Medium 9781780644479

Natural Polymers for Drug Delivery

Views: 216
Ratings: (0)

Natural polymers have been utilized extensively in food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, textiles, oil drilling and paint industries. Their non-toxic and inexpensive attributes readily enhance their commercial acceptability and make them potent agents in lieu of synthetic polymers. This book explores the opportunistic utility of natural polymers in developing effective drug delivery systems and provides a comprehensive and up-to-date analysis of their source, chemical structure and mechanism of action. Covering novel polymers for drug delivery - in particular extracts from plants, microorganisms and proteins, as well as water soluble and water insoluble biodegradable polymers - it presents an encyclopaedic overview of natural polymers'. Natural Polymers for Drug Delivery¾is an invaluable resource for researchers, students and industrial scientists in the fields of biochemistry, chemistry, pharmacology and food science.

List price: $160.00

Your Price: $128.00

You Save: 20%

Remix
Remove
 

15 Slices

Format Buy Remix

1 Natural Polymers for Drug Delivery: An Introduction

PDF

1  Natural Polymers for Drug Delivery:

An Introduction

Harsha Kharkwal1,* Bhanu Malhotra2 and Srinivas Janaswamy3

Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and

Phytochemistry, Amity University, Noida, India; 2Amity Institute of Biotechnology and

Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research, Amity University, Noida, India;

3

Department of Dairy and Food Science, South Dakota State University,

South Dakota, USA

1

Abstract

Natural polymers are macromolecules composed of repeating structural units joined by covalent bonds. Carbohydrates, proteins and muscle fibres are known examples and have potential as drug delivery systems. A typical delivery system aims at slow and tissue-specific release, and as natural polymers exhibit biodegradability and biocompatibility they are well suited for this purpose. Natural polymers are also utilized as excipients and over the years, new advances in the treatment of diseases using the approach of site specific drug delivery by the utilization of polymers have emerged with several promises. This chapter highlights some available examples with an emphasis on their potent applications and properties in the drug domain.

 

2: Cellulose-based Polymeric Systems in Drug Delivery

PDF

2 

Cellulose-based Polymeric Systems in Drug Delivery

Bhanu Malhotra1, Harsha Kharkwal2,* and Madhav P. Yadav3

Amity Institute of Biotechnology and Amity Center for ­Carbohydrate

Research, Amity University, Noida, India; 2Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry, Amity University Uttar

Pradesh, Noida, India; 3Sustainable Biofuels and Co-Products Research Unit,

USDA, Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania, USA

1

Abstract

The pharmaceutical industry requires the development of biodegradable, biocompatible, non-toxic, site-specific drug delivery polymers which can be easily coupled with drugs to be delivered orally, topically, locally or parenterally. The use of the most abundant biopolymer, cellulose, along with its derivatives, is intended to develop sustainable controlled release dosage forms by their easy fabrication into hydrophilic matrices. This amalgamation of the use of natural polymers and their derivatives with the drugs has proved to be one of the most effective means of delivering complex drugs without any side effects to the target sites in the body. Both cellulose esters and ethers are well researched and exploited as coatings in various tablet formulations. In this chapter we provide a detailed discussion of the use of cellulose as a powerful biopolymeric material in drug delivery to various sites in the body; we also discuss the intervention of nanotechnology to develop cellulose nanofibrils as powerful moieties for therapeutic drug delivery.

 

3: Hydrocolloid-based Hydrogels in Drug Delivery

PDF

3 

Hydrocolloid-based Hydrogels in

Drug Delivery

Neerupma Dhiman*

Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Noida, India

Abstract

The application of hydrocolloids in pharmaceutical formulations includes their use in the manufacture of

­implants, films, beads, microparticles, nanoparticles, and inhalable and injectable systems, as well as viscous

­liquid formulations. The biomedical and pharmaceutical applications of hydrocolloid-based hydrogels and their importance are the highlights of this chapter.

