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Tourist Behaviour: An International Perspective

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Consumer research is often central to academic studies in many different fields, and more recently, tourism studies have empirically examined consumer research from various aspects. However, there is a need to provide information for tourism scholars on how to better understand aspects of tourist behaviour. Tourist Behaviour: An International Perspective¾provides a collection of topics from both theoretical and practical approaches to building and examining the theory of how consumers think and act within the context of tourism consumption. Divided in to six sections, the book presents research within the themes of influence, motivation, choice, and consumption and experience. With contributions from authors in over 15 countries, the book presents an interdisciplinary approach of the latest research in tourist behaviour.

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1 Introduction


1 Introduction

Metin Kozak1* and Nazmi Kozak2

Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey; 2Anadolu University, Turkey


In the modern world, the investigation of consumer behaviour is of central importance in understanding key influences on our changing world and newly emerging lifestyles. Competition between similar products has become increasingly fierce, and this competition exerts a significant influence on consumer decision making, even when the products in question are in different categories. Migration for the purposes of education or employment has pioneered significant economic transitions. Most importantly, from the early 21st century onwards, rapid advances in information and communication technologies have opened up a new era of products and services intended to make people’s lives much easier. As a result of these developments, a focus on consumers has become central to marketing, and more specifically, marketing in the tourism industry has focused increasingly on specific destinations.


2 Influence of Cultural Distance in Comparison with Travel Distance on Tourist Behaviour



Influence of Cultural Distance in

Comparison with Travel Distance on Tourist Behaviour

Daisy Suk-fong Fung* and Bob McKercher

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, SAR China

2.1  Introduction

The impact of travel distance on tourist demand is well recognized by industry practitioners and academics. Distance decay theory argues that the absolute volume of tourists declines exponentially with an increase in distance. Distance also exerts great influence on tourist behaviour.

Distance dynamics represent a cumulative effect of many factors, such as time availability, cost, risk, cultural distance and motive (McKercher,

2008a,b). The impact of cultural distance is also considered a potentially important aspect in examining travel behaviour. This study examines the extent to which cultural distance influences tourist behaviour in comparison with travel distance. This is accomplished by examining the profile and activities of eight different markets attracted to Hong Kong that have varying cultural distances.


3 Women’s Travel Constraints in a Unique Context



Women’s Travel Constraints in a Unique Context

Mojtaba (Moji) Shahvali,1* Reihaneh Shahvali2 and Deborah Kerstetter1


The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, USA;


Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

3.1  Introduction

Most people’s financial resources are limited and they find it difficult to indulge in all they want to do in their free or ‘leisure’ time. Their accessibility to a place where they can get involved in leisure activities can also affect their participation in leisure significantly, as can the perception of their own skill in performing a particular leisure activity. Factors such as these that inhibit or prohibit participation or enjoyment of leisure are termed ‘leisure constraints’

(Jackson, 1991).

In 1991, Crawford, Jackson and Godbey introduced the hierarchical constraints model

(HCM), which has been the primary conceptual framework guiding studies of leisure constraints. They argue that leisure constraints exist at three levels: intrapersonal, interpersonal and structural. Intrapersonal leisure constraints include factors such as perceived self-skill, sense of entitlement and subjective evaluations of the appropriateness of a certain activity. For example, a female who finds cycling to be inappropriate in her home community or a boy who finds rock climbing with friends to be intimidating and out of reach would be examples of an intrapersonal leisure constraint. The second level, interpersonal constraints, are experienced


4 Can Perceptions of Italian Organized Crime Affect Travel Behaviour?




Can Perceptions of Italian Organized

Crime Affect Travel Behaviour?

Ilenia Bregoli1* and Francesca Ceruti2

University of Lincoln, Lincoln, UK; 2University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy

4.1  Introduction

The study of the relationship between crime and tourism has attracted the attention of scholars over time. They have, for example, developed a classification for this relationship, studied this link by considering different destinations and analysed the effects of fear of crime on tourist behaviour (Ryan, 1993; Dimanche and Lepetic,

1999; Kathrada et al., 1999; Pizam, 1999; Levantis and Gani, 2000; Mawby et al., 2000; Alleyne and Boxill, 2003; Michalkó, 2003; Tynon and

Chavez, 2006). Although the study of this relationship is not new, it must be pointed out that in the literature, nobody has specifically taken into account the relationship between organized crime and tourism. Only Pizam and Mansfeld

(2006) explicitly considered organized crime with reference to crimes committed against businesses. Thus, the relationship between organized crime and tourists’ perceptions has been neglected in the literature. As a consequence, this chapter is aimed at studying this relationship with the intention of partially filling this gap in the literature.


