Medium 9781780646947

Plant Biodiversity: Monitoring, Assessment and Conservation

Views: 228
Ratings: (0)

Results of regular monitoring of the species diversity and structure of plant communities is used by conservation biologists to help understand impacts of perturbations caused by humans and other environmental factors on ecosystems worldwide. Changes in plant communities can, for example, be a reflection of increased levels of pollution, a response to long-term climate change, or the result of shifts in land-use practices by the human population. This book presents a series of essays on the application of plant biodiversity monitoring and assessment to help prevent species extinction, ecosystem collapse, and solve problems in biodiversity conservation. It has been written by a large international team of researchers and uses case studies and examples from all over the world, and from a broad range of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The book is aimed at any graduate students and researchers with a strong interest in plant biodiversity monitoring and assessment, plant community ecology, biodiversity conservation, and the environmental impacts of human activities on ecosystems.

List price: $250.00

Your Price: $200.00

You Save: 20%

Remix
Remove
 

30 Slices

Format Buy Remix

1: New Challenges to Promote Botany’s Practice Using Botanic Gardens: The Case Study of the Lisbon Botanic Garden

PDF

1

New Challenges to Promote Botany’s

Practice Using Botanic Gardens: The

Case Study of the Lisbon Botanic

Garden

Maria Amélia Martins-Loução* and Gisela Gaio-Oliveira

Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes, Faculty of Sciences,

University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal

Abstract

Botanic Gardens are living plant museums, where plants have been arranged according to previous research and discovery in order to be used as a display for public appreciation and learning. Thus, more than ever, they can serve to improve the practice of botany, being able: (i) to drive the continuous exchange of ideas using the ‘old and new’ botany approach; (ii) to show the importance of the plant world in alleviating regional and global changes; (iii) to expand forward-thinking in science promotion. The Global Strategy of Plant Conservation (GSPC) has promoted global action in environment conservation and study. From the beginning, it has been adopted by Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) to function as a leitmotiv for botanic gardens best practice. In the present century, a new endeavour is required to facilitate the appeal of botany to younger generations. Links between taxonomic knowledge, molecular studies, information and communication technologies, and social sciences are urgently needed. Lisbon Botanic Garden has been working on these challenges for the past six years.

 

2: New Horizons in Diversification of Temperate Fruit Crops

PDF

2

New Horizons in Diversification of Temperate Fruit Crops

Mohammad Maqbool Mir1*, Umar Iqbal1, Sheikh Mehraj,1

Shabir Ahmad Mir2, Munib ur Rehman1, Shafat Ahmad

Banday1 and Ghulam Hasan Rather1

1

Division of Fruit Science, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India; 2Department of Food

­Technology, Islamic University of Sciences & Technology, Pulwama, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Abstract

Diversification of fruits refers to expansion in different kinds and varieties grown in a specific geographical region, area or zone with the aim of increasing productivity and marketability and showing a direct impact on the overall economy of the grower. Due to the increase in population and shrinkage in land holdings, it has become necessary to find a solution to this alarming situation. There is yet another important factor of paramount importance, i.e. the gradual change in the environment, which has markedly affected the potential productivity of temperate fruit crops. Cultivation of one or more varieties of a specific kind of fruit on commercial lines over a huge area has posed great challenges in combating pest and diseases. To improve fruit cultivation and meet international standards in terms of quality and production, major restructuring and planning is urgently required. Introduction of a new technology or concept into the existing system must be sustainable. In the present context, diversification, which is a necessary change in the conventional cropping system with a well-defined objective or purpose, is one of the possible solutions to the challenges enumerated above. The adverse impacts of mono-cropping, the balanced supply of diversified fruit crops to local as well as distant markets for fresh consumption, and ways to enhance the availability spectrum of temperate fruits into the market needs to be highlighted. The total area of major fruits in the world is around about 55 million ha with a production of 600 million t. Furthermore,

 

3: Asteraceae of India: its Diversity and Phytogeographical Affinity

PDF

3

Asteraceae of India: its Diversity and

Phytogeographical Affinity

Sunit Mitra and Sobhan Kumar Mukherjee*

Department of Botany, Ranaghat College, Nadia, West Bengal, India

Abstract

Asteraceae (nom. alt. Compositae), with its approximately 1600–1700 genera and more than 24,000 species, is the largest family of flowering plants (Funk et al., 2009). The members of this group are found to occur in all the regions of the globe except Antarctica (Anderberg et al., 2007). India, with an area of 3,287,263 km2, is the seventh-largest country of the world and occupies about 2.46% of the land area. Biogeographically, the Indian subcontinent can be divided into several regions or provinces primarily based on climatic conditions, soil types and the floristic composition. Present studies reveal that