Introduction

The design and development of new drug molecules is an expensive and time-consuming procedure. Later, they have to be transported in the human and/or animal body and in this regard the drug delivery is an important process.

It is the method of administering the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) to achieve the desired therapeutic effect. The controlled delivery systems or controlled release technology (CRT) provide release at a predetermined, predictable and controlled rate to achieve high therapeutic efficiency with minimal toxicity (Pandey et al., 2012). Hence, the development of novel drug delivery vehicles is an essential step towards controlled and site-­ specific administration of therapeutics. The desirable characteristics are that these should be introduced into the body through minimally invasive means and that these vehicles should

 

4: Water-soluble Biodegradable Polymers for Drug Delivery

PDF

4 

Water-soluble Biodegradable Polymers for Drug Delivery

Bhanu Malhotra1, Harsha Kharkwal2,* and Anuradha Srivastava3

Amity Institute of Biotechnology and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research,

Amity University, Noida, India; 2Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and

Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry, Amity University Uttar

­Pradesh, Noida, India; 3Biological Sciences and Geology, Queensborough

Community College, Bayside, New York, USA

1

Abstract

At the heart of polymer chemistry and biomedical applications lie water-soluble polymer drug conjugates for novel drug delivery systems. Designing multifunctional water-soluble polymer drug conjugates via copolymerization of bioactive compounds, and incorporating hydrophilic groups, makes them extremely water soluble and with improved biocompatibilities. Hydrophobic charged groups can be introduced into the polymers, which enable them to carry out specialized interactions and responses. Water-soluble polymer drug conjugates have the ability to store prodrugs (inactive drugs), facilitating the transfer of drugs passively or actively to the target site then activating them through cellular signalling cascades and bringing about the desired response. This chapter throws light on the advances made in natural and synthetic water-soluble polymer drug conjugates for various different biomedical applications.

 

5: Polysaccharide-based Drug Carriers

PDF

5 

Polysaccharide-based Drug Carriers

Srinivas Janaswamy*

Department of Dairy and Food Science, South Dakota

State University, South Dakota, USA

Abstract

Many challenges arise during the development of new drug carrier systems and paramount among them are safety, solubility and controlled release requirements. Although synthetic polymers are effective, the possibility of side effects imposes restrictions on their acceptable use and dose limits. Thus, there is a clear need for a new drug carrier system that is safe to handle and free from side effects, and in this regard food-grade polysaccharides stand tall as worthy alternatives. Organized polysaccharide networks in particular and the available water pockets are effective in encapsulating and protecting the drug molecules as well as releasing them in a sustained manner.

Overall, human compatible carbohydrate polymers possessing stable architectures will indeed cause a paradigm shift in the design of effective drug delivery systems.

 

6: Polymer-based Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery Systems and Cancer Therapeutics

PDF

6 

Polymer-based Nanoparticles for Drug

Delivery Systems and Cancer Therapeutics

Ram Prasad1,3,*, Rishikesh Pandey2, Ajit Varma3 and Ishan Barman1,4

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore,

Maryland, USA; 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Connecticut Health,

Farmington, ­Connecticut, USA; 3Amity Institute of Microbial Technology, Amity

­University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India; 4Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins

University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

1

Abstract

Polymer-based nanoparticle-sustained drug delivery systems offer several advantages over conventional ­delivery systems such as maintenance of optimum therapeutic concentration of drug in the blood or cell, elimination of frequent dosing and better patient compliance. Therefore, they are good candidates for more efficient drug release devices. Preparation and characterization of polymeric nanoparticles (formulated with biocompatible and biodegradable polymers) whose size and surface properties can be intelligently designed allows them not only to achieve long circulation times in the blood and site-specific drug delivery but also to exploit physiological or biochemical features of infectious diseases. The use of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery has shown significant therapeutic potential. Concurrently, targeted delivery technologies are gradually significant as a scientific area of investigation. They may contribute to the development of other useful polymeric nanoparticles to deliver a spectrum of chemotherapeutic, diagnostic, multi-model imaging agents and drug/gene delivery as part of the next generation of delivery systems. To date, therapeutics based on polymer assemblies have mainly been studied for tumour therapy. With continuous efforts by multidisciplinary teams, it is clear that nanotechnology will shed new light on diagnostics and therapeutics in cancer research.