5 Women’s Strategies in Golf: Portuguese Golf Professionals



Women’s Strategies in Golf:

Portuguese Golf Professionals


Helena Reis,1* Antonia Correia1 and Lee Phillip McGinnis2

University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal; 2Stonehill College, Easton, USA

5.1  Introduction

Research on leisure and sports acknowledges golf as a male-dominated activity, reflecting a prevalent strong masculine culture (Haig-Muir,

2000; McGinnis et al., 2009; Vamplew, 2010).

Gender inequities in leisure and the masculine hegemony of several sports have been the subject of a large body of research (see: football,

Kim and Chalip, 2004; motorcycling, Roster,

2007; tennis, Thomsson, 1999; and golf, McGinnis and Gentry, 2006; Hudson, 2008).

Due to its specific characteristics, golf could be seen differently from other sports (e.g. football) because it provides balanced procedures such as a handicap system and differentiated teeing grounds, offering equal opportunities to both genders irrespective of physical strengths.


6 Semi-automatic Content Analysis of Trip Diaries: Pull Factors to Catalonia



Semi-automatic Content Analysis of Trip Diaries: Pull Factors to Catalonia

Estela Marine-Roig1* and Salvador Anton Clavé2

University of Lleida, Lleida, Spain; 2Rovira i Virgili University,Vila-seca,Spain


6.1 Introduction

Gardiner et al. (2013) suggest that future research on travel decision making should be done with a greater involvement of narrative-based approaches, including storytelling.

Dann (2014) states that the motivation for travelling studied from tourist narratives should employ personal information such as interviews and diaries; ‘when the data are content analysed, categories emerge that are uniquely founded on the ipsissima verba of the subjects’

(p. 49). Uysal et al. (2008) include destination attributes and formed destination images as pull factors in the push–pull model of tourism motivations.

Online trip diaries have yet to be used as sources to analyse tourist motivations related to the attraction factors or attributes of a destination once the experience has already taken place and as the tourists themselves have expressed it. Travel blogs and online travel reviews (OTRs), as spontaneous user-generated content (UGC) are a reliable source of information to do so and to learn about perceived destination image (Marine-Roig, 2015).


7 Motivations for Wedding Tourism: A Demand-side Perspective




Motivations for Wedding Tourism:

A Demand-side Perspective

Giacomo Del Chiappa1* and Fulvio Fortezza2

University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy; 2University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy

7.1  Introduction

Over the past two decades, there has been increasing scholarly interest and scientific research concerning events as relevant motivators of tourism (Getz, 2008). Recently, the idea of weddings acting as a motivator of tourism flows is generating a new strand of research in the context of event management and event tourism (Getz, 2008). Referring to this strand of research, weddings can be considered as belonging to the category of religious and/or civil and private events (Goldbatt,


Wedding tourism is booming, and several destinations (such as Las Vegas, Hawaii, the

Caribbean, Mexico, Fiji, Jamaica, Europe, etc.) are currently positioning themselves in this lucrative market (Daniels and Loveless, 2007).

According to the Fairchild Bridal Group (cited in Daniels and Loveless, 2007), 86% of couples would be willing to celebrate a destination wedding, and 16% of these opted for this solution. In 2005, UK citizens took part in 45,000 weddings abroad, generating an average expenditure of US$12,000 per capita.


8 Hotel Disintermediation and User-generated Content in the Czech Republic



Hotel Disintermediation and User-generated Content in the Czech Republic

Giacomo Del Chiappa,1* Šárka Velčovská2 and Marcello Atzeni3

University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy; 2Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava,

Czech Republic; 3University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy


8.1  Introduction

According to Internet World Stats (2014), there are currently around 4.5 billion Internet users in the world, with significant penetration ratios in countries all over the world. The overall population in the Czech Republic is 10,627,448, with an Internet penetration rate of 78.3%

(Internet World Stats, 2014). According to CˇTK

(2011), in 2011, 52% of Czech Internet users older than 16 years used the Internet to search for information about products and services, and 28% also used it to make purchases. In

2012, 36.08% of the overall Czech population used Facebook. The largest age group of Facebook users in the Czech Republic was the


9 Mapping Destination Choice: Set Theory as a Methodological Tool



Mapping Destination Choice: Set

Theory as a Methodological Tool

Marion Karl* and Christine Reintinger

Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany

9.1  Introduction

Tourism has become one of the most important industries in terms of GDP and employment for many regions worldwide (UNWTO, 2013).

