Medium 9781780647753

Enabling Agri-entrepreneurship and Innovation: Empirical Evidence and Solutions for Conflict Regions and Transitioning Economies

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Agricultural entrepreneurs in conflict and post-conflict regions face special challenges; not just everyday personal risks, but also the difficulties of building small businesses when real or threatened violence can disrupt business growth cycles and economic security.ÊAlongside establishing secure institutions, building a secure economy is rightly seen as the best way for conflict-torn regions to establish a peaceful future. But current agricultural entrepreneurship training and development starts from an assumption of peace, meaning that it is not always fit for purpose.ÊThe result is sub-optimal program design and inefficient use of resources. A product of a collaboration of experts in the fields of agri-business, agricultural marketing, and international development, this book gives officials and agencies developing entrepreneurship programs the practical real-life examples they need.Ê

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1: Agri-entrepreneurs and Their Characteristics

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1 

Agri-entrepreneurs and Their

Characteristics

Pauline Sullivan*

Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee

1.1  Introduction

There are over three billion people working worldwide (World Bank, 2012). Of the three billion people with jobs, farming and household micro-­businesses provide about 1.5 billion employment opportunities globally with 50% of employment in developing countries. Jobs are especially important for increasing numbers of underemployed youth in developing countries where there will not be enough jobs to employ the increasing number of unemployed. In these countries the largest group of those people is youth aged 15–24 (40%) (Kapsos,

2013). A disproportionate number of those people are young people, who will compete for ever fewer jobs in the future, as job creation lags population growth (Jones, 2015). Available jobs will require education and skills that poor people do not have. The few jobs accessible to people without an education or relevant skills do not provide livable wages. Entrepreneurship is a viable strategy for upward mobility, as a 1% increase in entrepreneurial activities decreases the poverty rate by 2% (Singh, 2014).

 

2: Comparing Agri-entrepreneurs in Non-conflict Regions versus Conflict and Transitional Economies

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Comparing Agri-entrepreneurs in Non-conflict Regions versus Conflict and Transitional Economies

Pauline Sullivan*

Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee

2.1  Introduction

the ethnic minority population is growing and young, with comparatively large families (EuroThis chapter discusses agri-entrepreneurship monitor International, 2015). This group of in non-conflict zones, conflict zones, and tran- consumers are an attractive market for agri-­ sitional economies. The introduction provides entrepreneurs with niche products that are culan overview of global agriculture and entrepre- turally relevant to these customers. Similarly, there neurship, followed by separate sections for non-­ is an increasing number of Muslims around the conflict zones, conflict zones, and transitional world, some of whom observe dietary traditions. economies. Each section describes the region The demand for value-added Halal foods will grow. in general, then examines the agricultural secGlobal warming will affect agri-entrepreneurs tor in each group, and lastly discusses agri-­ in non-conflict zones, conflict zones, and tranentrepreneurship. The final section compares sitional economies (World Bank, 2011). Weasimilarities and dissimilarities among agri-­ ther patterns are increasingly volatile and affect entrepreneurs in the three groups. growing seasons. There is a need for agri-­

 

3: Agri-entrepreneurship Enabling Program Design in Conflict Regions for Youth Development: Best Practices and Lessons Learned

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Agri-entrepreneurship Enabling Program

Design in Conflict Regions for Youth

Development: Best Practices and

Lessons Learned

Kathleen Liang1* and Tina S. Lee2

North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, North

Carolina, USA; 2University of Hawai‘i at Maˉnoa, Honolulu, Hawaii

1

3.1  Introduction

Recent happenings have revealed significantly growing concerns of economic and social instabilities around the world. Refugees, many children among them, take risks to travel across land and sea to seek new economic opportunities. Most of the information shared by press releases or social media only tells a fraction of stories about issues in conflict regions. The World Development Report 2011 discussed several issues with respect to unstable state-of-conflict regions (World Bank,

2011). For example, approximately 1.5 billion people live in conflict regions where countries experience repeated cycles of political and criminal violence. Civilians who live in the conflict regions often experience famine and brutal attacks of political crossfire. Youth are particularly vulnerable due to lack of support from a steady system and safe environment to obtain education and training to achieve economic mobility.

