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

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Understanding Capacity Building for

Sustainable Tourism in the Niger Delta,

Nigeria

Luke Amadi1

University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

Introduction

From the early 1970s, novel thinking on ‘capacity development’ emerged. This was strengthened within the United Nations (UN) system in the context of ‘institution building’. This encompassed impacting on the ability of institutions for improved and efficient performance.

By 1991 the term had transformed into

‘capacity building’ following the increasing need to incorporate the ‘individual’ components. The terms capacity building and capacity development are used in numerous contexts to describe a wide array of activities. Capacity building aims to strengthen the ability of both individual and institutional entities to work together for their mutual benefits by deploying relevant skills and tools needed to identify and resolve problems.

The UN specialized agencies were charged with the responsibility of ensuring that various institutional capacity building bodies were developed within a wide range of sectors such as environment (UNEP: UN Environment Pro­ gramme), cultural (UNESCO: UN Educational,

 

6 The Link Between Environment and Development

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The Link Between Environment and Development

Mamba Sipho Felix1

University of Swaziland, Kwaluseni, Swaziland

Introduction

Compelling evidence exists that the environment is constantly changing and its state continues to worsen. Different factors account for this, which includes, among others: rapid population growth, increase in chronic poverty, and inappropriate development practices and policies in the different development sectors (ECA,

2001). Environmental impacts such as land degradation, deterioration of air quality and loss of biodiversity, among others, are accelerated mostly by human activities in their quest for development. As such, environmental management and development are intricately connected. While different states in the global South excessively exploit environmental resources to feed their increasing population and hence eradicate poverty, countries in the north do so to produce surplus goods for export. This race of resources exploitation has created a hazardous situation the world over, has made the lives of people and animals vulnerable and has simultaneously exacerbated the already complicated environmental problems. This calls for sound development policies that will ensure sustainable use of environmental resources. As Awan

 

7 Capacity Building for Environmental Impact Analysis in Nigeria

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Capacity Building for Environmental

Impact Analysis in Nigeria

Charles Udosen1

University of Uyo, Awka-Ibom State, Nigeria

Introduction

In Nigeria, as in other countries in Africa, environmental impact assessment (EIA) is promoted as a policy instrument for integrating environment and development projects/issues at all levels to enhance environmental stewardship.

This chapter reviews the application of EIA in selected states/regions in Nigeria. It includes good practices and lessons learned and provides an account of individual communities’ experiences in the institutionalization and application of EIA as well as an assessment of levels of participation of community-based organizations in socio-economic and health studies.

Nigeria, independent since 1960, is Africa’s most populous nation and occupies an area of

923,768 km2 with varied climates and seasons

(Fig. 7.1). At present, its estimated population is over 140 million people. Prior to oil, agriculture

 

8 The Effect of Traditional Land Management Methods on Sustainable Crop Yield in Betem, Biase Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria

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The Effect of Traditional Land

Management Methods on Sustainable Crop

Yield in Betem, Biase Local Government

Area of Cross River State, Nigeria

Eze Bassey Eze1 and Oruk Egbai

University of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

Introduction

The most essential nutrient elements required for increased food production are soil dependent, implying that they are obtained from soil to promote plant growth and sustainable agriculture. The availability of soil nutrients in the required amount is an important prerequisite for the attainment of sufficiency in food production

(Spaargaran, 1994; Egbai et  al., 2001; Fagbola and Ogungba, 2007). The important soil nutrient constraints have been identified to include excessive removal of vegetation, poor agricultural practices and topography (Park, 1992; Anyanwa et al., 2001; Egbai, 2011).

In an agroecological environment where soil nutrients are noticeably deficient, improvement of soil with the required nutrients is critically important. According to Corwin et  al.

 

9 Empowerment of Women and Sustainable Development in the 20th Century: The Yoruba Women Example

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Empowerment of Women and

Sustainable Development in the 20th

Century: The Yoruba Women Example

Mutiat Titilope Oladejo1

University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Introduction

This chapter examines empowerment and sustainability through Yoruba women’s professional pursuits. It analyses the manifestation of empowerment indices in the lives of women in education, health, business and other sectors.

Undoubtedly, the effect of poverty has placed women at a disadvantaged position which thus necessitated the invention and adoption of coping strategies for survival. Adoption of coping strategies became indispensably a result of the implications of inequality that pervaded the socio-political economy of developing countries.

Invariably, empowerment remains a synonym for sustainable development; however, the definition of empowerment is a diverse phenomenon which has its peculiarity in various aspects in the development discourse. This discourse approaches the perspectives from the template of a historical and situational analysis of case studies in developing economies of the 20th century.

