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Integrated Management of Insect Pests on Canola and Other Brassica Oilseed Crops

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This book comprehensively reviews current pest management practices and explores novel integrated pest management strategies inæBrassicaæoilseed crops. It is essential reading for pest management practitioners and researchers working on pest management in canola and otheræBrassicaæcrops worldwide. Canola, mustard, camelina and crambe are the most important oilseed crops in the world. Canola is the second largest oilseed crop in the world providing 13% of the world's supply. Seeds of these species commonly contain 40% or more oil and produce meals with 35 to 40% protein. However, its production has declined significantly in recent years due to insect pest problems. The canola pest complexes are responsible for high insecticide applications on canola. Many growers rely on calendar-based spraying schedules for insecticide applications.æThe diamondback mothæPlutella xylostellaæand flea beetlesæPhyllotretaæspp. (P. cruciferaeæandæP. striolata)cause serious damage to canola. In the Northern Great Plains, USA, for instance,æP. xylostellaæis now recorded everywhere that canola is grown. Severe damage to canola plants can be caused by overwintering populations of flea beetles feeding on newly emerged seedlings. Cabbage seed pod weevil (Ceutorhynchus obstrictus), swede midge (Contarinia nasturtii), and tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris)æare also severe pests on canola. Minor pests include aphids (cabbage aphid,æBrevicoryne brassicaeæand turnip aphid,æHyadaphis erysimi) and grasshopper,æMelanoplus sanguinipes.

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1: Flea Beetles (Phyllotreta spp.) and Their Management



Flea Beetles (Phyllotreta spp.) and

Their Management

Janet J. Knodel*

North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota, USA

1.1  Introduction

1.2  Biology

Flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in the genus

Phyllotreta, are important economic pests of canola production worldwide. The crucifer flea beetle,

Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze), and the striped flea beetle, Phyllotreta striolata (Fabricius), are the two most common pest species in canola production in

North America (Lamb, 1984; Weiss et  al., 1991;

Palaniswamy and Lamb, 1992). Although there are five species of flea beetle that infest Brassica spp. crops, these other species are generally not a major threat to oilseed crop production (Burgess, 1977a;

Wylie, 1979). P. cruciferae is widespread in Europe,

Asia and Africa (Brown, 1967; Wylie, 1979). It was introduced into North America in the early 1920s in

British Columbia and is now found across southern


2: Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella) Management



Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella) Management

Yaghoub Fathipour* and Mohammad Ali Mirhosseini

Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2.1  Introduction

Brassicaceae (formerly Cruciferae) includes 375 genera and 3200 species of plants. Brassica consists of approximately 100 species, including Brassica napus L., commonly known as oilseed rape, rapeseed or canola. Between 1990 and 2013 the area planted to Brassica crops worldwide increased by more than 48% (FAOSTAT, 2015). New canola varieties have also been developed that confer better oil quality and easier oil extraction (Anon.,

1997). Because these varieties have more economic value, the management of yield-reducing pests has become more important.

Several pests, especially insects, damage canola crops (Talekar and Shelton, 1993; Liu et al., 1994;

Karimi et  al., 2012; Goodarzi et  al., 2015) but among these diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is the most destructive (Talekar and Griggs, 1986; Shelton et al.,


3: The Challenge of Swede Midge Management in Canola



The Challenge of Swede

Midge Management in Canola

Rebecca H. Hallett*

University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada

3.1  Introduction

Since its discovery in Ontario, Canada, in 2000, the swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer) (Diptera:

Cecidomyiidae) (Fig. 3.1), has become a serious pest of Brassica crops in its invaded North American range. Swede midge causes mild to severe economic damage to cruciferous vegetables and canola in

Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward

Island and adjacent US states. It is an emergent pest of canola in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The swede midge is of Nearctic origin and is an important and widespread pest in Europe (Readshaw, 1961).

