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Practical Veterinary Forensics

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Veterinarians often come into contact with the law in cases of animal cruelty, domestic animal and wildlife crimes, and human crimes with an animal element. This book provides practical information and training on how to operate within a crime scene. It covers the tests that may need to be carried out, collecting evidence, preparing reports and giving evidence in court as an expert witness. Concentrating on the basic principles and background knowledge needed, the book includes hair, blood and bite mark analysis as well as an overview of firearms injury. It explores wider concepts such as the human-animal bond and one health, going on to give practical guidance and numerous case studies, which bring the book to life and into the real world of the busy crime scene. Practical Veterinary Forensics is an indispensable guide to all veterinarians working in cases of animal cruelty, abuse and crimes against animals. It is essential for welfare organizations, animal shelters and those requiring an introduction to veterinary forensic science.

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1: Introduction – What is Veterinary Forensics?

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1 

Introduction – What is Veterinary

Forensics?

David Bailey*

Department of Forensic and Crime Science, Staffordshire University,

Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UK

1.1 Introduction�

1.2  Current Projects�

1.2.1 Anti-terrorism�

1.2.2  Forensic analysis of hair�

1.2.3  Bitemark analysis�

1.2.4  Teaching and examining�

1.2.5  Contract research�

1.2.6  Expert witness appearance�

1.2.7  Toxicology and chemical analysis�

1.2.8  Veterinary call-out services�

1.2.9  Television and media�

1.2.10  Report writing�

1.2.11  Documentary evidence�

1.2.12  Blood pattern analysis�

1.2.13 Bestiality�

1.2.14 Ballistics�

1.2.15  DNA analysis and laboratory competence�

1.3  Conceptual Views�

1.3.1  Comparison to human forensics�

1.3.2  A definition of veterinary forensics�

1.3.3  Breadth of field�

1.3.4  Getting caught�

1.4  Biological Concepts�

 

2: Forensic Philosophy

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Forensic Philosophy

Karl Harrison1* and David Bailey2*

Cranfield Forensic Institute, Cranfield University, Defence Academy UK,

Shrivenham, Wiltshire,UK; 2Department of Forensic and Crime Science,

Staffordshire University, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UK

1

2.1 �One of Us Cannot Be Wrong: The Structure of Knowledge and Reasoning in Forensic Science by Karl Harrison�

2.1.1 Introduction�

2.1.2  Forensics: a plethora of different sciences�

2.1.3  The philosophy of science�

2.1.4 Conclusion�

2.2  Junk Science by David Bailey�

2.2.1 Pseudoscience�

2.2.2  Junk science�

2.2.3  conclusion bias�

2.1  One of Us Cannot Be Wrong:

The Structure of Knowledge and Reasoning in Forensic Science

Karl Harrison

2.1.1  Introduction

The purpose of this chapter is to consider how the science in forensics is structured.

Forensics is a crossroads discipline, which encompasses a breadth of skills, from investigative scene examination to analytical chemistry, but despite the vital importance of establishing conclusive facts in a court of law, little has been written about how forensics

 

3: Law and Animals

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3 

Law and Animals

Deborah Rook1* and Pippa Swan2*

Northumbria Law School, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK;

2

Clare Veterinary Group, Ballyclare, Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland, UK

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3.1 �Challenges to the Legal Status of Domestic and Captive Animals by Deborah Rook�

24

3.1.1  The property status of domestic and captive animals�

24

3.1.2  Pet custody cases�

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3.1.3  Direct legal challenges to the property status of animals�

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3.1.4 �The basis of a challenge to the legal status of animals – autonomy versus sentiency�27

3.1.5  Utilitarianism in practice�

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3.1.6  The concept of unnecessary suffering�

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3.1.6.1  Necessity as a balancing exercise�

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3.1.6.2  Property status and proportionality�

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3.1.7 Conclusion�

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3.2  Unnecessary Suffering by Pippa Swan�

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3.2.1 Introduction�

31

3.2.2  A legal definition�

 

4: Forensic Science and Applications to One Health

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Forensic Science and Applications to One Health

Lloyd Reeve-Johnson1* and David Bailey2*

Institute of Health and BioMedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology,

Brisbane, Australia and Principal Research Fellow, Translational Research Institute,

Brisbane, Australia; 2Department of Forensic and Crime Science, Staffordshire

University, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UK

1

4.1 Introduction�

4.2  The Need for Translational Research and One Health Collaborations�

4.3  Why Interest in One Health Now?�

4.4 �Macro-economic Issues of the 21st Century Where Animal Health-based

Innovation is Integral to Human Survival�

4.4.1  Food production and security�

4.4.2  Energy demands�

4.4.3 Poverty�

4.4.4  Zoonotic disease�

4.4.5  Environmental disaster relief�

4.4.5.1  Ethical use of animals�

4.4.6  Mental health�

4.4.7  Cloning, embryo research and genetic manipulation�

 