 

7: Polymer Nanocomposite-based Biosensors for Drug Delivery Applications

PDF

7 

Polymer Nanocomposite-based

Biosensors for Drug Delivery Applications

Monika Joshi*

Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India

Abstract

Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) have received much attention in various disciplines due to their high specific surface area, good compatibility, low density, high flexibility and improved functional properties. Recently, they have been explored as an emerging class of material in the biosensors due to their excellent sensitivity, selectivity, portability and lower cost. This chapter explores the properties and application of PNC material as a novel carrier in a drug delivery system. In this respect, the integration of biosensor and drug delivery systems is discussed in order to assess the challenges and future prospects. Different biosensors for drug delivery applications are also discussed.

Introduction

A sensor is a device that converts and displays a physical quantity in the form of an electrical

 

8: Polymer–Drug Conjugates: Targeted Drug Delivery

PDF

8 Polymer–drug Conjugates: Targeted

Drug Delivery

Bhanu Malhotra1, Harsha Kharkwal2,* and Amit Kumar Tyagi3

Amity Institute of Biotechnology and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research,

Amity University, Noida, India; 2Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and Amity

Institute of Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry, Amity University Uttar Pradesh,

Noida, India; 3Department of Experimental Therapeutics, Division of Cancer

­Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA

1

Abstract

Polymer therapeutics is a promising area in medicine and has led to the recent development of enhanced, ­targeted drug delivery systems. The fast-growing field of polymeric drug conjugates, almost a dozen of which are close to the clinical trial stage, have demonstrated several advantages over the parent drugs. These include ease of drug administration with fewer side effects, improved patient compliance, enhanced therapeutic efficacy, concentration and absorption, improved pharmacokinetics and stability. This chapter considers the potential of polymer– drug conjugates, which are going beyond classical methodologies, and their utility for treating major human diseases and new targets.

 

9: Protein–Drug Conjugates: A New Class of Biotherapeutics

PDF

9 

Protein–Drug Conjugates: A New

Class of Biotherapeutics

Deepshikha Pande Katare1,*, Savita Mishra1, Harsha Kharkwal2 and S.K. Jain3

Centre for Medical Biotechnology, Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University

Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India; 2Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and

Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry, Amity University

Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India; 3Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and

Research, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India

1

Abstract

There is an increasing need for a novel drug delivery system in the current clinical scenario. Over the past few decades recombinant human proteins, enzymes, monoclonal antibodies and drug conjugates (ADCs) have changed the pharmaceutical industry. This chapter highlights current and emerging methods for the development of stable and effective antibody–drug conjugates that provide target-specific therapy for various life-threatening diseases such as cancer.

 

10: Microencapsulation for Controlled Gastrointestinal Delivery of Probiotics and Prebiotics

PDF

10 

Microencapsulation for Controlled

Gastrointestinal Delivery of Probiotics and

Prebiotics

Preeti Panthari1,* and Harsha Kharkwal2

Amity Institute of Phytochemistry and Phytomedicine, Amity University, Noida, India;

