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Sustainable Poultry Production in Europe

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Examining sustainable poultry production systems across Europe, this book contains a selected cross section of papers from the 2014 UK Poultry Science Symposium. It reviews essential topics such as resources and supply chains, the global poultry market, risk management, zoonoses and green issues. Providing a compilation of the most current research in the poultry science and production industry, this book is an important resource for both researchers and professionals.

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Part I: Creating a Resilient Industry

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PART I

Creating a Resilient Industry

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CHAPTER 1

Making a Resilient Poultry Industry in

Europe

Anne-Marie Neeteson-van Nieuwenhoven,1*

Michael C. Appleby2 and George Hogarth1

1Aviagen

Group, Newbridge, Midlothian, UK; 2World Animal Protection,

London, UK

INTRODUCTION

This chapter is the first of a series on the subject of ‘Sustainable poultry production in Europe’ written after the UK World Poultry Science Association conference on the same topic. Its aim is to give an overview of the factors that can contribute to a resilient poultry industry, and which factors may be a threat. Subsequent chapters will highlight some of these in more detail. This chapter discusses the factors that may contribute to a resilient poultry industry in Europe taking into account the global scale, and which factors may be a threat. From

2011 to 2050 available land resources will decline from 0.7 to 0.5 ha/person.

 

Part II: The Economics of Sustainable Production

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PART II

The Economics of Sustainable

Production

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CHAPTER 3

Global Context on Price Volatility and Supply Chains – Is Europe

Competitive?

Nan-Dirk Mulder*

Rabobank International, Utrecht, the Netherlands

INTRODUCTION

The global poultry industry is being driven towards change by challenging global fundamentals in food and fuel demand and supply. One of the major challenges is the upwards variation in input costs, brought about through higher and more volatile grain and oilseed prices. In the future, business models applied within the poultry industry will require adjusting to reflect this change, particularly as grain and oilseed prices represent from 50 to 70% of production costs (Mitchell, 2008).

The significance of the country of poultry production, due to variations in both global supply and demand for poultry meat, will reflect these changing input costs and therefore will differ greatly between countries; for example, it is likely that production in the Americas and in the Black Sea regions will increase whereas Asia will face increasing difficulties in meeting demand and therefore have a greater need for imports (Rabobank, 2014). These changes are likely to lead to stronger linkages between Asian countries and the Americas with investments in both directions.

 

Part III: People as a Sustainable Resource

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PART III

People as a Sustainable Resource

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CHAPTER 5

How to Attract, Retain and Develop

Talent within the Industry

Colin T. Whittemore,1* Falko Kaufmann2 and

Robby Andersson2

1British

Society of Animal Science, UK; 2University of Applied Sciences

Osnabrueck, Germany

INTRODUCTION

People choosing their profession or occupation usually ask themselves: ‘Do I want to do that for the rest of my life?’, ‘What if I am not happy with that?’,

‘How about my career prospects?’ The danger is that for the agricultural sector there may be an increasing tendency for the answer to be negative, resulting in the avoidance of careers in the agricultural sector. The perception of agriculture in general and of the poultry industry in particular, has steadily deteriorated over recent years. At the same time, the poultry sector has become more transparent and publicly available. However, because the general public and consumers necessarily lack professional knowledge, well-established production systems are viewed with suspicion. In addition, livestock industries are failing to promote the positive aspects of a poultry industry career, and at the same time are also failing to counter the lack of positive information available to the public at large. Certain fields such as animal welfare, animal health and risk-oriented food safety have moved to the centre of public attention, and thus political interest. It follows that the political and legal framework for all intensive husbandry systems, and in particular all stages of poultry production upstream and downstream, are placed under critical scrutiny. The ‘negative image’ of intensive livestock production has resulted in reducing numbers of young people deciding to opt for vocational and/or academic training in the poultry sector. This is, to say the least, unfortunate as the poultry industry offers a broad spectrum of highly diverse and challenging jobs. Moreover, the poultry sector is rapidly growing and therefore skilled employees are urgently sought, meaning career prospects are highly attractive.

 

Part IV: The Role of Nutrition in Sustainability

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PART IV

The Role of Nutrition in Sustainability

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CHAPTER 6

Which Feedstuffs Will Be Used in the

Future?

P.J. van der Aar,* J. Doppenberg and

C. Kwakernaak

Schothorst Feed Research B.V., Lelystad, the Netherlands

INTRODUCTION

Livestock production and thus the poultry industry will be facing different challenges in the near future – challenges that require adaptation to a changing world. Many of these cannot be foreseen at this moment. Current ideas and trends may not become true and others will; however, a few trends seem to be persistent. In this chapter the consequences of the currently foreseen trends in the consumer market, the genetic development in livestock animals, international trends in consumption of poultry products and their consequences for the demand and supply of feedstuffs for poultry will be discussed. This discussion will be based on the most dominant trends at this moment in time. Since the feedstuff market is highly internationally oriented, where production and demands in one continent affect the prices and availability in others, developments should be viewed in a global perspective.