European reports of increasing problems with swede midge seemed to become more common in the late 1990s and early 2000s (R. Baur, Switzerland,

2000, personal communication; Gemmar and Koch,

2002a, b) and it has been described as an increasingly common pest of Brassica vegetables in Europe


4: Biology and Management of Sucking Pests of Canola



Biology and Management of Sucking

Pests of Canola

Surendra K. Dara*

University of California Cooperative Extension, San Luis Obispo, California, USA

4.1  Sucking Pests of Canola

A complex of insect pests attack canola worldwide, including species of Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera,

Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera and

Thysanoptera (Burgess and Weegar, 1988; Lamb,

1989; Schwartz and Foottit, 1992; Buntin and

Raymer, 1994; Miles and McDonald, 1999;

Cárcamo et al., 2002; Weiss et al., 2006). The sucking pests that feed on canola leaves, stems, buds, flowers, pods or seeds (Table 4.1) include several

Hemiptera (such as aphids and plant bugs), with piercing and sucking mouthparts, and some thrips, with rasping and sucking mouthparts.

The importance of these different pests and their presence varies in different countries and even within local regions. Several aphids, mirids and thrips are pests of canola in different countries (Burgess and Weegar, 1988; Lamb 1989; Buntin and Raymer,


5: Cabbage Seedpod Weevil Management



Cabbage Seedpod Weevil


Héctor A. Cárcamo* and Randall Brandt

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research and

Development Centre, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada

5.1  Introduction

5.1.1  Distribution

The cabbage seedpod weevil (CSW), Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a European pest of several brassicaceous seed crops from the Mediterranean region to Scandinavia.

In North America it was first reported from the

Vancouver area in British Columbia in 1931 (McLeod,

1962). Since then it has been reported in several jurisdictions of North America: Pacific North West and California (Hagen, 1946), Georgia (Buntin and

Raymer, 1994) and the Canadian Prairies (Butts and Byers, 1996). Laffin et al. (2005) demonstrated that the population in Quebec (Canada) stemmed from a separate accidental introduction. With the increase in global trade and transportation, this pest will likely occur in most regions where its hosts are cultivated.


6: Biology, Ecology and Management of Pollen Beetle Brassicogethes viridescens (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)



Biology, Ecology and Management of Pollen Beetle Brassicogethes viridescens (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)

Christine Noronha1* and Peter G. Mason2


Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island,

Canada; 2Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

6.1  Introduction

Audisio et al. (2009) reviewed the status of species in the subfamily Meligethinae (Coleoptera:

Nitidulidae) using morphological and molecular data. Thirty-eight species of Meligethes, whose larval development is strictly associated with flowers of

Brassicaceae, were re-assigned to the new genus

Brassicogethes. Among the North American species are Brassicogethes aeneus (Fabricius), designated as the type species for the genus, B. cleominis (Easton),

B. simplipes (Easton) and B. viridescens (Fabricius), which Hoebeke and Wheeler (1996) documented as being adventive. There is some doubt that the

B. aeneus in North America is the same species as the


7: Noctuid (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Pests of Canola in North America



Noctuid (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Pests of Canola in North America

Kevin D. Floate1* and Vincent A. Hervet2



Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada;

Alberta Agriculture and Forestry, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

7.1  The Cropping System

Canola is the dominant oilseed brassica crop in

North America. Its name is a contraction of

‘Canada’ and ‘ola’ (meaning oil) and refers to specially bred varieties of Brassica napus L., Brassica rapa L. or Brassica juncea (L.). These varieties have low levels of erucic acid and low levels of glucosinolates (CCC, 2014). The oil extracted from canola seed is consequently safe for human consumption and has increased palatability.

Canola production is centred on the Northern

Plains, primarily in Canada. In the 1940s, B. napus and B. rapa were grown as rapeseed. The development of canola in the 1970s has since led to an extraordinary increase in the annual acreage seeded to these species. Fields seeded to canola in Canada totalled 8.1 million hectares in 2015. Essentially all canola is grown in southern regions of the Prairie


8: Biology and Management of the Generalist Herbivore, the Bertha Armyworm, Mamestra configurata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on Canola in Western Canada



Biology and Management of the

Generalist Herbivore, the Bertha

Armyworm, Mamestra configurata

(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on Canola in Western Canada

Maya L. Evenden*, Ronald E. Batallas and Chaminda


University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

8.1  Introduction

The bertha armyworm, Mamestra configurata

Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a native generalist herbivore in western Canada. It was first noted as a pest of flax, Linum usitatissimum L.

