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Global Climate Change and Coastal Tourism: Recognizing Problems, Managing Solutions and Future Expectations

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Building upon the bookÌ_Disappearing DestinationsÌ_(Jones and Phillips 2010) and its conclusion that promoted the need to recognize problems, meet expectations and manage solutionsÌ_GlobalÌ_Climate Change and Coastal TourismÌ_explores current threats to, and consequences of, climate change on existing tourism coastal destinations.Ì_Part 1 of the book provides a theoretical platform and addresses topics such as sustainability, tourism impacts, governance trade and innovation and how the media addresses climate change and tourism. It also assesses management and policy options for the future sustainability of threatened tourism coastal destinations. Part 2 presents case studies from all regions of the world (Europe, The Americas, Asia, Africa and Australasia) which synthesise findings to make recommendations that can be used to promote strategies that ameliorate projected impacts of climate change on coastal tourism infrastructure and in turn promote the future sustainability of coastal tourism destinations. This is a timely and informative text with appeal to researchers, undergraduate and post graduate students of tourism management, tourism planning, sustainable tourism development and leisure management, coastal tourism/management, environmental management/planning, geography, coastal zone management or climate change studies.

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1 Introduction – Coastal Tourism and Climate Change: Current Narratives and Discourse

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1  Introduction – Coastal Tourism and Climate

Change: Current Narratives and Discourse

A. Jones*

Institute for Tourism Travel and Culture, The University of Malta; and Islands & Small

States Institute, The University of Malta

Background: From ‘Sun, Sea and Sand’ to the IPPC – Problem Recognition and Identification

organizations such as the United Nations began to highlight such issues, particularly in developing tourist regions such as the

Caribbean (UNEP, 1997). Indeed, the EuroThis book focuses on the contemporary current pean Commission in 1999 launched its own strategic management issues that are critical policy statements on integrated coastal zone to the growing complexity of relationships management (ICZM) – Integrated Coastal between global tourism, predicted climate Zone Management: A Strategy for Europe change and policies for tourism coastal (European Commission, 1999), whilst in the

USA there had been a longer policy framemanagement.

 

2 A Rapidly Changing Climate in an Era of Increasing Global Carbon Emissions

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2 

A Rapidly Changing Climate in an Era of Increasing Global Carbon Emissions

C. Galdies*

Institute of Earth Systems, University of Malta, Malta

Introduction

Humanity continues to blaze the path towards the increased extraction and burning of fossil fuels without a full understanding of its consequences. With seemingly no end to this finite resource, new drilling and increased extraction opportunities have brought the price of this commodity down. Meanwhile, current assessments on the impact of increased levels of CO2, which are primarily generated from the burning of such fuels, point towards the consequential effects of extreme natural events in light of heatwaves and droughts, heavy rainfall, floods and sea level rise on communities (IPCC, 2014). Climatologists highlight the urgent need to cut down drastically CO2 emissions in view of the longevity of airborne carbon present in the atmosphere (Archer, 2005) and have subsequently placed a red flag on the resulting persistence of the induced warming (Solomon et al., 2010) which can entrench inevitable and highly undesirable consequences.

 

3 Integrated Coastal Zone Management: Policy Evolution and Effective Implementation?

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3 

Integrated Coastal Zone

Management: Policy Evolution and Effective Implementation?

M.R. Phillips*

Coastal and Marine Research Group, University of Wales Trinity

Saint David, Swansea, Wales, UK

Abstract

Although progress has been made with Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), the main challenges to implementation are still inadequate capacity and finance. Effective ICZM provides an evidence-based framework for decision makers to ensure activities such as coastal tourism are protected against the consequences of climate change. In England and Wales, Shoreline Management Plans

(SMP) rely on assessments that are large scale along whole stretches of coastline, while smaller scale studies are often not undertaken. Consequently, shoreline management policies of ‘managed retreat’ and ‘no active intervention’ in response to climate change at Fairbourne will eventually result in the loss of approximately 400 homes at a conservative cost of £60 million. This does not include business and infrastructure losses and damage to the coastal tourism industry.

