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Heritage Tourism Destinations: Preservation, Communication and Development

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Heritage tourism is tied to myth making and stories; creative content that can be shared, stored, combined and manipulated, but that depends on a unique cultural or natural history. A significant section of the wider phenomenon that is cultural tourism, heritage tourism is a demand-driven industry that continues to be a subject of heated debate in academic circles. Beginning with an overview of the subject, this book considers the conservation and revitalization of heritage destinations, as well as the role local communities have in supporting an attraction. It then discusses product development and communication around the world, using new techniques such as social media and examples from food tourism and sporting events, before a final section reviews the planning and institutionalisation of heritage spaces. A timely conclusion subsequently considers the implications of developments such as globalisation, technological improvement and climate change upon these unique destinations. A valuable addition to the literature, this book is the first to bridge the gap between theory and practice, including the latest research and international case studies for researchers and practitioners in tourism and destination management.

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11 Chapters

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1: Does the Culture of Context Matter in Urban Regeneration Processes?



Does the Culture of Context Matter in Urban Regeneration Processes?

Maria Della Lucia,1* Mariapina Trunfio2 and Frank M. Go3

University of Trento, Italy; 2University of Naples ‘Parthenope’, Italy;


Erasmus University, Netherlands


1.1  Introduction

This chapter contributes to the domain through an interpretation of the recent theorThe progressive shift from tangible to intan- etical debate on culture-led urban regeneration gible competitive advantage in post-industrial (Della Lucia and Franch, 2014) from the unsocieties has made culture a major engine of usual perspective of cross-cultural managedevelopment, renewal and regeneration in ment studies (Go and Trunfio, 2014) where the cities (Castells, 2004; Hall, 2004; Hutton, culture of context is conceived as a collective


2009; Scott, 2010). Culture is therefore be- phenomenon, a pattern of values and princoming a strategic issue on European, na- ciples which influences the ways in which tional, regional and local political agendas groups of people think and act (Hofstede,


2: Social Memory and Identity in the Gentrifying Neighbourhood of Tophane (Istanbul)



Social Memory and Identity in the

Gentrifying Neighbourhood of Tophane


Karin Schuitema*

Netherlands Institute in Turkey

2.1  Introduction

Those who have been familiar with Istanbul since the early 2000s or before will, no doubt, agree that the city has undergone rapid social, urban and physical changes from then to the present day. Just like its global counterparts,

Istanbul is undergoing many large-scale renewals in the context of its rapid globalization, in order to present the city to the outside world, which includes international investors and tourists, among other groups.

This chapter focuses on the complex relationships between heritage, urban renewals and tourism and uses a micro-scale case study of Tophane (Figs 2.1 and 2.2), an Istanbul neighbourhood in Beyog˘ lu, close to Taksim, which has recently been undergoing rapid changes.

In particular, it looks into how different local economic, social and ethnic groups have altered their attitude in regard to the ‘use’ of the neighbourhood’s heritage, as well as how this heritage is dealt with by authorities in the neo-liberal context, including real estate development, entertainment and tourism. The term neo-liberalism refers to a decrease in engagement and greater degree of state intervention in both market and economic activities, including


3: Urban Archaeology and Community Engagement: The Küçükyalı ArkeoPark in Istanbul



Urban Archaeology and Community

Engagement: The Küçükyalı ArkeoPark in Istanbul


Alessandra Ricci1* and Ays¸egül Yılmaz2

Koç University, Turkey; 2Bog˘aziçi University, Turkey

3.1  Introduction

This chapter reflects on the complexities of the Küçükyalı ArkeoPark, an ongoing urban archaeology research project in the city of

Istanbul and on the work being conducted toward the progressive definition of a touristic identity for the site, one that would be beneficial for the site itself and also cater to the local community as well as outside visitors. The starting point of the discussion and, in a certain sense, its centrepiece revolves around archaeology and a currently active urban archaeological site.