(Linaceae), in the Canadian Prairie Provinces

(Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba) in the

1920s (King, 1928) but has been most notorious as a pest of rapeseed and canola crops, Brassica napus

L. and Brassica rapa L. (Brassicaceae) (Mason et al.,

1998a). Populations of the bertha armyworm reach outbreak levels in canola at periodic intervals and cost producers millions of dollars in lost yield and control costs. Prairie-wide control costs have ranged from CAN$3.4 million in 1971 (Riegert,


9: Entomopathogenic Nematodes for Management of Insect Pests of Canola and Other Oilseed Crops



Entomopathogenic Nematodes for Management of Insect Pests of Canola and Other Oilseed Crops

Harit K. Bal1* and Parwinder S. Grewal2


Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; 2University of Texas Rio

Grande Valley, Edinburg, Texas

9.1  Introduction

Insect pests cause significant problems to agricultural crops all over the world (Pedigo and Rice, 2009).

To control these insect pests, chemical insecticides are being readily used with a worldwide expenditure of US$58.46 billion in 2015 (Mordor

Intelligence, 2016). The excessive and indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides has a detrimental impact on the environment and human health

(Pimental, 2005). In order to overcome such harmful side effects of insecticides, application of biological control agents, including microorganisms, predators and parasitoids, has been encouraged for pest management. Entomopathogenic nematodes

(EPNs), belonging to families Heterorhabditidae and


10: The OKANOLA Project: Challenges in Managing Insect Pests of Canola in the Southern Plains



The OKANOLA Project: Challenges in Managing Insect Pests of Canola in the Southern Plains

Tom A. Royer* and Kristopher L. Giles

Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA

10.1  The OKANOLA Project

The OKANOLA project was conceived in 2003 by

Dr Thomas Peeper, Emeritus Professor of Weed

Science, and the late Mark Boyles, Extension Oilseed

Specialist at Oklahoma State University (OSU), as a joint venture between private industry and two universities (Oklahoma State University and Kansas

State University) ‘to provide research, education, and demonstration to stimulate the development of winter canola as a major profitable rotational crop with winter wheat’. They wanted to help Oklahoma wheat growers develop a more profitable winter wheat production system by introducing winter-hardy canola as a profitable rotational crop, ‘to aid in pest management, improve wheat yields and quality, and facilitate the adoption of no-till crop production practices’ (Boyles and Peeper, 2008). Growing conditions in Oklahoma and Kansas are ideal for winter canola varieties and this rotation continues to gain popularity on the 5.9 million hectares of winter wheat in the two states. Land devoted to canola production has increased dramatically from zero in 2003 to > 90,000 ha planted in fall 2014 and Oklahoma is now the number two producer of canola in the USA behind North Dakota (National


11: Integrated Pest Management in Canola and Other Brassica Oilseed Crops: How Far We Have Come and What Is Still Needed



Integrated Pest Management in

Canola and Other Brassica Oilseed

Crops: How Far We Have Come and What Is Still Needed

John Gavloski*

Manitoba Agriculture, Carman, Manitoba, Canada

11.1  Defining Integrated Pest


The history of integrated pest management (IPM) can be traced back to the late 19th century when ecology was identified as the foundation for scientific plant protection, and there have been many definitions applied to the concept (Kogan, 1998).

The concept of IPM was advanced and better defined in California in the 1950s. Early writings on the concept of IPM state that ‘chemical and biological control are regarded as two main methods of suppressing insects and spider mites. These two methods are often thought of as alternatives in pest control. This is not necessarily so, for with adequate knowledge they can be made to augment one another’ (Stern et al., 1959). Thus according to the original definition of IPM, integrated control sought to identify the best mix of control methods for a given insect pest. Chemical insecticides were a component of integrated pest management but were to be used in the manner least disruptive to biological control.