2

Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and

Phytochemistry, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India

1

Abstract

Microencapsulation of bioactive compounds (such as antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, omega-3 lipids and probiotics) has been increasingly studied extensively due to interest in nutraceutical components and functional foods. The main objective of this technique is to protect the bioactive compounds from diminished functionality due to environmental conditions such as oxygen, pH, humidity, light or temperature. Among the different microencapsulation processes, spray drying produces a final powder product with good-quality properties for distribution, transportation and storage. In this regard, a wide variety of encapsulation agents have been studied for increasing the viability of the bioactive compounds and to promote an additional functionality in the final product as well, such as prebiotics. Prebiotics are soluble carbohydrates that humans are unable to digest, which selectively enhance Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus growth (microorganisms commonly present in the human gut). Some examples include inulin, fructans (fructo-oligosaccharides) and galacto-saccharides. In addition, several microorganisms (probiotics) have demonstrated beneficial effects in humans, and these have been attributed to lactic acid and short-chain fatty acid production, as well as to a reduction in the pH of the colon, which causes a decrease in the survival of pathogenic bacteria. This chapter considers the enhanced efficacy of probiotics and prebiotics through microencapsulation in addressing gastrointestinal diseases.

 

11: Chitosan in Drug Delivery and Targeting for Cancer Treatment

PDF

11 

Chitosan in Drug Delivery and

Targeting for Cancer Treatment

Anirbandeep Bose1,2 and Tin Wui Wong1,2*

Particle Design Research Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA,

Selangor, Malaysia; 2Non-Destructive Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research

Centre, iPROMISE, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia

1

Abstract

Chitosan is a linear heteropolysaccharide consisting of β(1-4) linked 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranose and 2-amino-2-deoxy-β-D-glycopyranose units. It is derived from chitin, the second most abundant polymer after cellulose, and which is available in the epidermis or exoskeletons of crustaceans such as crabs and shrimps; in insects such as grasshoppers and dragonflies; in fungal cell walls, including those of the enoki mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) and shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes); and in bacteria. Chitosan has been employed as the primary matrix former in pharmaceutical dosages with drugs, peptides, proteins and genes to treat gastric, duodenal, liver, breast, ovarian, lung, colorectal, pancreatic, leukaemia, nasal and kidney cancers. The chitosan-based dosage forms have been decorated with both passive (enhanced permeability and retention effect) and active targeting (receptor-mediated endocytosis) elements. Depending on the route of administration, these forms could be enteric coated, designed by means of chitosan–drug conjugation or equipped with superparamagnetic components for drug targeting and/or providing an alternative treatment strategy (e.g. hyperthermia) to kill the cancer cells. The drug targeting effectiveness and specificity of dosage forms can be enhanced through chemical modification of chitosan with ligands such as folate and galactose. Subjecting chitosan to chemical modification also leads to an increase in the transfection efficiency of therapeutics in the cancer cells. This chapter provides an introspective outlook on cancer-targeted carriers made of chitosan and its derivatives. It emphasizes the physicochemical aspects of chitosan and derivatives in relation to cancer targeting mechanisms of carriers.

 

12: Polymers as Biodegradable Matrices in Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems

PDF

12 

Polymers as Biodegradable Matrices in Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems

Bhanu Malhotra1, Harsha Kharkwal2,* and Anuradha Srivastava3

Amity Institute of Biotechnology and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research,

Amity University, Noida, India; 2Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and Amity

Institute of Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry, Amity University Uttar Pradesh,

Noida, India; 3Biological Sciences and Geology, Queensborough Community

College, Bayside, New York, USA

1

Abstract

The conventional forms of oral dosage have significant disadvantages including poor bioavailability in hepatic metabolism and drug degradation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract due to enzymes and different pH ranges in these tracts. One effective route for drug absorption into the body and then into the systematic circulation to circumvent such issues is the skin. Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) have emerged, combining high therapeutic efficacy with safety, reducing the number and size of dose administration significantly. TDDS are being pioneered in medical practices as alternatives to hypodermic injections and oral drug delivery systems. The therapeutic agents are introduced through the skin into the systemic circulation through the use of transdermal patches. This chapter presents an overview of TDDS practices, and the use of various biopolymers for drug delivery, and discusses the potential advantages and issues related to them.