Asteraceae, with its 1314 taxa under 204 genera distributed in to 20 tribes, is the most diversified Angiospemic plant family in Indian flora, followed by the Poaceae (1291), Orchidaceae (1229), and Fabaceae (1192). Asteraceae is a predominant temperate family, and most of the members of this family are distributed in the temperate regions of the globe. In India, most of the taxa (955) of Asteraceae, which is about 72.67% of the total Asteraceae in India, are found to be located in the temperate regions of Himalaya and the north-east part of India. The chief centre of diversity of the Indian Asteraceae is the

 

4: Maintenance of Plant Species Diversity in Forest Ecosystems

PDF

4

Maintenance of Plant Species

Diversity in Forest Ecosystems

Kathryn E. Barry and Stefan A. Schnitzer*

Department of Biological Sciences, Marquette University, Milwaukee,

Wisconsin, USA

Abstract

One of the major questions in ecology is how plant species coexist and thus how diversity is maintained. While there are many theories to explain the maintenance of plant species diversity, compelling empirical support exists for very few of them. Here we summarize four major putative theories to explain the maintenance of forest plant species diversity, each of which has ample empirical support. These theories are: 1) niche differentiation; 2) negative density dependence; 3) disturbance; and 4) neutral dynamics with respect to competition. We also present a literature review comprising 51 studies that explicitly examined the maintenance of plant species diversity, published between 2000 and 2015. In the literature review, we include only studies that stated, either as part of their introduction or in clearly stated objectives, that the hypothesis was the maintenance of diversity mechanism. We found that there has been a huge amount of progress in the research on the maintenance of species diversity. An overwhelming majority (all but three) found significant evidence for the mechanism that they tested. The large majority (64%) of the studies were conducted in tropical regions (27% in

 

5: Plant Diversity of the Drylands in Southeastern Anatolia-Turkey: Role in Human Health and Food Security

PDF

5

Plant Diversity of the Drylands in

Southeastern Anatolia-Turkey: Role in Human Health and Food Security

Munir Ozturk1*, Volkan Altay2, Salih Gucel3 and Ernaz

Altundag4

1

Botany Department, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey; 2Biology Department, Mustafa

Kemal University, Hatay, Turkey; 3Institute of Environmental Sciences, Near East

University, Lefkos¸a,Northern Cyprus; 4Biology Department, Düzce University

Düzce, Turkey

Abstract

Two of the gene centres, the Mediterranean and the Near East, meet in Turkey, which comprises the Irano-Turanian,

Mediterranean and Euro-Siberian phytogeographical divisions. The country is situated on the crossroads of important migratory routes and has been home to several civilizations, therefore increasing its significance for plant diversity. It is accepted as the centre of origin for several plants like pea, wheat, flax, lentil, chickpea, beet, tuberous species, herbaceous species like clover, medics, oats, together with woody species like pistachios, pear, vines, apple, plum and pomegranate.

 

6: Observations on Some Ethnomedicinal Plants of Jharkhand

PDF

6

Observations on Some

Ethnomedicinal Plants of Jharkhand

Sanjeev Kumar*

Chief Conservator of Forests, Working Plans Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India

Abstract

This chapter describes the indigenous knowledge associated with medicinal plants used by the tribal people of Jharkhand.

During an ethnobotanical survey, 100 plants were recorded. Such information can be utilized to improve the economy of the tribes by organizing the systematic collection of medicinal plants and their parts, and establishing cottage industries based on them. Conservation of biodiversity is always linked with tradition, hence such a study helps in developing strategy in this direction.

6.1  Introduction

People living in and around forests have been dependent upon them for most of human history.

In fact, the genesis of ethnobotany goes back to early humans, who started using plants for various purposes, including food, medicine, bark (as cloth), weapons to hunt animals, and other uses. Traditional knowledge evolved by trial and error. But ethnobotany in the modern era started only a century ago.

