Medium 9781780648422

Gender and Rural Globalization: International Perspectives on Gender and Rural Development

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This book explores how rural gender relations are changing in a globalizing world that fundamentally impacts on the structure of agricultural life in rural areas and urban-rural relations. It analyses the development of rural gender relations in specific places around the world and looks into the effects of the increasing connectivity and mobility of people across places. The themes covered are: gender and mobility, gender and agriculture, Gender and rural politics, rurality and Gender identity and women and international development. Each theme has an overview of the state of the art in that specific thematic area and integrates the case-studies that follow.

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PART I: GENDER AND MOBILITY

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2 

Gender and Mobility

B.B. Bock1,2,*

1Wageningen

University, Wageningen, The Netherlands; 2Groningen University,

Groningen, The Netherlands

Introduction

Famous sociologists such as Castells (2000) and Urry (2007) describe the present time as the century of mobility. With this description, they refer to the fact that falling transportation costs and the new possibilities offered by information and communications technology have enabled people to travel more and spend their lives in different places (even at the same time, i.e. virtually) while remaining in contact with friends and family across the world.

Cresswell (2010) even describes modern

­

(wo)men as nomads who are constantly on the move.

That ‘travelling’ has increased appears self-evident – mirrored, for instance, by ever-increasing numbers of tourists, and air passengers in particular.1 Nevertheless, the discourse of modern mobility meets with contestation regarding its overly optimistic connotations and its conflation of all types of movements, travellers and means of transport. Bauman (2000) emphasizes that access to mobility is unequal and that social inequality is reflected in (relative) immobility. Braidotti et al. (2013) warn that free travel is a privilege of the elite. Many current travellers are forced to travel, and in doing so they must overcome many barriers because their mobility is perceived as undesirable and limited by the elite.

 

PART II: GENDER AND AGRICULTURE

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Gender and Agriculture

S. Shortall*

Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

Introduction

Reflecting on the gender and farming literature since our 2006 volume, continuity and change are key themes that emerge, as discussed in Chapters 8–11 in this section. The questions that concerned early research still concern us today, although how these questions are constructed has changed. The gendered nature of farm work (Reimer, 1986;

Whatmore, 1991; Gasson, 1992; Haugen,

1998; Overbeek et al., 1998; Shortall, 2010;

Charatsari and Cernic Istenic, 2016; Cernic

Istenic and Charatsari, Chapter 10, this volume), power relations within the farm family (Sachs, 1983; Bokemeier and Garkovich,

1987; Shortall, 1992; de Haan, 1994; Oldrup, 1999; Whatmore, 1991; Matysiak, 2015;

Cassidy, Chapter 11, this volume), agency and resistance (O’Hara, 1998; Bock, 2004a;

Hoggart, 2004; Pini et al., 2014; Stenbacka,

Chapter 9, this volume), the construction of gender identity (Bock, 2006; Brandth and

 

PART III: GENDER AND RURAL IDENTITY

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12 

Rurality and Gender Identity

S. Shortall*

Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

Introduction

When Bettina Bock wrote the introduction to the identity section of Rural Gender Rela­ tions in 2006, she noted that it was in the second half of the 1990s that researchers in

Western countries really began to look at the construction of gender identities in the rural setting. This is an area that has developed significantly since then. It concentrated initially on the identity of farm women and men. Studies then broadened in scope to consider how the rural might intersect with other factors and shape gender.

She also noted that the focus on identity was a predominantly Western one and it was of less interest in the developing world.

Ten years on, this remains the case. She commented that with modernization and globalization the economic position and social status of traditional rural professions weaken. More and more farmers, fishers and foresters have difficulties remaining as the primary breadwinner. Marshall (2001), Ni

 

PART IV: GENDER AND INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

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Gender and International Development

B.B. Bock* and M. van der Burg

Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands

Introduction

Gender equality has gained a prominent place on the agenda of international development during the early decades of the 21st century. Rising concerns about food insecurity, in combination with increasing worries about the effects of climate change, other natural disasters and political conflicts, have contributed to this change. Criticism of the impacts of the structural adjustment programmes of the 1990s and a drastic questioning of the efficiency of investments in development have led to a re-examination of many obvious development routines.

Attempts to secure pathways to fair and sustainable development induced the for­ mulation and ratification of the United

Nations’ (UN) Millennium Development

Goals (MDGs) in 2000, which were to be reached by 2015. In 2015, the MDGs were followed by a new initiative of the UN: the

 

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