Aside from the fact that tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors in the global economy with a steady expansion of tourism demand

(UNWTO, 2013), competition among travel destinations is also increasing (Freyer, 2011). In the wake of an intensifying competition, the relevance of marketing communication rises and destinations undertake considerable efforts to present their amenities. According to Crompton (1992), the rising number of travel destinations and the expanding marketing efforts lead to a growth of alternatives in tourists’ destination choices. Potential tourists are confronted with a vast amount of information that exceeds their information conceiving and processing capability.


10 Effects of Personal and Trip Characteristics on Holiday Choice



Effects of Personal and Trip

Characteristics on Holiday Choice

Muhammet Kesgin*

Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, USA

10.1  Introduction

Tourism is becoming a common issue of contemporary life and the concept of tourist behaviour is central to the entire discipline of tourism

(Cohen, 2004). Although much is known about the multiplicity of tourists’ motivations and the growing divergence of tourists’ behaviour/experiences at the destination, tourists are continually treated as a homogeneous group (Wang, 2000).

The convergence–divergence debates can be effective in explaining why tourists are treated as a homogeneous group by some analysts and heterogeneous by others. Both convergent and divergent lenses have advantages and disadvantages. Based on market divergence, segmentation approaches recognize tourist disaggregation, rather than uniform treatments of tourists, contradicting segmentation. However, individual treatment of tourists is also impractical.


11 Drivers of Trip Cancellations among Australian Travellers


11  Drivers of Trip Cancellations among Australian Travellers


Homa Hajibaba1* and Sara Dolnicar2

University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia; 2The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia

11.1  Introduction

Unexpected events at tourist destinations can result in mass cancellations by tourists that, in turn, negatively affect local economies, especially those highly dependent on tourism. Political instability, pandemics, increased crime rates and financial crises are four kinds of unexpected events that adversely affect many tourist destinations.

Examples of devastating effects resulting from such events include the political instability in Arab countries (the so-called Arab Spring)

(Avraham, 2015), the 2014 Ebola epidemic in

West Africa (UNWTO, 2015), the 2001 outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the UK (Blake et al., 2003), the 2008/09 global financial crisis

(Papatheodorou et al., 2010) and the increased crime rate in Barbados (Lorde and Jackman,


12 Cognitive and Affective Bases for Tourists’ Consumption of Local Seafood



Cognitive and Affective Bases for

Tourists’ Consumption of Local Seafood

Guliz Coskun-Zambak*

Clemson University, Clemson, USA

12.1  Introduction

Tourism decision making is a complex process that consists of various elements. As tourism service is intangible and experience based, the travel decision-making process will not be similar to everyday consumption decisions (Mottiar and Quinn, 2004). Besides, the intangible and experiential nature of tourism products may lead to unexpected changes in plans that travellers have made already (Smallman and Moore, 2010).

Many of these changes occur en route or at the destination. According to Thornton et al. (1997), decisions are not made at one point of time; rather, it is an ongoing process throughout the travel experience.

There are internal and external factors influencing the travel decision-making process; one of the most common internal factors is attitude (Van Raaij and Francken, 1984; Um and


13 Experiential Travel and Guided Tours: Following the Latest Consumption Trends



Experiential Travel and

Guided Tours: Following the Latest

Consumption Trends

Anita Zátori*

Corvinus University of Budapest, Budapest, Hungary

13.1  Introduction

Recent years have witnessed the blossoming of what the travel industry calls experiential travel.

Some might argue that this is a movement that implicitly shuns sightseeing (New York Times,

2012); however, this chapter argues that it does not refuse it, the trend of experiential consumption changes only the methods and concepts of guided sightseeing tours. As people of today’s society travel more frequently, they desire more intense and better tourist experiences, or even an endless flow of experiences (ETC, 2006). To obtain a better and more intense tourist experience is not possible if one relies only on their own perception and experiential consumption, especially in the case of sightseeing.

Guided sightseeing tours have received little attention in the academic literature, even though they have an important role in exploring the destination (Li, 2008; Wong and McKercher,


14 What Makes Visitors Spend More? Effects of Motivations on Daily Expenditure



What Makes Visitors Spend More?

Effects of Motivations on Daily Expenditure

Tingting Liu,*1 Mimi Li1 and Han Shen2

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, SAR China; 2Fudan University,

Shanghai, China


14.1  Introduction

Visitor spending directly influences the profitability of the tourism sector; thus, this factor is one of the most important variables in analysing a specific tourist destination (Kastenholz, 2005).

Sheldon and Cooper (1990) suggest that three determinants influence tourism expenditure at the macro level: price levels in the destination country; price levels in the tourists’ source origin; and income levels in the tourists’ source origin.