 

4: A Capabilities Approach to Designing Agri-entrepreneurship Training Programs for Conflict-affected Regions: The Case of Central Mindanao, Philippines

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A Capabilities Approach to Designing

Agri-entrepreneurship Training Programs for Conflict-affected Regions: The Case of Central Mindanao, Philippines

Mary M. Pleasant1* and Rusyan Jill Mamiit2

Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA;

2

University of Hawai‘i at Maˉnoa, Honolulu, Hawaii

1

4.1 

Introduction

Around the world, people are exposed to armed conflict leading to adverse impact on the socio-economic, environmental, and institutional systems in which they live. This is particularly true among countries in the Global

South, which includes most of Asia, Africa,

South and Central America, and the Middle

East, and refers to those countries that are more politically unstable, less technologically innovative, and poorer than those in the ­Global North

(Odeh, 2010). Armed conflict is a broad-scale and far-reaching problem—­approximately onethird of the world’s population is exposed to it, and half of the world’s poorest countries endured war or civil conflict at some point in the last three decades (Goodhand, 2001). Among the general population, conflict dismantles various forms of stability, and conversely engenders livelihood insecurities including threats to personal safety, income, social networks, and infrastructure, as well as increasing the possibility of displacement. Goodhand (2001) provided evidence that insecure livelihoods increase chronic poverty, and that chronic poverty can, in turn, predispose societies to further conflict.

 

5: Measuring Youth Entrepreneurship Attributes: The Case of an Out-of-school Youth Training Program in Mindanao, Philippines

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Measuring Youth Entrepreneurship

Attributes: The Case of an Out-of-school Youth

Training Program in Mindanao, Philippines

Cynthia Lai,1* Catherine Chan,2 Domenico Dentoni3 and Elma Neyra4

University of Hawai‘i at Maˉnoa, Honolulu, HI, USA; 2University of Hawai‘i at

Maˉnoa, Honolulu, HI, USA; 3Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands;

4

Southern Christian College, Midsayap, North Cotabato, Philippines

1

5.1  Introduction

The implementation of youth entrepreneurship training programs is motivated by the realization that fostering entrepreneurship, defined in this chapter as starting a new business (­Kelley et al., 2012), can help in addressing youth unemployment when no other alternatives exist

(Rosa, 2006; Geldhof et al., 2014; UNCDF, 2014).

The Millennium Development Goals, established in the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, promoted entrepreneurship as one of the major platforms to support sustainable social and economic development for youth (UNDP,

 

6: Coping Strategies for Youth Entrepreneurs in Conflict Areas

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6 

Coping Strategies for Youth

Entrepreneurs in Conflict Areas

Tina S. Lee,1* Katherine A. Wilson,1 Catherine Chan,1

Jovelyn Bantilan2 and Emilie Bayona2

1

University of Hawai‘i at Maˉnoa, Honolulu, Hawaii;

2

Southern Christian College, Midsayap, Philippines

6.1  Introduction

Entrepreneurship is considered a pathway to global peace and economic development that increases localized economic freedom for marginalized populations to escape the poverty trap

(Strong, 2010). Entrepreneurship has been shown to have a positive impact on job creation, economic growth, and innovation creation (Van

Praag and Versloot, 2008). In countries or regions that have dire need to increase jobs and growth, entrepreneurship has been recognized as a solution. International development aid funds have designed and implemented market development initiatives to help crisis and post-crisis areas by increasing the participation of small enterprises in the economy (SEEP,

 

7: Allowing Entrepreneurs to Save Profits is Important to Motivation, Sustainability, and Resilience: Can All Cultures Support This?

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Allowing Entrepreneurs to Save Profits is

Important to Motivation, Sustainability, and

Resilience: Can All Cultures Support This?

James R. Hollyer*

University of Guam, Mangilao, Guam

7.1  Introduction

Successful international development—skill development that creates societal transformation rather than a transfer of wealth—requires a keen understanding of the culture where one works (Hall, 1976). As leadership and business guru Peter Drucker said, “Culture eats strategy for breakfast.” All the great strategy and plans in the world will not create change or transformation if they do not, in some way, benefit the existing culture (or those in power). Anything that threatens a culture’s norms will be resisted by those who benefit from the status quo (Morris et al., 2011). In some cases, sole entrepreneurs striking out on their own to make their

“fortune” are such a threat in some countries’ cultures. Entrepreneurs are especially threatening in cultures where collective behaviors frown on individual success because it disturbs the status quo or the culture’s version of “sustainable” or “equilibrium” (Hall, 1976). Yet, a huge untapped potential of creativity and hard work exists just waiting to be given to the world’s 1.8 billion young people between the ages of 10 and

 

8: Assessing Gender Gaps in Information Delivery for Better Farming Decisions: The Case of Albania

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Assessing Gender Gaps in Information

Delivery for Better Farming Decisions:

The Case of Albania

Edvin Zhllima1* and Klodjan Rama2

Agriculture University of Tirana, Albania; 2European University of Tirana, formerly

Leibniz Institute of Agriculture Development in Transition Economies

(IAMO) and Martin Luther University, Halle-Wittenberg, Germany

1

8.1  Introduction

Public sector agricultural advisory services remain one of the most crucial and critical mechanisms to enhance farmers’ efficiency and profitability in both developed and developing countries. These services are means for disseminating and changing the modality of supply and adoption of innovative technologies. In transitioning economies, including those exiting conflict or the transitional ones, where structural and institutional changes happen rapidly during the transition, well functioning agricultural advisory services are critical for delivering effective new practices and knowledge to farmers.