 

10 Capacity Building and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa

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Capacity Building and Economic

Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa

Robert Dibie1a, Felix Moses Edohob and Josephine Dibiea

Indiana University Kokomo, Indiana, USA; bLincoln University,

Jefferson City, Missouri, USA

Introduction

There have been many problems and challenges facing the African countries in the past four decades (World Economic Forum, 2015). The challenges range from lack of proactive initiatives for environmental sustainability to how to restore and revitalize economic growth (Dibie, 2014).

Some of these development challenges have been associated with lack of appropriate capacity building efforts. In addition, the low and inappropriate capacity building challenges have spilled over to severe political instability and poverty

(Ezana, 2011; Nwazor, 2013; UNDP, 2014). In some African countries, however, some of these development setbacks have been incrementally followed by favourable democratic and environmental renaissance (Gwin, 2014; World Economic Forum, 2015). On the other hand, these segmented improvements in the continent have become a model for economic growth. In countries where foreign investments have enhanced capacity building, these initiatives have brought about some levels of affordable energy, jobs, ­ revenues and an accompanying resurgence of manufacturing and agricultural products (UNDP, 2014).

 

11 Business Sector and Global Sustainable Future

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Business Sector and Global

Sustainable Future

Felix Moses Edoho1a and Robert Dibieb

Lincoln University, Jefferson City, Missouri, USA; bIndiana University Kokomo,

Indiana, USA

1a

Introduction

The global environmental challenges of our time range from global warming, ozone depletion,

­deforestation and desertification, acid rain and declining biodiversity to toxic wastes (Millen­ nium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005; WWF, 2010;

Worldwatch Institute, 2010, 2011). Corporate industrial production has contributed significantly to these phenomena (Anderson, 2015; Kraft and

Furlong, 2017). It also accounts for the destruction of the natural habitats and colonies; contamination of ground waters and fish ponds; and release of greenhouse gas and toxic chemicals into the atmosphere (Bergesen and Parmann,

1995; Anderson, 2002; Shisanto, 2005; Utting and Ives, 2006; Mesa, 2007; Edoho, 2013;

­Anderson, 2015). Corporations in the resource extraction industries wreak havoc on the environment because they directly disturb and dislocate the ecosystems, causing the most severe impacts (Cragg and Greenbaum, 2002; Kapelus,

 

12 Empowerment of Women and Sustainable Development

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Empowerment of Women and Sustainable Development

Robert Dibie1 and Josephine Dibie

Indiana University, Kokomo, USA

Introduction

In the past five decades gender equality issues in the sustainable development process across the

African continent have not been very sensitive to promoting women as equal partners. The most disturbing aspect of this discriminatory practice against women is that female citizens contribute immensely towards the social and economic

­sustainability of many African countries. The proactive initiatives to integrate economic sustainability and women empowerment have not been well received in many African countries, due to religious and cultural beliefs. Discrimination, domestic violence and other forms of abuse are still considered as private matters and are best kept secret in some communities in several African countries (Sam-Okere, 2013; Dibie et al., 2015). Despite many international conferences, movements and calls for the recognition of women as equal team players in economic and social development, most African governments have not taken major steps to enact and implement appropriate gender policies (Usua and Ouagwu, 2010; Ako-Nai, 2013).

 

13 Subaltern Hydro-struggles Against Unsustainable Commercial Diamond-mining Practices in Chiadzwa, Zimbabwe (2009–2013)

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Subaltern Hydro-struggles Against

Unsustainable Commercial

Diamond-mining Practices in

Chiadzwa, Zimbabwe (2009–2013)

Fidelis Peter Thomas Duri1

Great Zimbabwe University, Masvingo, Zimbabwe

Introduction

Instead of alleviating the plight of the common people in a country engulfed in a socio-economic meltdown which became so manifest from 2000, the diamond rush in the Chiadzwa area under

Chief Marange in Zimbabwe’s Manicaland province since 2006 actually generated a multiplicity of crises. These included environmental degradation and the illegal panning and smuggling of the mineral. The Zimbabwean government cordoned off the diamond fields and displaced some African communities from the mining area and its

­vicinity. It then invited local and international companies to apply for diamond mining rights.

Commercial diamond m

­ ining began at Chiadzwa in 2009 after most of the rights had been granted to companies jointly owned by foreigners and the Zimbabwean elite. This move exacerbated the crisis and triggered a plethora of struggles and contestations as local communities felt that they were not benefiting from their indigenous resources. Commercial mining operations involving heavy earth-­moving machinery ravaged the terrain of the Chiadzwa area and its vicinity, resulting in the unprecedented siltation of water bodies. The careless disposal of mine waste polluted rivers to the extent that rural African communities living downstream

 

14 Proactive Learning Framework: Educational Model for Capacity Building and Sustainable Development

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Proactive Learning Framework:

Educational Model for Capacity Building and Sustainable Development

Victoria Oliaku Chiatula1

Indiana, USA

Introduction

Capacity building and sustainable development entail an educational model that is a proactive learning framework. By and large, both formal and informal education encompass the discipline of teaching and learning that involves ‘the act and process[es] of imparting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the powers of reasoning and judgment, and generally of preparing oneself or others intellectually for mature life’ (Dictionary.com, 2015). The definition and application of education as described above and discussed in this chapter are within the grades K–5 primary learning context. E

­ ducation processes take on a multiplicity of approaches in terms of how students learn, what they learn, where they learn, and from whom they learn. Embedded within these processes are the socialization and enculturation of norms and mores which are transmitted through societies. In this role, education is the key to inculcating the content knowledge, skills, values and behaviours desired for societal change and transformation embedded within capacity building and sustainable development principles and targets. Specifically, education takes on a dimension of being ‘not simply about knowledge transfer and skills enhancement, [but] also about working with people to take charge of their own lives in a shared world’ (­Palmer, 2013, p. 306).

 

15 Can Competitiveness be the Framework for Sustainable Electricity Supply in Nigeria?

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Can Competitiveness be the

Framework for Sustainable Electricity

Supply in Nigeria?

Robert Madua1, Ann Ogbob and Zita Mmamela

Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria; bUniversity of ­Nigeria,

Enugu Campus, Nigeria

a

Introduction

Background

This chapter seeks to unravel the possible ways competitiveness in the Nigerian Power sector can enhance a sustainable electricity supply in the country. For this study, data was collected from available literature on the issue and analysed to determine the problems f acing the ­

­

Nigerian power sector and how competition can serve as a panacea for such problems. Paul ­Collier, the renowned Oxford

University Professor of African Economies, lamented while commenting on the importance of power to Nigerian economy and summed it up as: ‘No power, no future’. The future of

Nigeria is tied in with its ability to provide sustainable energy for private and business uses.

 

16 Energy Production and Consumption for Sustainable Development

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Energy Production and Consumption for Sustainable Development

Abel Olajide Olorunnisola1

University of Ibadan, Oyo, Nigeria

Introduction

This chapter begins by defining the two key words or concepts: energy and sustainable development.

Energy

Energy is a Greek word, spelt ἐνέργεια or energeia, which possibly appeared for the first time in the work of Aristotle in the 4th century bc and was used to describe an activity or an operation.

As observed by Adenikiju (2012, p. 112):

. . . energy is a component of the natural resource. Like other natural resources, some are renewable and others are non-renewable.

However, energy is both a productive input and also provides final consumer services such as lighting, entertainment, among others. Energy has provided the fuel for modern economies. Its use has also generated significant negative impact on the environment and global warming.

The various energy sources that drive the various sectors of society today can be categorized as:

 

17 Climate Change and Coping Strategies for Sustainable Food Production Among Small-scale Farmers in Nigeria

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Climate Change and Coping

Strategies for Sustainable Food Production

Among Small-scale Farmers in Nigeria

Ibrahim Folorunsho Ayanda1

Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria

Introduction

Nigeria has been facing and will continue to face many significant challenges associated with variations in temperature, precipitation, humidity and other climatic elements which have become the primary environmental threat of the

21st century. In past centuries the perception among the residents of rural areas in Nigeria was that drought and famine were punishments from God. In Nigeria, it is established that there are increases in the ambient temperature as well as inconsistency in the amount, duration and distribution of precipitation (Ajetunmobi and

Abiodun, 2010). Global warming is projected to have significant impacts on conditions such as temperature, precipitation and the interaction of these elements that affect agriculture. These climatic factors affect agriculture and determine the adequacy of food and fibre supplies in two important ways. Firstly, they influence weather hazards on crops and livestock. On the other hand they control the types of crops, livestock and other branches of agriculture that can thrive in a given area. In addition, they influence all the stages of the agricultural production chain, from land cultivation to marketing.

 

18 Capacity Building for Rural Development in Nigeria: The Case of Rural Road Networks

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Capacity Building for Rural

Development in Nigeria: The Case of Rural Road Networks

S. Tunji Titilolaa1 and Valentine Udoh Jamesb

Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria; bClarion University of Pennsylvania,

Clarion, USA

a

Introduction

The majority of Nigerians still reside in rural areas and are engaged in farm and non-farm activities. Agriculture, however, still remains the main source of income in rural areas.

Roads and other infrastructures are therefore essential to rural welfare as well as critical for accelerating agricultural and rural development (FMARD, 2016). This argument still holds in the year 2017. Past rural development-oriented efforts, such as Operation Feed the Nation, the Green Revolution Programmes and others have had limited success in many areas of N

­ igeria due in part to poor road infrastructures. Therefore, development of rural road networks is deemed critical for agricultural production and overall rural welfare and development. As noted by Tunde and Adeniyi

 

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