This chapter also considers how a single heritage element in contemporary Istanbul, notwithstanding its Byzantine dating, might offer a valuable contribution to bringing the local community together, fostering its development and encouraging outside visitors to the site to participate in the experience. The fact that the archaeological area at Küçükyalı dates to the


4: Developing Food Tourism through Collaborative Efforts within the Heritage Tourism Destination of Foça, Izmir



Developing Food Tourism through

Collaborative Efforts within the Heritage

Tourism Destination of Foça, Izmir

Burcin Hatipoglu,* Volkan Aktan, Demir Duzel,

Eda Kocabas and Busra Sen

Bog˘aziçi University Turkey

4.1  Introduction

The tourism environment includes many stakeholders that have varying commitments to tourism (Getz and Jamal, 1994; Jamal and

Getz, 1995; Bramwell and Lane, 2000). It is described as ‘complex and dynamic with linkages and interdependencies, multiple stakeholders often with diverse and divergent views and values and lack of control by any one group or indiviual’ (Jamal and Stronza, 2009:

185). Tourism development becomes even more complex when the destination is part of a protected area (Hjalager, 2013). Overuse of protected areas by the visitors and the inhabitants can risk the conservation efforts made for the biodiversity and cultural assets (Jamal and

Stronza, 2009). In these areas, the use of the sustainable tourism approach can help planners in overcoming certain development issues. Participation of the residents, collaboration among stakeholders and informed decision making at the local level are suggested to be crucial for designing effective tourism plans. However, tourism planners can face specific challenges in establishing these collaborations, which can hinder the processes.


5: Heritage Sporting Events in Territorial Development



Heritage Sporting Events in Territorial


Joël Pinson*

University of Lausanne, Switzerland

5.1  Introduction

In today’s context of intense competition among destinations (Shoval, 2002; Arnaud, 2012), territories have to develop new branding and promotional strategies to attract tourists, investors, companies and residents (Hede, 2005; Mason and Duquette, 2008; Misener and Mason,

2008; Fourie and Santana-Gallego, 2011). In a territorial management perspective (Hernandez,

2008; Casteigts, 2009; Arnaud, 2012), events – sporting, cultural or business-related – are used as a means to boost territorial development.

By planning different type of events (local, international, cultural, sporting, etc.) through the year, territories are developing, consciously or not, an event portfolio (Ziakas, 2010; Ziakas and Costa, 2011; Arnaud, 2012). When strategically planned, this portfolio can lead to a

­sustainable and multidimensional territorial development (Gérardin and Poirot, 2010; ­Arnaud,


6: A Social Media Approach to Evaluating Heritage Destination Perceptions: The Case of Istanbul



A Social Media Approach to

Evaluating Heritage Destination

Perceptions: The Case of Istanbul

Stella Kladou1* and Eleni Mavragani2

Sheffield Hallam University, UK; 2International Hellenic University, Greece


6.1  Introduction

The purpose of the present phenomenological study is to determine visitors’ interpretation of

Istanbul’s image so as to strengthen the city’s destination branding. Destination branding, as part of place branding, includes a set of activities and methods working towards a desirable image (e.g. Kavaratzis and Ashworth, 2005;

Zenker and Beckmann, 2013). Successful destination branding involves the bridging of three strategic gaps (Govers and Go, 2009). These are: first, the gap between the projected city image and the product offering as they are aligned with the actual place identity (identified as ‘the strategy gap’); second, the gap between promises that can be delivered, market expectations and the cultural, social and individual background of the receiver (identified as ‘the place brand satisfaction gap’); third, the gap between the promised place experience and the actual performance (identified as ‘the place brand performance gap’). In order to bridge these gaps we constructed a strategic branding guide comprising three dimensions: perceived place identity analysis, place brand essence and place brand implementation (Govers and


7 Theoretical Perspectives on World Heritage Management: Stewardship and Stakeholders



Theoretical Perspectives on World

Heritage Management: Stewardship and


Sean Lochrie*

Heriot-Watt University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

7.1  Introduction

Studies regarding the management of World

Heritage Sites (WHSs) have established the

­importance of the overarching features of conservation and the need for effective managerial approaches for the protection of historical assets

(Nicholas et al., 2009). A collective approach to site management is also encouraged by

UNESCO (2013: 3) who states that:

States Parties to the Convention are

­encouraged to ensure the participation of a wide variety of stakeholders, including site managers, local and regional governments, local communities, non-governmental organizations and other interested parties and partners in the identification, nomination and protection of World Heritage properties.