 

4 Climate Change and Tourism Sustainability – The Red Queen Theory: Tourists as Climate Refugees

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4 

Climate Change and Tourism

Sustainability – The Red Queen Theory:

Tourists as Climate Refugees

Ian Jenkins*

University of Iceland, Iceland

Introduction

(Laskowski, 2014). Even cities such as L

­ ondon, many kilometres from the coast will be affected

More than 1 billion people live within low-­ and already many millions have been spent on defences such as the Thames Barrier. lying areas close to the coast and it is esti- flood ­ mated that over 200 million more live on land There are also examples of sea level mapping less than 5 m above sea level; this includes 13 in different countries, for example the USA million Europeans who will be at risk by just where some scientists have mapped US major a 1 m rise in sea levels. The world’s coastlines cities and the areas that might disappear are like many other things on this planet, (Copeland et al., 2012) through sea level rises. somewhat impermanent and constantly sub- Therefore there is an increasing risk of ‘cliject to change. This is not without existential mate change’ refugees appearing in the 21st support from a casual walk around a coastal century, if predicted sea level rises become an area; certainly so within the UK where the actuality.

 

5 Climate Change and its Impacts on Coastal Tourism: Regional Assessments, Gaps and Issues

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5 

Climate Change and its Impacts on

Coastal Tourism: Regional Assessments,

Gaps and Issues

C. Michael Hall*

University of Canterbury, New Zealand; University of Oulu, Finland; and Linneaus University, Kalmar, Sweden

Introduction

level analysis so important yet, at the same time, challenging.

Tourism is a ‘climate-sensitive human activity’ with a vulnerability to climate change that is ‘generally greater in certain high-risk locations, particularly coastal and riverine areas’

(Wilbanks et  al., 2007, p. 359). Tourism in coastal regions, along with alpine and island tourism, has been the focus of much of the research on climate change and tourism relationships (Hall, 2008; Scott et al., 2012a).

This situation is also reflected in much of the more general work on climate change where coastal areas are regarded as particularly vulnerable to the impacts of sea-level rise (SLR) as well as high-magnitude storm events (Moser et al., 2012; Wilby and Keenan,

 

6 Assessing the Climate Change Risk of a Coastal-Island Destination

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6 

Assessing the Climate Change Risk of a Coastal-Island Destination

Daniel Scott* and Stephanie Verkoeyen

University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

Introduction

Coastal tourism is considered to be one of the largest tourism market segments globally

(Hall, 2001; Honey and Krantz, 2007; Phillips and House, 2009) as well as one of the most vulnerable to the impacts of global climate change (Scott et al., 2012a, 2015). As is discussed at length in Chapter 1, sea level rise

(SLR), ocean temperatures and ocean acidification are three salient manifestations of climate change that are influencing coastal systems worldwide, such that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

(Wong et al., 2014, p. 14) concluded that ‘[t] here is no wetland, mangrove, estuary, rocky shore or coral reef which is not exhibiting some degree of impact’. Despite the transformative risk posed by climate change, the multifaceted nature of its impacts remains poorly quantified in the vast majority of coastal destinations. The interactions between impacts and the cumulative effect on coastal destinations remains an even larger knowledge gap.

 

7 Climate Change Governance and Trade Policy: Challenges for Travel and Tourism in Small Island Developing States

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Climate Change Governance and Trade

Policy: Challenges for Travel and Tourism in Small Island Developing States

Keith Nurse,1* Danielle Edwards2 and Denyse Dookie3

University of the West Indies, Barbados; 2The University of the West Indies Open

Campus Dominica, Dominica; 3School of International and Public Affairs,

Columbia University, New York

1

Introduction

Climate change policies and governance have a significant impact on the sustainability of trade in key global industries like tourism.

The promotion of sound climate policies is considered necessary for the continued sustainability of the travel and tourism sector, given the significant global economic and social value of these industries and their close links with climate (UNWTO and UNEP,

2008, p. 13). Climate is an important resource for tourism, as it influences the perceptions of suitability of locations for a wide range of tourist activities, for example suitability for a beach holiday or a ski trip (UNWTO and UNEP, 2008, p. 28). Climate also influences seasonality in tourism demand, and by extension the competitiveness of destinations and the profitability of tourism enterprises. However, the tourism industry is ‘a non-negligible contributor to climate change through greenhouse gas emissions derived especially from the transport and accommodation of tourists’ (UNWTO and UNEP,

 

