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Temperate Agroforestry Systems, 2nd Edition

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Agroforestry is a land use system that allows for the concurrent production of trees and agricultural crops and/or animals from the same piece of land. It has a rich history of development and has been practised in some parts of the world for more than 6,000 years. In 1997, CABI published the seminal book on this subject,Temperate Agroforestry Systems, which was a break from the norm as almost all agroforestry texts up to that date were only relevant to tropical areas. The book explored the development of temperate agroforestry and agroforestry systems, concentrating on those areas within temperate zones where the greatest advances, adoptions and modifications had taken place up to that time: North and South America, China, Australia, New Zealand and Europe.ÊThis second fully-updated and expanded edition includes additional chapters on India and Chile and, as a result of ongoing advances in the field, separate chapters on the US, Canada, the UK and continental Europe. Today's challenges of climate change, population growth and food security, in concert with the ongoing global requirement for the energy and water needed for a resilient agricultural paradigm, can be met through the wide-scale adoption of agroforestry practices, in both tropical regions and temperate zones. The 2nd edition ofTemperate Agroforestry SystemsÊbrings together many examples of temperate agroforestry and will make valuable reading for all those working in this area as researchers, practitioners and policy makers. The book is also of importance to students and teachers of agriculture, ecology, environmental studies and forestry in temperate regions.

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1: Temperate Agroforestry: An Overview

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1

Temperate Agroforestry:

An Overview1

A.M. Gordon,2* S.M. Newman,3 B.R.W. Coleman2 and N.V. Thevathasan2

2

School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Canada; 3Biodiversity

International Ltd, Faversham, Kent, UK

Introduction

Agroforestry is an approach to land use that

­incorporates trees into farming systems and allows for the production of trees and crops and/or livestock from the same piece of land; it has a rich history of development and has been practised in some parts of the world for more than 6000 years.

Many traditional farming systems around the world have evolved to include components of agroforestry, yet ironically the farmers that utilize these practices often never refer to them as agroforestry.

A classic example can be found in the production of maple syrup from sugar maple (Acer saccharum) trees in small hardwood woodlots maintained within the farming landscape of southern Ontario,

Quebec and the northeastern United States. This would certainly be considered an agroforestry activity but would rarely be referred to as such by practitioners, who are, in this case, ‘maple syrup’ farmers!

 

2: Agroforestry in Canada and its Role in Farming Systems

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Agroforestry in Canada and its Role in Farming Systems1

N.V. Thevathasan,2* B. Coleman,2 L. Zabek,3 T. Ward4 and

A.M. Gordon2

2

School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario,

Canada; 3Ministry of Agriculture, Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada;

4

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Indian Head, Saskatchewan, Canada

Introduction

History and background

With an area of more than nine million square

­kilometres, Canada stretches west to east from the

Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean, and is bordered to the south by the USA and north by the Arctic Ocean.

Although substantial agricultural production and tree growth occur in all regions south of Canada’s northern territories, a large proportion of Canada’s southern land area is home to temperate climates and fertile soils, which contributes to significantly higher rates of plant productivity. Following European settlement in the late 1700s, large tracts of native forest were removed to make way for intensive agricultural production, which continues to dominate a large portion of southern Canada to this day.

 

3: Temperate Agroforestry in the United States: Current Trends and Future Directions

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Temperate Agroforestry in the United

States: Current Trends and Future

Directions

S. Jose,* M.A. Gold and H.E. Garrett

The Center for Agroforestry, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA

Introduction

Agroforestry, as practised in the USA, is a sustainable management system that involves the growth of trees in either a crop or animal association to optimize ecological and economic interactions. It consists of variations of five practices: alley cropping, silvopasture, forest farming, riparian buffers and windbreaks. As a field of study, agroforestry possesses many qualities which promote the merging of forestry and agriculture and the creation of a comprehensive and integrative land-use strategy. It generates ecosystem diversity and embraces ecological processes while providing increased economic opportunities for the family farm and small farm landowner. While many of us perceive forests and farm crops as having to be grown separately, this is not always true. Research has demonstrated that with many crops (including livestock) benefits can accrue when trees and crops are grown together.