5: Evidence Collection and Gathering:The Living Evidence

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5 

Evidence Collection and Gathering:

The Living Evidence

David Bailey*

Department of Forensic and Crime Science, Staffordshire University,

Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UK

5.1 Introduction�

5.2  Animals as Property�

5.3  Living Evidence�

5.4 Necessity�

5.4.1  What is the necessity for this suffering?�

5.5  What Is a Crime Scene?�

5.5.1  Arrival on scene�

5.6  The Five Cardinal Rules for Examining a Crime Scene�

5.7 PREGS�

5.7.1 Protect�

5.7.2  Recording the crime scene – measuring and sketching�

5.7.2.1 Photography�

5.7.2.2 Sketching�

5.7.2.3  Evidence logs�

5.7.3  Evaluate physical evidence possibilities�

5.7.4  Gathering of evidence�

5.7.4.1  Final survey�

5.7.5 Storage�

5.7.5.1  Dead animals�

‘The cat had fleas.’

Prosection Expert

‘Prove it.’

Defence Expert

5.1  Introduction

There are many texts and much guidance relating to the successful gathering of evidence

 

6: Forensic Examination of Animal Hair

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6 

Forensic Examination of Animal Hair

Claire Gwinnett*

Department of Forensic and Crime Science, Staffordshire University,

Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UK

6.1 Introduction�

6.2  Hair as Evidence�

6.3  The Use of Animal Hair in Criminal Casework�

6.4 �Recovery, Documentation, Packaging and Storage Methods for Animal Hair Evidence�

6.4.1  Recovery of questioned aka target animal hairs�

6.4.2  Recovery of control aka known hair samples�

6.4.3  Packaging and storage�

6.4.4  Documentation of evidence�

6.5  General Structure of Hair�

6.5.1  Types of hair�

6.6  Forensic Animal Hair Analysis�

6.6.1  Stages of hair analysis�

6.6.2  Microscopy preparation of animal hairs�

6.6.2.1  Creating a whole mount�

6.6.2.2 �Scale casts and impressions of the animal hair surface�

6.6.2.3  Medulla slides�

6.6.3  Microscopical analysis of animal hairs�

6.7  Species Identification from Animal Hair�

 

7: Firearms and Ballistics

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Firearms and Ballistics

Rachel Bolton-King1* and Johan Schulze2*

Department of Forensic and Crime Science, Staffordshire University, Stoke-on-Trent,

Staffordshire, UK; 2Veterinary Forensic and Wildlife Services, Germany and Norway

1

7.1  Crime Scene Evidence: Firearms and Ballistics by Rachel Bolton-King�

7.1.1 Introduction�

7.1.2 Firearms�

7.1.2.1  Types of firearm�

7.1.2.2  Modern firing mechanisms�

7.1.3 Ammunition�

7.1.3.1 Composition�

7.1.3.2  Live cartridges�

7.1.3.3  Fired cartridge cases and projectiles�

7.1.4  Internal ballistics�

7.1.4.1 Primer�

7.1.4.2 Propellant�

7.1.4.3 Projectile�

7.1.4.4 Weapon�

7.1.4.5  Production of gunshot residue (GSR)�

7.1.5  Intermediate ballistics�

7.1.5.1  Propellant particles and gaseous combustion products�

7.1.5.2 Projectile�

7.1.5.3  Muzzle attachments�

7.1.6  External ballistics�

7.1.6.1  Muzzle velocity and kinetic energy�

 

8: Blood and Blood Pattern Analysis

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8 

Blood and Blood Pattern Analysis

David Bailey*

Department of Forensic and Crime Science, Staffordshire University,

Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UK

8.1   Introduction – Analysis versus Observation�

8.2  Definition�

8.3  Blood�

8.4   Analysis versus Interpretation�

8.5   Presumptive Screening of Blood�

8.6   What Is Blood?�

8.7   Blood Spatter – Overview�

8.8   Record: Mnemonic – CAPSS�

8.9   Forces Acting in Blood�

8.9.1 Cohesion�

8.9.2  Surface tension�

8.9.3 Viscosity�

8.9.4 Adhesion�

8.10  Forces Acting on Blood�

8.10.1 �Biological forces acting in blood serum�

8.11  Photography and Analysis�

8.11.1  Close-up of bloodstains�

8.12  Blood Patterns�

8.12.1  Categories of bloodstains�

8.12.2  Directionality of bloodstains�

8.12.3  Point of convergence�

8.12.4 �Number of bloodstains required to make an observation?�

8.13 Bruises�

 