 

7: Plant Diversity: Envisioning Untold Nanofactories for Biogenic Synthesis of Nanoparticles and their Applications

PDF

7

Plant Diversity: Envisioning Untold

Nanofactories for Biogenic

Synthesis of Nanoparticles and their

Applications

Syed Baker1, K.S. Kavitha1, P. Azmath1, D. Rakshith1,

B.P. Harini3 and S. Satish1&2*

1

Herbal Drug Technological Laboratory, Department of Studies in

Microbiology, University of Mysore, Mysore, Karnataka, India; 2Department of

Plant Pathology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA; 3Department of

Zoology, Bangalore University, Jnanabharathi Campus, Bangalore, Karnataka,

India

Abstract

Plants, owing to their rich biodiversity, form almost unlimited natural resources on the planet. Exploitation of plants has been happening since ancient times, and has shaped the biosphere and its inhabitants. Plants have been serving mankind in various ways since life arose and man has been continuously using them for various requirements. A closer understanding of the association of humans with their surrounding flora is essential for better utilization of plants. The recent implementation of new technologies and improved scientific knowledge related to plant biology have been the focus of much attention, with the intention of bioprospecting and reformulating plants for diverse applications. One such area gaining importance is the evaluation of nanoparticle synthesis. The process of plant-mediated nanoparticles can be termed phytosynthesis of nanoparticles, wherein metal salts are efficiently reduced to materials at a nanoscale. At this size, the materials often exhibit significant and enhanced properties compared to its bulk material. In recent years there has been a significant interest in scientific communities towards plant mediated nanoparticles, especially noble metallic nanoparticles such as silver, gold, platinum and bimetallic ones. Owing to the fact that nanoparticles have been used in innumerable applications in various fields of sciences such as pharmaceuticals, agriculture, electronics, food packaging, biosensors, industrial spares components, textiles and anti-infective agents, nanoparticles have been envisioned as the particles of the century.

 

8: Plant Diversity Repertoire of Bioactive Triterpenoids

PDF

8

Plant Diversity Repertoire of Bioactive Triterpenoids

K.S. Kavitha1, Syed Baker1, D. Rakshith1, P. Azmath1,

B.P. Harini3 and S. Satish1&2*

1

Herbal Drug Technological Laboratory, Department of Studies in Microbiology,

University of Mysore, Mysore, Karnataka, India; 2Department of Plant Pathology,

University of Georgia, Athens 30602, Georgia, USA; 3Department of Zoology,

Bangalore University, Jnanabharathi Campus, Bangalore-560056, Karnataka,

India

Abstract

Pharmaceutical biology perceives medicinal plants as a rich source of bioactive compounds bearing biological activities which can be traced back to the dawn of life. Plants form one of the most abundant and diverse living systems in nature.

Improved scientific knowledge in plant biology has led scientific communities to gain in-depth knowledge of plants and their metabolites by screening and characterization of novel phytochemicals with innumerable valuable roles, which has had a huge impact on all human life. Owing to this, research on plant-based natural products has generated tremendous interest with numerous studies highlighting new secondary metabolites of plant origin. Among these secondary metabolites in plants, triterpenoids form a prominent group of bioactive compounds, widely distributed among diverse plants species.

 

9: Roles of Secondary Metabolites in Protection and Distribution of Terrestrial Plants under Climatic Stresses

PDF

9

Roles of Secondary Metabolites in Protection and Distribution of Terrestrial Plants under

Climatic Stresses

Asma Hammami-Semmar1 and Nabil Semmar2*

1

Institut National des Sciences Appliquées et de Technologie (INSAT),

Tunis,Tunisia; 2Institut Supérieur des Sciences Biologiques Appliquées de

Tunis (ISSBAT), Université de Tunis El Manar (UTM), Tunis, Tunisia

Abstract

Climatic stress includes several physical-chemical factors which permanently exert pressure on the plant world. These

­factors include air temperature, light, drought, CO2 and ozone concentrations, and show either (i) rapid or regular fluctuations or (ii) long and cumulative change trends. These variations lead to alarming or threatening environmental conditions that plants face through curative, defensive or anticipative responses based on biosynthesis, ratio regulation and storage of secondary metabolites (SMs). SMs concern terpenes, phenolic and nitrogen-containing compounds which are highly active and qualitatively (structurally) diversified natural compounds. These quantitative and qualitative chemical variations are specific to plant species and closely dependent on type and level of environmental conditions. On this basis, specific chemical features could be attributed to different plant–environment interactions. These SM features provide reliable and flexible tools to dynamically survey spatio-temporal variations of plant diversity.