 

4: Agroforestry in the UK

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Agroforestry in the UK

S.M. Newman,1* D.J. Pilbeam2 and S. Briggs3

1

Biodiversity International Ltd, Faversham, Kent, UK; 2School of Biology,

University of Leeds, Leeds, UK; 3Abacus Agri Ltd, Peterborough, UK

Introduction and History Pre-1950

Crops, trees and animals have been combined on the same area of land in the UK for centuries. Pigs (Sus spp.) were traditionally allowed to forage for acorns under broadleaved woodland and the practice was known as ‘pannage’. Trees were also pollarded (coppiced above waist height) to provide fodder for animals and wood fuel or poles. The pollarding allowed productive growth above the heads of grazing or browsing animals. Hedgerows were planted alongside pastures to enclose livestock and wood pasture still remains in areas of ancient forest. Orchard

­grazing is thought to be an ancient practice in some counties of England e.g. Herefordshire and Kent.

Air photographs appear to show a diverse agroforestry landscape in the UK with trees in the middle of fields, hedgerows and parklands but the trees and shrubs are rarely managed as profitable components in the system and play a subservient role. Despite this rich history and extensive landscape, there are few historic texts or guides on how to optimize the configuration of these systems. If we take 1950 as a cut-off date then three of the most significant texts are Sylva (Evelyn, 1679), The Compleat Planter and

 

5: Temperate Agroforestry: the European Way

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Temperate Agroforestry: the European Way

C. Dupraz,1* G.J. Lawson,2 N. Lamersdorf,3

V. P. Papanastasis,4 A. Rosati5 and J. Ruiz-Mirazo6

1

INRA, University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France; 2Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh, UK; 3Georg-August University Göttingen, Büsgen

Institute, Göttingen, Germany; 4Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki,

Greece; 5Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura e l’Analisi dell’Economia

Agraria (CREA – OLI), Spoleto, Italy; 6European Forum on Nature Conservation and Pastoralism, Lampeter, Wales, UK

Introduction and Definitions

This chapter is a significant rewrite of the first edition, but excludes developments in the UK which are discussed in Chapter 4. For the past two decades agroforestry has been an active research and extension topic in Europe and is increasingly important within EU agricultural, environmental, energy and climate-change policies. The structure of this chapter has been revised to reflect these trends. It starts with a description of silvopastoral (Section 2) and silvoarable (Section 3) systems in Europe, covering both historical practices and modern trials. Section

 

6: Agroforestry in the Indian Himalayan Region: An Overview

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Agroforestry in the Indian Himalayan

Region: An Overview

B.M. Kumar,1* A.K. Handa,2 S.K. Dhyani3 and A. Arunachalam3

1

School of Ecology and Environment Studies, Nalanda University, India;

Central Agroforestry Research Institute, Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh, India; 3Natural

Resource Management Division, Indian Council of Agricultural Research,

New Delhi, India

2

Introduction

India is the cradle of agroforestry with diverse kinds of agroforestry (AF) systems practised since time immemorial (Kumar et al., 2012). These include the tropical, subtropical, and temperate AF systems

(AFS). While the tropical and subtropical AFS received considerable scientific attention in the past

(e.g. Singh, 1987; Tejwani, 1994; Puri and Panwar,

2007; Dagar et al., 2014), temperate AFS, the focus of this book, did not receive the consideration it warrants, given the extent and coverage of these systems in the mountainous regions of this country.