8 Case Study Ireland: Coastal Tourism and Climate Change in Ireland

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Case Study Ireland: Coastal Tourism and Climate Change in Ireland

J.A.G. Cooper* and Stephen W. Boyd

Ulster University, Northern, Ireland

Introduction

The study of the relationship between coastal regions and tourism is a relatively recent one compared to other landscapes

(Agarwal and Shaw, 2007). An interest in the sea and sea-bathing culture can be traced back to Britain in the 1750s which would quickly spread to the northern coastline of France (1780s), Germany and the north-east coastline of America (1790s) and the northern coastline of Spain (1830s)

(Towner, 1996). However, it would not be until the Edwardian and Victorian era that

Britain’s desire to ‘go to the seaside’ was ushered in and with it, the major transformation of that geographic setting. Coldwater bathing environments would not be eclipsed by warmer seas until the 1960s when the north side of the Mediterranean quickly replaced colder waters of northern Europe, ushering in the start of what is recognized as the era of modern tourism with a major appeal of sun, sand and sea destinations.

 

9 Case Study Italy: The Tourism Management of Climate Change in the Mediterranean Region: Adaptation Strategies in Sardinia and Sicily

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9 

Case Study Italy: The Tourism Management of Climate Change in the Mediterranean

Region: Adaptation Strategies in Sardinia and Sicily

Rita Cannas*

Department of Economics & Business, University of Cagliari, Sardinia (Italy)

Introduction

The Mediterranean (Fig. 9.1) is the world’s leading tourism destination attracting almost 200 million tourism arrivals which represent 18.9% of total international flows, and it is forecast that tourism arrivals will reach 264 million in 2030 (UNWTO, 2015).

As a consequence of such predictions, Europe, which currently attracts more than a half of the total international tourism arrivals, will lose 10% of its total share in 2030, and 4% on the Mediterranean (UNWTO, 2015), likely due to the rise of Asian and Pacific tourism flows. Nevertheless, such numbers forecast that the Mediterranean will maintain its popular and successful power of a­ ttraction among international visitors. In parallel, particularly in the latest decades, there have been rising concerns both in literature

 

10 Case Study Portugal: Addressing Tourism development and Climate Change in Small Atlantic Islands: the Case of the Azores

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10 

Case Study Portugal: Addressing

Tourism development and Climate

Change in Small Atlantic Islands: the Case of the Azores

Helena Calado,*1 Paulo Borges,2 Kiat Ng3 and Marta Vergílio4

MARE – Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, and FCT, University of the Azores, Portugal; 2Department of Geosciences, University of the Azores,

Ponta Delgada, Portugal; 3Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Portugal;

4

CIBIO – Research Center in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources,

University of the Azores, Ponta Delgada, Portugal

1

Introduction

In the North Atlantic, the Macaronesian Biogeographic Region encompasses four archipelagos: Cape Verde Republic; the Spanish

Autonomous Region of the Canary Islands; and the Portuguese Autonomous Regions of

Madeira and the Azores. Sharing some features, namely in biodiversity, these archipelagos present a series of economic, political and biophysical differences that largely influence their development. At different stages of the tourism life cycle, the four archipelagos have one of the major contributions for growth and development in this activity. Being remote, isolated and Atlantic, they all face challenges due to climate change impacts. With large differences between the dry and more southern archipelagos (Cape Verde and the Canaries) on the climatic influence of the coast of Africa, and the rainy subtropical archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores, the four archipelagos

 

11 Case Study Malta: Climate Change and Tourism: Risks, Hazards and Resilience – An Island Perspective

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11  Case Study Malta: Climate Change and

Tourism: Risks, Hazards and Resilience –

An Island Perspective

A. Jones*

Institute for Tourism Travel and Culture, The University of Malta; and

Island & Small States Institute, The University of Malta

Introduction

This chapter focuses on current strategic management issues that are critical to the growing complexity of relationships between global tourism, predicted climate change and policies for tourism destination management using Malta as a case example. The Maltese government’s own assessment (MTA, 2012) has highlighted significant threats posed to the tourism industry from climate change. Such recognition stems from earlier assessments particularly from the Maltese Ministry for Resources and the Environment (2004) which, at that time, highlighted potential threats from adverse climate change predictions. These included, for example, the deterioration of potable water supplies and quality, more frequent extreme weather events, soil degradation, erosion and an accentuated desertification process, threats to public health, changes in seawater mass characteristics and effects on fish stocks, coastal erosion and inundation together with biodiversity reduction. The resultant possible impact on the tourist economy of the islands was specifically highlighted. In turn, the Malta Tourism Authority’s (MTA,