 

10: Summer Semi-deciduous Species of the Mediterranean Landscape: A Winning Strategy of Cistus Species to Face the Predicted Changes of the Mediterranean Climate

PDF

10

Summer Semi-deciduous Species of the Mediterranean Landscape:

A Winning Strategy of Cistus Species to Face the Predicted Changes of the

Mediterranean Climate

Otília Correia1 and Lia Ascensão2*

1

cE3c – Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes, Faculdade de Ciências, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal; 2CESAM – Centre for

­Environmental and Marine Studies, Faculdade de Ciências, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal

Abstract

Plants dominating the later stages of succession in Mediterranean shrublands, well adapted to summer drought, are frequently sclerophyllous and regenerate after disturbance through sprouting (obligate resprouters). In contrast, summer semi-deciduous species such as Cistaceae and Lamiaceae are obligate seeders, do not sprout, and fire stimulates the germination of their seeds. It is thought that these species evolved during the Pleistocene, when the Mediterranean climate was formed. This review focuses on four Cistus species: C. albidus, C. ladanifer, C. monspeliensis and C. salviifolius, which are frequent in the Mediterranean basin. The morpho-functional and physiological traits implicated in the adaptive strategies to face the predicted changes of the Mediterranean climate are analysed. Briefly, these species have similar morpho-functional traits, possibly indicative of the low soil fertility which is usually linked to early successional stages and xeric conditions. All the leaf traits seem to indicate that the summer semi-deciduous species are adapted to face the predicted changes of the Mediterranean climate, in the sense of increasing temperature and unpredictability of rain distribution. In fact, these species, with high autecological plasticity, seem to exhibit an opportunistic behaviour that allows them to respond to climate unpredictability, with photosynthetic organs ready to work whenever the climatic conditions become favourable.

 

11: Aquatic Plant Biodiversity: A Biological Indicator for the Monitoring and Assessment of Water Quality

PDF

11

Aquatic Plant Biodiversity: A Biological

Indicator for the Monitoring and

Assessment of Water Quality

Abid Ali Ansari1*, Shalini Saggu1, Sulaiman Mohammad

Al-Ghanim1, Zahid Khorshid Abbas1, Sarvajeet Singh Gill2,

Fareed A. Khan3, Mudasir Irfan Dar3, Mohd Irfan Naikoo3 and Akeel A. Khan4

1

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk, Tabuk,

Saudi Arabia; 2Stress Physiology and Molecular Biology Lab, Centre for

­Biotechnology, MD University, Rohtak, Haryana, India; 3Department of ­Botany,

Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India; 4GF College affiliated to

MJP Rohilkhand University, Shahjahanpur, U.P., India

Abstract

The present chapter covers the concept of water pollution, its cause and effects on plant diversity of an aquatic ecosystem. An alteration in the diversity of plants and the disappearance of aquatic plants has been noted in the majority of the world’s water bodies as a result of water pollution. In polluted aquatic ecosystems, plant diversity was studied as a strong bioindicator of water quality. Numerous studies on phytoplankton and aquatic macrophytes have been incorporated in this chapter as an indicator of water pollution. Water pollution leads to changes in species composition, declines in overall plant species diversity and the loss of rare and uncommon species. A perturbation in aquatic ecosystems causes succession of macrophytes with complete loss of submerged vegetation and dominance of phytoplanktons and weeds. Monitoring, assessment and measurement of plant diversity through density, frequency, abundance and diversity indices are also integrated in this chapter.

 

12: Gymnosperm Diversity of the Kashmir Himalayas

PDF

12

Gymnosperm Diversity of the

Kashmir Himalayas

Mohd Irfan Naikoo1*, Mudasir Irfan Dar1, Fareed Ahmad

Khan1, Abid Ali Ansari2, Farha Rehman1 and Fouzia

Nousheen3

1

Environmental Botany Laboratory, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh,

Uttar Pradesh, India; 2Department of Biology, ­Faculty of Science, University of

Tabuk,Tabuk, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Botany, Women’s College, Aligarh

Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India

Abstract

The Kashmir is rich in biodiversity and is known as the biomass state of India (Lawrence, 1895). Phytogeographically located at the Holarctic and Paleotropical intersection in the North-Western Himalaya, this bio-region harbours luxurious treasures of plant diversity. The Kashmir region is rich in gymnosperm diversity, which forms an important component, floristically, ecologically and socio-economically: it is known as the green gold of the state of Jammu and Kashmir.