 

7: Temperate Agroforestry in China

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Temperate Agroforestry in China

S.X. Chang,1* W. Wang,2 Z. Zhu,3 Y. Wu3 and X. Peng4

1

Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Alberta,

Canada; 2Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese ­Academy of ­Sciences, Changchun, Jilin, China; 3International Network for Bamboo and Rattan, Beijing, China; 4College of Biological and Medical Engineering,

Shangluo University, Shangluo, Shaanxi, China

Introduction

Most of the current global agroforestry research effort is focused on tropical systems, although efforts on temperate agroforestry research have been expanding (e.g. Byington, 1990; Bandolin and Fisher, 1991; Williams and Gordon, 1992;

Long, 1993; Garrett and Harper, 1999; Jose et al.,

2004; Mao et al., 2011; Kort et al., 2014). Many of the functions of agroforestry systems desirable in tropical regions are equally effective in providing ecological services in temperate regions. Temperate agroforestry research and development in China followed a trend similar to the global one (Zhu and

 

8: Agroforestry Systems in Temperate Australia

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Agroforestry Systems in Temperate

Australia

R. Reid1,2* and R. Moore2

1

School of Forest and Ecosystem Science, The University of Melbourne,

Victoria, Australia; 2Australian Agroforestry Foundation, Victoria, Australia

Why Australian Farmers Plant Trees

Australia is a vast island continent covering a wide range of climate zones, from the wet and dry tropics in the north through the large arid interior to the cool temperate areas in the south. Across all these regions the landscape is typically characterized by erosion prone soils and high climatic (rainfall and temperature) variability (Nelson et  al.,

2004). Even in the temperate regions, continental and oceanic influences result in a highly variable climate where temperatures exceeding 35°C, severe frosts, occasional heavy snow falls and torrential rainfall events are not uncommon. For the purpose of this chapter the classification of Australia’s agroecological regions by Williams et al. (2002), which delineates three temperate zones (dry, coastal and highland), provides a useful basis for differentiating the temperate region of Australia (Fig. 8.1). The particular focus of this chapter is on the dry and coastal zones where the predominant land use (covering more than 70 per cent by area) is agriculture, and farmers, largely operating as private individuals or families, are the predominant landowner group.

 

9: Temperate Agroforestry Systems in New Zealand

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Temperate Agroforestry Systems in New Zealand

P.D. Kemp,1 M.F. Hawke2 and R.L. Knowles3

1

Institute of Agriculture and Environment, Massey University, New Zealand;

Retired, formerly of Bay of Plenty Farm and Pastoral Research, Rotorua,

New Zealand; 3Deceased, formerly of New Zealand Forest Research Institute,

Rotorua, New Zealand

2

Introduction

The predominant agroforestry systems in New

Zealand are silvopastoral. The two most widely used systems are the deciduous systems based mainly on poplar (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.), and the evergreen systems based mainly on radiata pine

(Pinus radiata) (Benavides et  al., 2009). The major outputs of the poplar and willow silvopastoral systems are livestock production, usually sheep (Ovis aries) and beef cattle (Bos spp.), and soil erosion management on the six million ha of erosion prone hills used for pastoral farming. In contrast, the major economic output from radiata pine agroforestry systems is timber with livestock production confined to the first 3–12 years after tree establishment, or the occasional forest grazing. Both deciduous and evergreen trees provide soil erosion management, but the financial return from poplar and willow silvopastoral systems is dependent on annual income from livestock, whereas the radiata pine system is dependent on timber prices at the time of harvest, with a supplementary income from livestock early in the tree growth cycle. Currently, radiata pine silvopastoral systems are uneconomic in New Zealand, predominantly as a result of poor timber quality, but the knowledge obtained from a series of long term trials is still of relevance to international agroforestry (Hawke, 2011). There is debate over the profitability of poplar and willow silvopastoral systems, largely due to the difficulty of valuing long term soil stability on hill slopes (Parminter et  al., 2001), but they are accepted as best practice for sustainable pastoral farming of erosion prone hills (Mead, 1995).