 

13: Ocular Drug Delivery Systems

PDF

13 

Ocular Drug Delivery Systems

Bhanu Malhotra1,*, Harsha Kharkwal2 and Anupam Pradhan3

Amity Institute of Biotechnology and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research,

Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India; 2Amity Center for Carbohydrate

Research and Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry, Amity

University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India; 3Global Health, College of Public Health

University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA and Queensborough Community

College, City University of New York, Bayside, New York, USA

1

Abstract

Topical eye drugs are the most convenient and conventional ways of drug administration to the eyes, especially in the cases of anterior segment ailments. Drug delivery is restricted due to the presence of various static barriers such as the presence of the corneal layer, sclera, retina, blood retina barriers, and certain dynamic barriers including lymphatic clearance, conjunctival blood flow and tear dilution. A major challenge of the ocular drug systems is the delivery of drugs to the posterior segments of the eye. In recent years certain influx transporters to the ocular tissues have been researched and discovered. Liposome-, nanoparticle- and nanomicelle-mediated drug transport can overcome static and dynamic barriers to drug delivery in the eye. The use of biodegradable polymer materials as novel drug carriers for sustained release of the drug at the target site is nowadays a thoroughly researched field. Non-invasive biopolymer-based ocular drug delivery systems, which overcome all the limitations of topical delivery, are attracting considerable interest. This chapter presents a detailed description of various biopolymers used in ocular delivery strategies, and discusses their promising future.

 

14: Polymers Targeting Habitual Diseases

PDF

14 

Polymers Targeting Habitual Diseases

Bhanu Malhotra1, Preeti Panthari2, Harsha Kharkwal2,* and Madhav P. Yadav3

1

Amity Institute of Biotechnology and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research,

Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India; 2Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and

Phytochemistry and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research, Amity University Uttar

Pradesh, Noida, India; 3Sustainable Biofuels and Co-Products Research Unit,

USDA, Wyndmoor, Pennyslvania, USA

Abstract

The use of polymeric drug conjugates mainly as a cancer therapy treatment has been addressed, but these

­polymers also find their way into the treatment of various lifestyle disorders such as diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Focus is on the development of biodegradable, polymer-based drug conjugates which can be administered easily and pose no side effects. This chapter illustrates the role and applications of polymer− drug conjugates for the treatment of diabetes, atherosclerosis and colon-specific diseases, and their future prospects. Although cutting-edge research is yet to emerge, polymeric drugs stand out as an exciting example of how their horizon is expanding beyond cancer therapy to other therapeutic applications.

 

15: Bioengineered Wound and Burn Healing Substitutes: Novel Design for Biomedical Applications and General Aspects

PDF

15 

Bioengineered Wound and Burn

Healing Substitutes: Novel Design for Biomedical Applications and General Aspects

Erdal Cevher1, Ali Demir Sezer2,* and Ayca Yıldız Peköz1

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istanbul ­

University, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology,

Faculty of Pharmacy, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey

1

Abstract

Wound healing is the inherent ability of an organism to protect itself against injuries. Cumulative evidence

­indicates that the healing process patterns in part embryonic morphogenesis and may result in either organ regeneration or scarring, phenomena that are developmental stage- or age-dependent. Tissue regeneration by using biomaterials and skin grafting materials in periapical surgery is an example of tissue engineering technology. Significant progress has been made in the development of in vitro-engineered skin substitutes that mimic human skin, either to be used for the replacement of lost skin or for the establishment of in vitro skin research models. Full-thickness skin deficits are indications to autologic skin graft. In extensive skin injuries an employment of skin substitutes is sometimes necessary. This review presents the classification of skin substitutes (permanent, temporary, biological, synthetic). The different kinds of skin substitutes approved for commercial production are described (epidermal substitutes, dermal substitutes, composite dermo-epidermal substitutes).

 

Details

Print Book
E-Books
Slices

Format name
PDF
Encrypted
No
Sku
BPP0000196138
Isbn
9781780644486
File size
11.2 MB
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Format name
PDF
Encrypted
No
Printing
Allowed
Copying
Allowed
Read aloud
Allowed
Sku
In metadata
Isbn
In metadata
File size
In metadata