9: Understanding the Nature of Document Evidence

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9 

Understanding the Nature of

Document Evidence

Nikolaos Kalantzis*

Chartoularios Laboratory of Questioned Document Studies, Piraeus,

Greece and Department of Forensic and Crime Science, Staffordshire

University, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UK

9.1 Introduction�

9.2  Handwriting Evidence�

9.2.1  Handwriting as evidence�

9.2.2  Feature examination�

9.2.3 Forgery�

9.2.4  Further comments�

9.3  Document Evidence�

9.3.1  Ink/writing instruments (sequence)�

9.3.2  Printed media�

9.3.3 Paper�

9.4  Additional Issues Regarding the Evidential Value of Documents�

9.4.1  Photocopies as evidence�

9.4.2  Age and dating of documents�

9.4.3  Stipulation of conclusions�

9.1  Introduction

The title of this chapter is very descriptive of both the positive and negative aspects of documents when treated as evidence. The term ‘document’ in a forensic aspect includes all aspects of a document, i.e. handwriting, signature, printing, the ink and the paper it­ self. As such we all have personal experience of some or all of these aspects. That personal experience, varying from one person to an­ other, can provide useful insight, but can also limit one’s view or perception of the evidence.

 

10: Forensic Toxicology

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10  Forensic Toxicology

Ernest Rogers*

American Board of Forensic Medicine, American College of Forensic

Examiners Institute, Springfield, Missouri, USA

10.1 Introduction�

10.2  Forensic Toxicology Scope of Practice�

10.3  Sample Collection�

10.4  Animal Athletes and Performance-enhancing Drugs�

10.5  Selection of a Forensic Laboratory�

10.6  Methods of Toxicological Analyses�

10.7  Principles of Toxicokinetics�

10.8 Conclusions�

10.1  Introduction

The practice of forensic toxicology differs from that of clinical toxicology. The difference resides in the fact that suspicion and confirmation of intoxication must be supported by analytical assessment and not necessarily the response to treatment. The analytical investigation starts and ends with:

1. the heightened suspicion of intoxication based on clinical or post-mortem signs.

2. the appropriate identification of the toxin or class of the intoxicating agent.

 

11: Bitemark Analysis

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11 

Bitemark Analysis

David Bailey,1 Jennifer Hamilton-Ible,2* Lucy Leicester,3

Louise MacLeod4 and Adele Wharton5

1

Department of Forensic and Crime Science, Staffordshire University, Stroke-on-Trent,

Staffordshire, UK; 2Highcroft Veterinary Group, Bristol, UK; 3School of Veterinary

­Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, UK; 4Hills

­Veterinary Surgery, ­London, UK; 5Saphinia Veterinary Forensics, Bottesford,

Nottinghamshire, UK

11.1  Introduction: Dog Bitemarks – Pathology and Outcomes�

11.2  Risks and Relative Incidence�

11.3 �Comparison between Human Bitemarks, Dog Bitemarks and Bitemarks from Other Species of Forensic Relevance�

11.4  Overview of Forensic Techniques and Methods Used�

11.5  Literature Review�

11.6  Strategies for Prevention and Risk Mitigation�

11.7 Conclusion�

11.1  Introduction: Dog Bitemarks –

Pathology and Outcomes

Dogs are often referred to as ‘man’s best friend’, but conflicts between the two species are common with potentially catastrophic consequences for both parties.

 

12: Report Writing

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12 

Report Writing

David Bailey*

Department of Forensic and Crime Science, Staffordshire

University, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UK

12.1   Definition of an Expert�

12.2   Requirements of an Expert Report�

12.2.1  Admissibility versus reliability�

12.3   Rules of Reliability�

12.4  Elucidation�

12.5   Obligations of an Expert�

12.6   Report Bias�

12.6.1  Resilience in a report�

12.7   Report Structure and Lucidity�

12.7.1  Confidentiality and records�

12.8   Accepting Instructions�

12.8.1 Assistance�

12.8.2  Relevant expertise�

12.8.3 Impartiality�

12.8.4  Evidentiary reliability�

12.9   Comparison of Jurisdictions (USA, UK and Australia)�

12.9.1  American views of admissibility and reliability�

12.9.2  The UK view�

12.9.3  The Australian view�

12.10 Conclusion�

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13: The Human–Animal Interaction

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13 

The Human–Animal Interaction

Pippa Swan*

Clare Veterinary Group, Ballyclare, Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland, UK

13.1  Introduction�

13.2   A Historical Context�

13.3   Towards Enlightenment and Legislation�

13.4   The Status of Animals�

13.5   Moral Considerations�

13.6   Human Attitudes�

13.7   The Range of Relationships�

13.8   Positive Human–Animal Relationships�

13.9   Animal Cruelty�

13.10  Family Violence and the Link�

13.11  Hoarding and Bestiality�

13.12 Conclusion�

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13.1 Introduction

13.2  A Historical Context

That animals and humans always were, and will continue to be, intricately and inextricably linked is borne out by the arts, from caveman drawings through painting and literature to photography; and by science, from Darwin to current studies of animal biology and behaviour. The relationship includes dependence, respect and affection, as well as power, exploitation and abuse.

 

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