Gymnosperms harbour a rich diversity of flora and fauna under their canopies. They are the rich source of diverse economic and medicinal products, providing innumerable products, including timber, fuel, gums, resins, medicines and many more useful products, besides acting as effective wind-breaks, especially the evergreen species, which also slow soil erosion and protect watersheds. The single giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum), the state tree of California, which grows at Yarikhah Drug Farm (Tangmarg) in Kashmir Valley is the lone representative in the India subcontinent. Due to their immense importance, the gymnosperms have been overexploited by the human population. Sustainable management and conservation of these gymnosperms is urgently required. Anthropogenic activities should be checked and the stake holders educated about the proper harvesting of gymnosperm flora for different uses.

 

13: Diversity of Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Pulses

PDF

13

Diversity of Plant Parasitic

Nematodes in Pulses

Tarique Hassan Askary*

Division of Entomology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and

Technology, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Abstract

Pulses, such as chickpea (Cicer arietinum), pigeonpea (cajanus cajan), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), mung bean

(Vigna radiata), urd bean (Vigna mungo) and lentil (Lens culinaris), are an excellent source of dietary protein as well as forming part of a cholesterol-free diet for millions of people around the world. Numerous plant parasitic nematodes attack pulse crops and the prominent among them are Meloidogyne spp., Heterodera spp. and Paratylenchus spp., the endoparasites, Rotylenchulus spp., the semi-endoparasites, and Tylenchorhynchus spp. and Helicotylenchus spp., the ectoparasites.

These nematodes have diverse methods of attack. Meloidogyne causes galling on roots, accompanied by a change in cell morphology, leading to the formation of giant cells in the cortical region of root upon which they feed; Heterodera form syncytia in the steler region and have a pearly appearance on the root; Pratylenchus form necrotic lesions on the root;

 

14: The Influence of Soil Microbes on Plant Diversity

PDF

14

The Influence of Soil Microbes on Plant Diversity

Mohammad Mobin*

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk, Tabuk Saudi

Arabia

Abstract

The ecological consequences of biodiversity loss have sparked a serious debate during recent times. However, significant advances have been made in exploring the relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem processes, unravelling the underlying mechanisms. Soil microbes have key roles in nutrient cycling, soil formation and plant interactions. These roles are vital to ecosystem processes and biodiversity. Therefore, this chapter aims to discuss the relation of soil microbes in determining biodiversity and ecosystem processes.

14.1  Introduction

In recent times, one of the major challenges to the ecosystem is the disappearance of biodiversity.

Ecosystem and biodiversity are strongly linked to each other where growing anthropogenic alteration of the ecosystem has slowly converted them into an almost defunct system. This unparalleled loss of biodiversity has created unease over the ramifications for the precise functioning of the ecosystem

 

15: Plant-associated Endophytic Plethora as an Emerging Source of Antimicrobials

PDF

15

Plant-associated Endophytic

Plethora as an Emerging Source of Antimicrobials

Syed Baker1, P. Azmath1, H.C. Yashavantha Rao1,

D. Rakshith1, K.S. Kavitha1 and S. Satish1&2*

1

Herbal Drug Technological Laboratory, Department of Studies in Microbiology,

University of Mysore, Mysore, Karnataka, India;

2

Department of Plant Pathology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA

Abstract

An ongoing strategy to isolate unique metabolites with antimicrobial activity from myriad natural niches is one of the top research priorities among scientific communities, owing to rapid expansion of multi-drug-resistant microbes. Prospecting of medicinal plants for various biological activities can be traced back to the ancient era. Before scientific knowledge was widespread, plants served as an immortal resource of structurally diverse phytocomponents. A large number of antimicrobial metabolites have been successfully isolated from medicinal plants. But harvesting of endangered plant species may pose a risk and cause an imbalance in plant diversity; hence, finding an alternative feasible source of bioactive compounds has been an area of interest in recent decades. Among which the endophytic plethora has revealed the diverse chemistry of metabolites bearing therapeutic properties, resulting in the rapid expansion of research on endophytes across the globe, with various valuable compounds of pharmaceutical importance constantly being explored. Hence, this chapter envisages the antimicrobial potentials of endophytic origin which can give an insight into the isolation of potent antimicrobial agents to combat life-threatening infections caused by microbes.

 

16: Biodiversity, Bioindicators and Biogeography of Freshwater Algae

PDF

16 

Biodiversity, Bioindicators and

Biogeography of Freshwater Algae

Martin T. Dokulil*

EX Research Institute Mondsee, Mondsee, Austria

Abstract

Biodiversity and the problems associated with it are outlined and then the focus turns to continental waters. Levels and factors affecting biodiversity are described and listed. Measures of diversity focus on species richness and the Shannon index using abundances and biovolumes. Spatial scales of measuring and monitoring of biodiversity are listed and explained.