 

9: Is Marketing Intelligence Necessary in Conflict and Transitional Region Markets?

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Is Marketing Intelligence Necessary in

Conflict and Transitional Region Markets?

Pauline Sullivan,1* Michelle Ortez2 and Lusille Mission2

Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee; 2College of Business,

Southern Christian College, Midsayap, Philippines

1

9.1  Introduction

Customers expect to receive a product or service they want, when they want it, how they want it, and in the form they want it. In order to meet customer demand, businesses require information. Marketing intelligence is a support system that provides businesses with the information necessary to respond to market conditions (Feinberg et al., 2012). It gathers existing or provides new information about the marketplace, consumer segments, and government policy that could affect entrepreneurship (Suttle, 2015a).

This information is important when considering long-term trends and planning business activities. Marketing intelligence monitors consumer demand and product or service production (Jones and Rowley, 2011). Information obtained from marketing intelligence helps entrepreneurs evaluate long-term trends and plan business activities.

 

10: Urban Consumer Preferences for Food in Post‑conflict Economies: The Case of Kosovo

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Urban Consumer Preferences for Food in Post‑conflict Economies:

The Case of Kosovo

Maurizio Canavari,1 Drini Imami,2* Muje Gjonbalaj,3

Ekrem Gjokaj4 and Anera Alishani5

1

University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; 2Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana,

Albania; 3University of Priština, Priština, Kosovo; 4Ministry of Agriculture,

Forestry and Rural Development (MAFRD), Priština, Kosovo; 5University of Prizren, Prizren, Kosovo

10.1  Introduction

Kosovo is located in the Western Balkans, with a land area of 10,908 km2, a population of 1.8 million and a density of 177 people/km2 in 2013.

More than half of the population lives in rural areas. The largest city is Priština, which is also the capital. Kosovo is considered a post-­conflict transition country because it used to be a centrally planned economy under Yugoslavia till the late 1980s, while it underwent a notorious conflict in the 1990s and emerged as an independent country in the following decade. According to the Kosovo Agency of Statistics (KAS), despite economic growth in the last few years,

 

11: Characterizing Farmer Innovation Behavior for Agricultural Technologies in Transitional Areas Facing Environmental Change

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11 

Characterizing Farmer Innovation

Behavior for Agricultural Technologies in

Transitional Areas Facing Environmental

Change

1

Jacqueline Halbrendt1* and Bikash Paudel2

Wageningen University, Netherlands; 2Local Initiatives for Biodiversity,

Research and Development (LI-BIRD), Pokhara, Nepal

11.1  Introduction

Nepal has gone through tumultuous developments in the recent past and the country has a strong desire to bring about peace and political stability. During this transitional phase, the country faces a lot of challenges, among them a desire for economic development while facing poverty and natural disasters. In recent years, many

­development agencies have targeted Nepal as a country that requires aid assistance due to its poor humanitarian indicators. A popular mechanism is assisting small farmers with relevant information and technology to increase their productivity for enhanced nutrition and income, but not much is understood regarding farmers’ behavior toward innovations. This chapter attempts to discover some of the salient characteristics of farmers who adopt innovations and where they get their information.

 

12: Understanding Conservation Agriculture Adopter’s Information Network to Promote Innovation and Agricultural Entrepreneurship: The Case of Tribal Farmers in the Hill Region of Nepal

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Understanding Conservation Agriculture

Adopter’s Information Network to Promote

Innovation and Agricultural Entrepreneurship:

The Case of Tribal Farmers in the Hill

Region of Nepal

Bikash Paudel,1* Katherine A. Wilson,2 Catherine Chan2 and Bir Bahadur Tamang1

1

Local Initiatives for Biodiversity, Research and Development (LI-BIRD),

Pokhara, Nepal; 2University of Hawai‘i at Ma¯noa, Honolulu, Hawaii

12.1  Introduction

Small-scale rural entrepreneurships are crucial for improving livelihood and reducing poverty in the developing world (Barrett, 2008; Tieguhong et al., 2012). Agricultural or forest-based small enterprises help reduce poverty by building local wealth and creating local job opportunities while also promoting the utilization of local stewardship for local natural resources

(Kaaria et al., 2008; Koirala et al., 2013). Small and medium-sized enterprises are important for economic growth worldwide. About 92.1% of firms in European countries are small to medium-sized enterprises which collectively contribute to 29% of jobs in the industrial sector and share about 21.1% of value added business (Gagliardi et al., 2013). There are great differences in the types and scales of small enterprises in developing countries as different nations define them differently. For the majority of the developing world, small-scale rural enterprises include very simple changes in farming systems such as: growing fresh vegetables and linking them to markets; marketing

 

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