 

12 Case Study Iceland: Climate Change and Tourism Sustainability and its Effects on Icelandic Coastal Destinations

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Case Study Iceland: Climate Change and Tourism Sustainability and its Effects on Icelandic Coastal Destinations

I. Jenkins*

University of Iceland/Háskóli Íslands, Iceland

Introduction

This chapter focuses on Iceland, aiming to encapsulate the climate change debate within the context of coastal tourism destinations.

It will look at evaluating adaptation and responses to climate change and also compensations provided by climate change. Iceland is relatively ‘new’ to tourism even though it has had a moderately small tourist market for some time that, prior to 2008, had remained at a stable level for many years. It has always been on the tourist horizon but was regarded as a somewhat unusual destination and not one found on the main tourism mind-maps. That said, since the crash of the Icelandic banks in 2008 and the volcanic eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in

2010, there has been an exponential growth in tourism in Iceland; somewhat of an irony given the crisis that 2008 caused in terms of a general decline in global tourism receipts and trips. Furthermore, it is something of a conundrum to ascertain exactly why tourism in Iceland has become so popular and why it is now one of the island’s major exports, nearly matching that of the fishing industry for export earnings (ITB, 2014a).

 

13 Case Study Barbados: Policy, Practice and Science: Perspectives on Climate Change and Tourism in Barbados – Conflict or Congruence?

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Case Study Barbados: Policy, Practice and Science: Perspectives on Climate Change and Tourism in Barbados – Conflict or Congruence?

J. Cumberbatch,* L. Nurse and K. Francis

University of the West Indies, Barbados

Introduction

Barbados is the most eastern of the Caribbean islands with a population of 277,821 in 2010 on a land area of 430 km2 (Barbados Statistical Service, 2013; Fig. 13.1).

Approximately 66% of the population, as well as the majority of the tourism infrastructure, are located in the coastal areas in the west, south and south-east. The tourism on the west coast has long been described as the luxury product and the majority of the hotels, restaurants, villas and condominiums lie directly on the shoreline. These structures are at risk from the anticipated

­effects of global climate change, i.e. sea level rise, beach erosion, saltwater intrusion, increased flooding and storm surges. This is of grave concern since tourism has been the leading engine of economic growth in Barbados over the past five decades (Worrell et  al., 2011). Figure 13.2 shows sustained growth from 1956 onward with interruptions caused by three international economic recessions: the 1981–82 Gulf War; in the aftermath of the 11 September 2001 attack on the World Trade Center in New York; and since the 2008 world recession.

 

14 Case Study Mexico: Riviera Maya – How is the Riviera Maya Tourism Industry Dealing with Climate Change? An Overview of Non-climatic Stressors that Determine the Destination’s Vulnerability to Climate Change

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Case Study Mexico: Riviera Maya – How is the Riviera Maya Tourism Industry Dealing with Climate Change? An Overview of

Non-climatic Stressors that Determine the

Destination’s Vulnerability to Climate Change

R. Santos-Lacueva,* S. Anton Clavé and Ò. Saladié

Department of Geography, Rovira i Virgili University, Spain.

Introduction: The Riviera Maya

The Riviera Maya is a well-known Caribbean coastal destination in the state of Quintana

Roo (Mexico), as shown in the location map

(Fig. 14.1). It has a wealth of natural and cultural resources. The Mesoamerican Barrier

Reef (the second largest in the word), the Sian

Ka’an Biosphere Reserve, the Tulum National

Park and, in general, the white-­sand beaches, underground rivers, mangroves and rainforests all form a rich collection of biodiversity.

Its Mayan heritage, which can be observed at various archaeological sites (Fig. 14.2) and experienced as part of the living culture, also makes the Riviera Maya especially attractive.