 

Part V: Avian and Human Health – Interactions, Opportunities and Threats

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PART V

Avian and Human Health –

Interactions, Opportunities and Threats

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CHAPTER 8

Food Safety: Prevention is Better than

Crisis Management

Patrick Wall* and Zhongyi Yu

University College Dublin, Ireland

INTRODUCTION

Poultry meat and eggs are affordable sources of valuable protein and will be a large part of the solution to meeting the needs of the growing world population.

In addition, as human nutritionists increasingly address the requirements of people at different life stages, and different levels of activity, both poultry and eggs are bioavailable sources of high quality protein. Therefore the commercial opportunities for the sector are many, and the future is looking good, provided adverse publicity can be avoided associated with: (i) food safety; (ii) animal welfare; (iii) health and nutrition; and (iv) environmental impact. Public perception is often informed by sensational news coverage and items are placed higher on the agendas of policy makers as a result of the intensity of the media coverage of an issue. Policy makers and regulators are not consistent in how they address risk along the food chain, or in society at large, and often their response is in proportion to the media coverage rather than the risk to public health. At times the regulatory response can be disproportionate to the risk. In most instances there are several solutions to a crisis and the focus should be on delivering the optimum level of consumer health protection whilst doing the minimum damage to both commercial interests and consumer confidence. Sadly this is rarely the case, emphasizing the importance of focusing on prevention rather than crisis management.

 

Part VI: The Roles of Genetics and Breeding in Sustainability

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PART VI

The Roles of Genetics and Breeding in

Sustainability

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CHAPTER 11

Breeding for Sustainability:

Maintaining and Enhancing Multi-trait

Genetic Improvement

William G. Hill,1* Anna Wolc,2,3 Neil P. O’Sullivan3 and Santiago Avendaño4

1Institute

of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA;

3Hy-Line International, Dallas Center, Iowa, USA; 4Aviagen Limited, Newbridge, Midlothian, UK

2Department

INTRODUCTION

Enormous improvements have been effected over the last 60 years or more in the efficiency and product quality of meat and table-egg poultry production. As is well recognized, a large proportion of the improvements has been made by breeding and using genetically improved stocks. However, the need for efficient and sustainable animal protein production has also been growing. The global human population is predicted to grow to 9 billion by 2050 with two-thirds of the population living in cities and increasingly adding animal products to their diets.

 

Part VII: Environmental Sustainability

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PART VII

Environmental Sustainability

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CHAPTER 13

Reducing the Environmental Impact of

Poultry Production

Adrian Williams1* and David Speller2

1Cranfield

University, Bedford, UK; 2Applied Group, Derbyshire, UK

INTRODUCTION

Mainstream poultry production is highly optimized in the context of animal production. Historic analyses have shown substantial improvements over 20 to 50 years (e.g. Jones et al., 2008; Pelletier et al., 2014). These have included genetic, managerial and nutritional improvements as well as those in the wider feed production system.

Despite this, there are opportunities for improving environmental performance through reduced mortalities and better health, using heat exchangers to save direct energy use, upgrading manure to produce energy, changing diets to reduce the inclusion of high impact feeds, such as soybean meal.

The opportunities vary across the world, given that the starting points are varied. Variations result from different feed availability (and locations and methods of production), electricity and other fuel intensity, genetic stock, health status, building age and management quality.

 

Part VIII: Horizon 2050

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PART VIII

Horizon 2050

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CHAPTER 14

Horizons and Prospects – a Role for

WPSA?

Colin Fisher*

EFG Software, Edinburgh, UK

INTRODUCTION

Can the poultry industry of Europe sustain itself to 2050? Can the poultry industry of Europe be sustained until 2050? Is the European poultry industry sustainable up to 2050? Asking this question in different ways emphasizes the wide range of issues that are inescapably raised and also the contradictions and conflicts that any answer must lead to. The first viewpoint will reflect the development of consumer demand and the ability of a profitable industry to make the necessary investment at the right time to meet this demand. The second viewpoint concerns responsibility for ensuring a food supply into the future and this presumably rests mainly with government and other public bodies. The third way of posing the question raises questions of resources, competing demands and some global technical issues such as biosecurity.

 

Part IX: Poster Abstracts

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PART IX

Poster Abstracts

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POSTER 1

The Effect of Protected Aromatic

Compounds on the Performance of

Broilers Challenged with Salmonella

Enteritidis and on Ileal Lactic Acid

Microflora

F. Goodarzi Boroojeni,1* M. Shahbaz Yousaf,2

S. Keller,3 H.M. Hafez,4 K. Männer,1 W. Vahjen,1

H. Ur-Rehman2 and J. Zentek1

1Institute

of Animal Nutrition, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Freie

Universität Berlin; 2University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore,

Pakistan; 3Novus Deutschland GmbH, Gudensberg, Germany; 4Institute of Poultry Diseases, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität

Berlin

INTRODUCTION

Understanding animal nutritional requirements, together with a proper farm management and adequate feeding programme, is vital to efficient and sustainable poultry meat production. The gastrointestinal tract with its complex microflora plays a key role in growth performance and profitability of modern poultry operations and can significantly be influenced by the diet composition. An innovative, scientifically tested nutritional solution, based on a blend of protected aromatic compounds (BPAC) including benzoic acid (AVIMATRIX®, Novus

 

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