12: Canola Insect Pest Management in the South-eastern USA



Canola Insect Pest Management in the South-eastern USA

G. David Buntin*

Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Griffin, Georgia, USA

12.1  Introduction

Canola is a major oilseed crop and is grown in many countries for the production of edible vegetable oil, meal for livestock and as a feedstock for biofuel. Canola seed at maturity contains 38–42% oil and meal contains 37–38% crude protein after oil extraction as compared with 44% for soybean meal (Raymer et al., 1990). Canola grown in the

South-eastern USA (SE USA) could be used as a source of edible oil, as feedstock for biodiesel production and as meal as feed for livestock, mainly for poultry.

Canola was grown commercially in the SE USA in the states of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi,

North Carolina, South Carolina and northern

Florida from the late 1980s to about 2000.

Production in this region in the mid-1990s was mostly under contract for a specialty oil-type canola with production peaking at about 10,000 ha


13: Integrated Management of Insect Pests of Rapeseed (Canola) in China



Integrated Management of Insect

Pests of Rapeseed (Canola) in China

Zi-Hua Zhao1*, Leyun Wang1 and Gadi V.P. Reddy2


Department of Entomology, College of Plant Protection, China Agricultural

University, Beijing, China; 2Western Triangle Agricultural Research Center,

Montana State University, Conrad, Montana, USA

13.1  Introduction

Rapeseed and mustard are widely planted in

China (mainly in Anhui, Sichuan, Hubei and

Gansu provinces) (Li et al., 2014). In 2014, more than 60 million hectares of rapeseed were grown, according to the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture

(Wu, 2014), and total rapeseed production in

China exceeds 1 billion seeds per year (Guan,

2011). Rapeseed is grown mainly for oil, but also for food. Mustard is a native vegetable with a long history of cultivation in China (Jiang,

2007). Both rapeseed and mustard host similar arthropod communities, and the dominant pests are the same. Hu (2010a) found 15 pest species in rapeseed fields in Anhui province, while He


14: Integrated Control of Insect Pests on Canola and Other Brassica Oilseed Crops in Pakistan



Integrated Control of Insect Pests on Canola and Other Brassica

Oilseed Crops in Pakistan

Muhammad Sarwar*

Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, National Institute for Biotechnology &

Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan

14.1  Introduction

Family Brassicaceae, formerly known as Cruciferae, in the order Brassicales, is a mustard family of flowering plants in angiosperm floras distributed throughout the world. The plant’s inflorescence is an elongated corymbose raceme, borne terminally on main stem and branches and carrying bright yellow flowers.

Brassicaceae species are categorized by the presence of four-petalled cross-shaped flowers which bear two long and two short stamens and yield pod-like fruits recognized as siliques. Though family Brassicaceae comprises nearly 338 genera and more than 3700 species, some of the foremost genera and relevant species are, in genus Brassica: cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa), cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), napa cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis), brown mustard (Brassica juncea), broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), rape (Brassica napus var. napus), Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera), bird rape


15: Cover Crops as a Tool for Insect Pest Management with a Focus on Oilseed Brassicas



Cover Crops as a Tool for Insect

Pest Management with a Focus on Oilseed Brassicas

R.W.M. Udari M. Wanigasekara1* and Barbara J.



University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada; 2University of Central Florida,

Orlando, Florida

15.1  Introduction

Cover crops have been used for centuries as a part of traditional agricultural practices, as they provide a variety of economic and ecological benefits

(Reeves, 1994). Historically, cover crops have been used as off-season, short-term rotation plantings that provide a more continuous cover for soil to reduce erosion, prevent soil nutrient loss due to leaching and protect the ground from extreme freezing (Pieters and McKee, 1938; Reeves, 1994;

Tonitto et  al., 2006). However, cover crops can also be double cropped or relay cropped (to create a secondary cash crop), or intercropped as a living mulch to provide additional ecological services.