Diversity of algae is then discussed in detail, including phytoplankton and algae on substrates, and a discussion of the paradox of the plankton and the ‘everything is everywhere’ hypothesis. The biogeographic distributions of algal groups are mentioned, with a particular focus on endemism, followed by a brief consideration of trophic interactions. Biodiversity of algae is described and evaluated from five case studies using long-term data on phytoplankton from three lakes, a length profile of plankton from the River Danube and epilithic algae from an artificial system. The results and findings are critically discussed with respect to advantages and drawbacks in using single indices. The use of algae and their diversity as biological indicators (biomarkers) in environmental assessments is finally outlined, followed by concluding remarks.

 

17: Quantitative Description of Upper Storey Vegetation at a Foothill Forest in Indian Eastern Himalayas

PDF

17

Quantitative Description of Upper

Storey Vegetation at a Foothill Forest in Indian Eastern Himalayas

Gopal Shukla1*, Nazir A. Pala1, Saikat Gantait2 and

Sumit Chakravarty1

1

Department of Forestry, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal, India;

AICRP on ­Groundnut, Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi

Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal, India

2

Abstract

Studies on biological diversity are usually descriptive and concentrated at higher spatial scales and rarely concentrated at local landscapes. The present study is an attempt to describe and quantify the upper-storey vegetation of a forest at Terai

Duars in West Bengal state, India. Stratified random nested quadrat sampling was adopted to mark 57 quadrats of size 20 x 20 m to describe the quantitative characters of upper-storey vegetation composition in the forest using number of individuals, occurrence of a species in quadrats, diameter, status of distribution and Importance Value Index (IVI). Upperstorey vegetation comprised 131 tree species, represented by 43 families and 92 genera. On the basis of total number of individuals recorded from all the quadrats, species were categorized as few, medium and high. The distribution status of species was described as frequent, rare and abundant in occurrence. The abundant species can be regarded as the prominent upper-storey species in the forest. This type of species occurrence is expected in typical species-rich tropical forests that reflect heterogeneity or distribution of dominance across the species. The tree species found in the forest were also described as very low diversity, low diversity, diverse and highly diverse, to indicate an overall picture of a species and their importance in the plant community. On the basis of diameter, the species were grouped as small, intermediate and large.

 

18: Significance of Permanent Sample Plots (PSPs) Established in Different Forest Ecosystems in Monitoring Ecological Attributes and Conservation of Biodiversity: A Review

PDF

18

Significance of Permanent Sample

Plots (PSPs) Established in Different

Forest Ecosystems in Monitoring

Ecological Attributes and

Conservation of Biodiversity:

A Review

Jyoti K. Sharma*

Environmental Sciences & Natural Resource Management, School of Natural

Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Village Chithera, Dadri, Gautam Budh Nagar,

India

Abstract

Many forest areas in the tropics are undergoing rapid, wide-ranging changes in land cover, due to deforestation on account of anthropogenic pressure and diversion of land for agriculture and infrastructure development. As a consequence the tropical biodiversity is getting depleted at a faster rate. In India, at least 27 mammals have become rare and threatened with possibility of extinction and over 800 plant species are either extinct or threatened with extinction. Conservation efforts for these species are often hampered by the absence of basic information on which to build conservation strategies, and reliable alternatives to get rid of uncontrolled and probably dangerous developmental activities. The dynamics and patterns of biodiversity, which is measured in terms of species richness, distribution of organisms, and their ecological roles in a defined, physical environment, are influenced by the characteristics of both the immediate physical environment and the surrounding landscape. For generating basic data, a clear understanding of the dynamics of all biophysical parameters in the forest ecosystem is needed. To monitor biodiversity over a period of time, use of long-term permanent sample plots is considered the best method. This chapter reviews various sampling techniques and highlights the importance of permanent sample plots in monitoring various ecological attributes and biodiversity in the tropical forest ecosystem.

 

Load more


Details

Print Book
E-Books
Slices

Format name
PDF
Encrypted
No
Sku
BPP0000198535
Isbn
9781780646961
File size
10.9 MB
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Format name
PDF
Encrypted
No
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Sku
In metadata
Isbn
In metadata
File size
In metadata