 

15 Case Study Dubai: A Theme Park Approach to Climate Change

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15 

Case Study Dubai: A Theme Park

Approach to Climate Change

Angela Anthonisz1* and Tim Heap2

University of Northampton, UK; 2The University of Derby, Buxton, UK

1

Introduction

Despite its semi-desert climate, Dubai is one of the fastest-growing tourist destinations in the world, with visitor numbers increasing from 374,000 in 1982 (Henderson, 2006) to

14.9 million in 2015 (Gulf News, 2017) and projections to reach 20 million plus by 2020

(DTCM, 2017). With an economy previously reliant on its oil resources the obvious limitations in terms of a range of attractions, lack of infrastructure and the natural resources associated with creating visitor demand appear to have been overcome via extensive inward investment designed to propel tourism forward as a pillar of the economy

(Henderson, 2006). The government’s obvious commitment to tourism growth is evidenced by the rapidly increasing infrastructure, the growth in the hosting of major sports events such as the Dubai Classic and the Dubai World

 

16 Case Study Vietnam: Climate Change Impacts on UNESCO World Heritage – The Case of Hoi An Ancient Town

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16 

Case Study Vietnam: Climate Change

Impacts on UNESCO World Heritage – The

Case of Hoi An Ancient Town

Huong T. Bui1* and Tuan-Anh Le2

Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University (APU), Japan; 2Southern Cross University, Australia

1

Introduction

With a coastline of over 3000 km, Vietnam is likely to be one of the countries most affected by climate change. Many tourist

­ destinations, cities and urban centres in

Vietnam are located along the coastal zones and rivers. Owing to increases in temperature, sea levels are projected to rise from 57 to 73 mm by 2100 and without appropriate adaptation actions, this increase could result in the inundation of 39% of the coastal land area in the Mekong River Delta in the south,

10% of the Red River Delta area in the north and 2.5% of the area in the Central Coastal

Region, causing severe impacts on infrastructure, the population and economic activities including tourism (UN Habitat, 2014).

 

17 Case Study Sri Lanka: Climate Change Challenges for the Sri Lankan Tourism Industry

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17 

Case Study Sri Lanka: Climate Change

Challenges for the Sri Lankan Tourism Industry

1

J. Buultjens,1* I. Ratnayake2 and W.K. Athula Gnanapala2

Southern Cross University, Australia; 2Sabaragamuwa University, Sri Lanka

Introduction

Sri Lanka, a small island located in the Indian Ocean at the southern tip of India, has a coastline that stretches for 1600 km. The country is highly vulnerable to climate change (Sri Lanka Ministry of Environment

(MOE), 2011) and the accompanying types of natural disasters such as floods, landslides, droughts, coastal erosion and sea surges

(EML, 2012). In addition to the natural disasters, the predicted sea-level rise of 0.5 m over the next two decades will also have severe consequences for the country’s coastal areas and the 25% of the population that reside in them (Ahmed and Suphachalasai,

2014). The consequences from sea-level rise include increased destruction of mangroves and coral reefs, a decline of ecosystems and marine habitats and damage to shelter, infrastructure and human safety. Areas adjacent to coastal regions will also experience gradual but intense salinization of inland freshwater sources (EML, 2012). Negative impacts on the coastal zone will have substantial effects on the country’s economy since the zone accounts for approximately

 

18 Case Study Bangladesh: Addressing Climate Change Effects on Coastal Tourism in St Martin’s Island of Bangladesh

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Case Study Bangladesh: Addressing

Climate Change Effects on Coastal Tourism in St Martin’s Island of Bangladesh

Azizul Hassan1* and Roya Rahimi2

Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, UK; 2University of Wolverhampton,

Wolverhampton, UK

1

Introduction

St Martin’s Island is classified as one of the most beautiful islands in Bangladesh. It is the only coral island in the country and in close proximity to Cox’s Bazar (a town which is a fishing port and district headquarters in Bangladesh), and has one of the longest unbroken sea beaches in the world.

Geographically, the island is at the southernmost point of Bangladesh and lies in the

Bay of Bengal, approximately 9 km from the

Cox’s Bazar-Teknaf peninsula and almost

8  km away from the north-west coast of

Myanmar (Hasan, 2009).

The island was first inhabited by Arabian sailors who named it ‘Zajira’. The locals call the island in Bengali ‘Narical Ginjira’ or ‘Narikel Jinjira’ or ‘Narikel Jinjera’ meaning ‘Coconut Island’. The island is also known as the

 

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