While the strategy used is largely dependent on climatic conditions, needs of the ecosystem and length of the growing season, cover crops can provide a whole host of additional ecological benefits, including reduced soil compaction (Rosolem et al., 2002; Williams and Weil, 2004), improved nutrient cycling (DuPont et  al., 2009), increased yield (Frye et al., 1985), enhanced soil and water quality (Mendes et al., 1999; Dabney et al., 2001) and suppression of weeds and insect pests


16: Detection, Symptomatology and Management of Aster Yellows Disease in Canola



Detection, Symptomatology and

Management of Aster Yellows

Disease in Canola

Chrystel Olivier1*, Tim Dumonceaux2, Edel Pérez-López3,

Tyler J. Wist2, Bob Elliott2 and Sally Vail2


Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, Ontario, Canada; 2Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; 3Instituto de

Biotecnologia y Ecologia Aplicada (INBIOTECA), Universidad Veracruzana,

Xalapa, Veracruz, México

16.1  Introduction

Phytoplasmas are obligate parasites that belong to the class Mollicutes and genus ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’

(McCoy et al., 1989; IRPCM Phytoplasma/Spiroplasma

Working Team – Phytoplasma Taxonomy Group,

2004). Phytoplasmas have been associated with diseases affecting over 700 plant species worldwide

(Foissac and Wilson, 2010; Bertaccini et al., 2014).

Phytoplasmas are wall-less bacteria that are transmitted by phloem-feeding insects, mostly leafhoppers but also planthoppers and psyllids (Weintraub and Beanland, 2006). Phytoplasmas live and reproduce in the phloem of their plant hosts and in most of the organs of their insect vectors. The effect of phytoplasmas on their hosts varies depending on several parameters, such as the phytoplasma strain, host species, vector infectivity and environmental conditions. Most plant species infected with phytoplasmas develop symptoms that are unique to these diseases, such as virescence (greening of flower organs), phyllody (floral organs turning into leaf-like structures), witches’ broom (excessive stem and branch production) or dwarfism (McCoy et  al.,


17: Pestiferous Insects of Mustard: Biology and Integrated Management



Pestiferous Insects of Mustard:

Biology and Integrated Management

Dhana Raj Boina* and S. Jesu Rajan

National Institute of Plant Health Management, Hyderabad, India

17.1  Introduction

The crucifers comprising oilseed and vegetable crops are mainly grown during the rabi (winter– spring) season all over the world. Of these, mustard along with rapeseed forms an important oilseed crop, the seeds of which are rich in oil (35–45%)

(Firake et al., 2013; Anon., 2015a). During 2013/14, mustard and rapeseed together were cultivated in

36.15 million hectares worldwide with a production of 71.09 million tonnes and a productivity of 1970 kg/ha (Anon., 2015a). In decreasing rank order, Canada,

China, India and Australia are major players in mustard and rapeseed cultivation (Anon., 2015a).

Different mustard species are commercially cultivated in different geographical regions of the world.

Indian or oriental or brown mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Ozern, is cultivated commercially in Asia


18: Volatile Organic Compounds in Integrated Pest Management of Brassica Oilseed Crops



Volatile Organic Compounds in Integrated Pest Management of Brassica Oilseed Crops

Sari J. Himanen1, Tao Li2, James D. Blande3 and Jarmo K. Holopainen3*


Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Mikkeli, Finland; 2University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3University of Eastern Finland,

Kuopio, Finland

18.1  Introduction

All plants emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which have high vapour pressures that enable their evaporation into the surrounding air and can be perceived by other organisms in the environment, such as insects (Bruce et  al., 2005). Understanding the roles of VOCs in mediating insect behaviour potentiates the use and development of VOC-based crop protection strategies. Oilseed brassicas have a specialized secondary chemistry characterized by glucosinolates, which are degraded upon tissue damage into products that include volatile compounds

(Halkier and Gershenzon, 2006). Together with terpenoids and other VOCs, these compounds serve as signals to various Brassica-feeding arthropods and their natural enemies. Herbivores themselves also emit VOCs for intraspecific communication, such as aggregation, alarm and sex pheromones, and synthetic analogues can be used in pheromone traps


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