 

10: Novel Agroforestry Systems in Temperate Chile

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Novel Agroforestry Systems in Temperate Chile

F. Dube,1* N.B. Stolpe,2 E. Zagal,2 C.R. Figueroa,3

C. Concha,4 P. Neira,1 C. Carrasco,1 J.M. Schwenke,5

V. Schwenke6 and B. Müller-Using1

1

Department of Silviculture, Faculty of Forest Sciences, University of Concepción,

Chile; 2Department of Soils and Natural Resources, Faculty of Agronomy,

University of Concepción, Chile; 3Institute of Biological Sciences, University of

Talca, Campus Lircay, Chile; 4Institute of Molecular Plant Sciences, University of Edinburgh, UK; 5Estancia La Baguala, Villa Mañihuales, Aysén Region, Chile;

6

Escuela de Formación Técnica Universitaria, Campus Patagonia, University

Austral de Chile, Chile

Introduction

Increasingly, around the world, agroforestry is used not only to benefit crop, livestock and tree production, but also to provide several environmental improvements supplied by the tree component. For example, one can easily mention their contribution to soil fertility through leaf litter and protection against erosion by wind and water, improvement of water quality, carbon sequestration, protection of biodiversity, and the improvement of interpersonal relations between farmers and other users of rural areas. Chile is definitely one of the countries on the planet that has the greatest potential for agroforestry.

 

11: Silvopastoral systems in Patagonia, Argentina

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Silvopastoral systems in Patagonia,

Argentina

P.L. Peri,1,2,3* G. Caballé,4 N.E. Hansen,5

H.A. Bahamonde,1,2 M.V. Lencinas,3 A.R. von Müller,5

S. Ormaechea,1 V. Gargaglione,1,2 R. Soler,3

M. Sarasola,4 V. Rusch,4 L. Borrelli,4

M.E. Fernández,3 J. Gyenge,3 L.E. Tejera,5 C.E. Lloyd5 and G. Martínez Pastur3

1

Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, INTA EEA Santa Cruz, Río

­ allegos, Argentina; 2Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia Austral (UNPA),

G

Argentina; 3Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas

­(CONICET), Argentina; 4INTA EEA Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina; 5INTA EEA

Esquel, Chubut, Argentina

Introduction

Patagonia region includes five provinces (Neuquén,

Río Negro, Chubut, Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego) with an area of 197 million hectares and extends from latitudes 37 to 52º 30ʹ S (Fig. 11.1). There are four main ecosystems within the region: the steppe (representing ~93% of total area), where extensive sheep

 

12: Temperate Agroforestry: Key Elements, Current Limits and Opportunities for the Future

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Temperate Agroforestry: Key

Elements, Current Limits and

Opportunities for the Future

S.M. Newman1* and A.M. Gordon2

1

Biodiversity International Ltd, Faversham, UK; 2School of Environmental

Sciences, University of Guelph, Canada

Introduction

The broad aims of this chapter are to compare and contrast the opportunities and constraints related to the development of temperate agroforestry based on the findings of research and practice outlined in the previous chapters. It will also be useful to review how the global situation and research environment has changed since the first edition of this book was published twenty years ago in 1997.

The specific aims of this chapter are to address the following list of questions:

1. How has the world changed in terms of problems and opportunities that drive innovation in agroforestry?

2. Does the classification of agroforestry subsystems still hold true?

3. Has any further evidence emerged that supports the idea that agroforestry may lead to yield advantages and if so what are the underpinning agroecological mechanisms?

 

Agencies Dedicated to Agroforestry Dissemination and Research Worldwide

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Agencies Dedicated to

Agroforestry Dissemination and Research Worldwide

Argentina

Quebec

Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (INTA) http://inta.gob.ar/

Fédération des producteurs forestiers du Québec http://www.foretprivee.ca/jamenage-ma-foret/ lagroforesterie/

Australia

Le Fonds de recherche du Québec – Nature et techno­ logies (FRQNT) http://www.frqnt.gouv.qc.ca/le-frqnt

Australian Agroforestry Foundation http://www.agroforestry.org.au

Canada

Association for Temperate Agroforestry (AFTA) http://www.aftaweb.org

National

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) http://www.agr.gc.ca/

Alberta

Agroforestry & Woodlot Extension Society (AWES) http://www.awes-ab.ca/

British Columbia

British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture (AGRI) http://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/governments/ organizational-structure/ministries-organizations/ ministries/agriculture

Manitoba

Manitoba Forestry Association https://www.thinktrees.org/

 

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