By contrast, at the micro level, several factors are associated empirically with travel expenditure. First, socio-demographic variables such as educational level and professional status (Aguiló and Juaneda, 2000), age (Aguiló and Juaneda,

2000; Jang et al., 2004; Kastenholz, 2005) and income (Agarwal and Yochum, 1999; Cai, 1999;


15 We are not Tourists. We Fit in this Community



We are not Tourists. We Fit in this


Hanjung Lee* and J. Michael Campbell

University of Manitoba,Winnipeg,Canada

15.1  Introduction

Volunteer tourism has been gaining in popularity around the world. Defined as ‘utilizing discretionary time and income to travel out of the place of daily activity to assist others in need’

(McGehee and Santos, 2005, p. 760), volunteer tourism professionals and academics promote volunteer tourism as a method that can bring global peace (Wearing, 2001). It is suggested that the increasing interaction between volunteer tourists and host residents can facilitate cross-cultural friendships which develop between them, and which can reduce tension and foster global peace (McIntosh and Zahra, 2007; SALT,


Nevertheless, little research has been conducted to understand the reality of relationships between volunteer tourists and residents. There is a need to explore this relationship. Previous studies have focused mostly on cross-cultural understanding, based on the degree of interaction between volunteer tourists and residents. However, the studies have rarely examined how the volunteer tourists feel about the residents, and how they experience a sense of unity with the residents. For this reason this research asks, what are the social relations that are formed between residents and tourists in practice? This


16 Do Negative Experiences of Hospitality Services Always Lead to Dissatisfaction?



Do Negative Experiences of Hospitality Services Always

Lead to Dissatisfaction?


Giacomo Del Chiappa1* and Stefano Dall’Aglio2

University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy; 2Econstat, Bologna, Italy

16.1  Introduction

According to the services literature, hospitality services are characterized by intangibility, heterogeneity, inseparability, perishability, simultaneous production and consumption and customers’ participation in the service production process. All these unique characteristics of hospitality services, coupled with the intrinsic nature of the hospitality industry (e.g. seasonality and high labour turnover), make it difficult to deliver high-quality experiences consistently

(Jiang et al., 2010) and raise the marketing stress level for hospitality managers and staff

(Rao and Singhapakdi, 1997).

Prior research has mainly supported the idea that negative experiences cause consumer dissatisfaction (Reichel et al., 2000). Jacoby and Jaccard (1981, p. 6) defined complaining behaviour as ‘an action taken by an individual that involves communicating something negative regarding a product or service’. However, little research exists that aims to analyse the case of consumers reporting satisfaction despite encountering negative experiences (Jiang et al., 2010).


17 Structural Equation Modelling – Restaurant Guest Behavioural Intentions



Structural Equation

Modelling – Restaurant Guest

Behavioural Intentions

Christopher Beagley,* Stephen G. Atkins and Tonny Tonny

Otago Polytechnic of New Zealand, Dunedin, New Zealand

17.1  Introduction

The overall aim of our research programme is to identify concepts and trends hoteliers might apply profitably in their in-house restaurants

(e.g. those mainly servicing tourists and business travellers). Of special interest here have been primely located hotel restaurants, due to otherwise being advantageously proximal to unattached upscale or centre-city restaurants.

This chapter focuses on an early portion of this research programme: identifying potential predictors of favourable customer intentions.

The new empirical data herein derives from a research semester hosted by a moderately sized 4-star hotel in southernmost New Zealand (roughly 50 rooms, with a substantial amount of floor space devoted to its restaurant). The notable proximity to the busy cosmopolitan centre of our city offers advantages, but also afflicts this hotel’s restaurant with almost overwhelming competition; for example, the allure of multiple and diverse nearby restaurants typically drawing the hotel’s in-house residents away from their hotel’s own restaurant.


18 Effects of People in Photographs on Potential Visitors’ Evaluations



Effects of People in Photographs on Potential Visitors’ Evaluations


Masahiro Ogawa,1 Taketo Naoi1* and Shoji Iijima2

Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji City, Japan; 2University of the

Ryukyus, Nishihara, Japan

18.1  Introduction

Tourists cannot experience their destinations before their departure. Therefore, they typically choose where they will go based on images derived from information (Reich, 1999). Although such information is diverse, past classifications have pointed to four basic types of secondary information for tourists: commercial, public/ non-commercial, personal and experiential

(Crompton, 1979; Gartner, 1996). Photographs featured in commercial tourism information are the focus of this study, which aims to generate knowledge that is contributory to tourism promotion.

While destination images depicted in tourism information are vital to potential visitors’ destination choice, it is a challenge to communicate the complex characteristics of the destinations, which are usually quite large and include a variety of tangible and intangible elements.



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