However, a collective approach to administering heritage sites is challenging, especially if there are numerous organizations and multiple owners involved within the managerial process. Furthermore, this challenge is intensified if the place in question also contains diverse interests that have little knowledge


8: Cultural Heritage, Development, Employment: Territorial Vocation as a Rationalized Myth



Cultural Heritage, Development,

Employment: Territorial Vocation as a Rationalized Myth*

Piero Mastroberardino,1** Giuseppe Calabrese1 and Flora Cortese2


Università degli Studi di Foggia, Italy; 2Università Telematica

Giustino Fortunato, Italy

8.1  Introduction

‘Territorial vocation’ is a key concept in the literature of tourism management, as well as the link with many other fields of research, such as territorial governance, territorial marketing and local economic development. This chapter aims to contribute to the debate on territorial vocation and governance processes by giving an alternative vision, called situationist, compared to the prevailing one, defined as the unified or systemic approach.

The economic, political and social scenario, in a global sense, is made of continuous, radical, often sudden changes. Flows and stocks of wealth are mixed. New consumers, industries, competitive models, and new political, industrial and financial forces are emerging. The new economic dynamics, both macro and micro, fail to respond any more to many of the acknowledged theories based on regular development and recession cycles within a long-term growth trend. Conventional business models are drastically changing towards high levels of vertical disintegration and service-driven value creation.


9: Archaeological Heritage and Regional Development in Portugal



Archaeological Heritage and Regional

Development in Portugal

Adriaan De Man*

United Arab Emirates University, United Arab Emirates

9.1  Introduction

Institutional stakeholders often agree on heritage-­ based development actions as a means for gaining sustainable regional coherence. The

­ potentialities of archaeological sites or historic buildings are therefore commonly assumed as evident, but also taken for granted and thus not often quantified or compared. Indeed, many different initiatives are only vaguely based on the idea that some specific endogenous heritage element can be used for the benefit of local businesses, or for economic growth as a whole.

Archaeological heritage in particular lends itself to this line of reasoning, creating not only a marketable image, but also a less detectable sense of local identity. This is of great interest to the institutional stakeholder, given that the soundness of heritage products becomes critical to local and regional entities linked to tourism.


10 The Governance Dynamics in Italian State Museums



The Governance Dynamics in Italian State Museums


Claudio Nigro,1* Enrica Iannuzzi1 and Miriam Petracca2

University of Foggia, Italy; 2Giustino Fortunato University, Italy

10.1  Introduction

This chapter proposes an analysis of the

­governance dynamics in Italian state museums, starting with reflections on the topic suggested by the scientific and political debate currently underway. Specifically, this work aims to highlight how the peripheral actor (director/executive) in charge of the government management of the museum is conditioned in terms of his or her choices regarding the protection and promotion of cultural heritage by the highly fragmented organizational structure (central and peripheral) of the Italian museums system.

The topic of the governance of museum organizations is extensively discussed by Italian scholars and practitioners because on the one hand there is a huge wealth of artistic and cultural heritage to be promoted, and on the other inadequate resources are available for the promotion of this heritage. In fact, while at the national level, the tourism sector can boast the wide dissemination of cultural heritage throughout the territory, it also suffers from problems arising from a fragmented institutional framework, discontinuous public policies, a dearth of available funds, and the overlap of responsibilities among several bodies having different and


11 Taking Responsibility beyond Heritage: The Challenge of Integral Planning in the Cusco Valley, Peru



Taking Responsibility beyond

Heritage: The Challenge of Integral

Planning in the Cusco Valley, Peru

Mireia Guix,1,* Zaida Rodrigo,1 Ricard Santomà1 and Xavier Vicens2


Ramon Llull University, Spain; 2URBATUR, Spain

11.1  Introduction

This chapter presents the Integral Tourism

Destination Planning methodology (hereinafter known as ITDP), including the key elements of the responsible tourism approach, aimed at enhancing the effective planning of heritage tourism destinations. Firstly, the chapter revisits the theoretical concepts of: (i) destination planning, to present the evolution towards (ii) sustainable development management, to stress the need of long-term strategies underpinning destination planning and responsible tourism as the approach to achieve sustainable development by involving the key stakeholders of a destination and calling on their responsibility; and (iii) stakeholder theory as a key element of destination planning. Then, the chapter details the ITDP methodology, explaining its generic steps. A case study of the Quispicanchi



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