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Chapter 19: Flying the Hump

Sarah Byrn Rickman University of North Texas Press PDF

19

Flying the Hump

n November 14, 1944, Gen. C.R. Smith wrote to General Nowland: “Before Mrs. Love gets out of the service, if that comes to pass, I would like to see her get a trip to some of our foreign stations. This should have been done a long time ago, as we wanted some of the WASPs to make foreign ferries, but you know the reason why that could not be done.”

On November 20, 1944, General Smith wrote to General

Tunner at his headquarters in Hastings Mill outside of Calcutta, where he now served as commander of the Hump Operation.

He wrote: “Would like for Nancy Love to go to Calcutta for the purpose of looking over our operation. Will be necessary that permission of Theater Commander be secured. Would you secure that permission and inform us.”1

General Smith, Deputy Commander of the ATC, was on his way to India for a one-month inspection tour during the end of

December 1944. He wanted to send Love on a concurrent factfinding tour of the new Crescent supply route to India and the airlift support from there to the American and Chinese forces fighting in China. The Hump airlift was C.R. Smith’s baby from the beginning.2 He wanted information a general could not get

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7. From Second Manassas to Fredericksburg

David M. Jordan Indiana University Press ePub

THE SEEDS OF THE DISASTER TO COME at Second Manassas were planted in the new organization of the eastern army. Pope was despised by friend and foe alike, and McClellan was not disposed to offer the western general any kind of cordial cooperation. In addition, the corps commanders of the Potomac army units directed to join the Army of Virginia were McClellan confidants, who took their cues from Little Mac. McClellan’s inclination “to let Pope get out of his own scrape” was well known to them all. Pope himself, after an initial good start in dealing with Lee’s tactics, ultimately became confused at the key points of the ensuing battle and his army came to grief as a result.

Once Lee became aware that the Army of the Potomac was leaving Harrison’s Landing, he attempted to destroy John Pope before the troops coming up from the James could unite with the Army of Virginia. With the aid of McClellan’s foot-dragging, he very nearly did it. In a situation where the need for celerity of movement was glaringly obvious, McClellan moved even more slothfully than usual. One historian of the battle of Second Manassas wrote that “McClellan would determine how long Lee’s window of opportunity remained open. McClellan’s plodding evacuation of the Peninsula gave Lee additional days to operate against Pope.”1

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Canadian

Maurice Hinson Indiana University Press ePub

 

This section is divided into multiple groupings, each arranged alphabetically by title. Anthologies and collections grouped into historical periods include music from different countries written over one to three centuries. The “Tombeaux, Hommages” section catalogs those collections written in honor of a composer. The last and largest category consists of collections of various nationalities, sometimes divided into pre-twentieth century and twentieth century. The “Bach” section (under “German”) lists collections which include music by more than one member of the Bach family. Single-composer collections are listed under the composer's name in the main part of the book.

Initial articles and Arabic numerals (A, An, Das, Der, I, Le, Les, The, 15, 24, 30) are ignored in alphabetization. Composers’ names are given in the spelling used in the collection being described. The Title Index of Anthologies and Collections at the end of the volume lists all the collections in one alphabetic sequence. Only dates for composers not included earlier are included here.

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Chapter One: Dissociation in Everyday Life; Dissociation and Programming

Breitenbach, Gaby Karnac Books ePub

I invite you to get involved with differentiating various dissociation structures from a perspective of personal experience. I invite you to experience how dissociation is a question of circumstances and not a result of the client's “doing something wrong” or “being sick”. Let me make it clear that dissociation can strike any of us and that it represents a fundamental possibility of what can happen to human beings. I will define a working model with seven different dissociation structures, that is, ways in which a mind can be structured in order of increasing dissociation.

The scope of concepts to be explained: attention, memory, and dissociation

The more complex the mechanisms of dissociation become, the more complex and better organized the violence imposed on the client, and the more planned and sophisticated the sadism we encounter in these imposed actions. This violence is no longer just directed towards the victim's body but rather deliberately aimed at the victim's cognitive and emotional potential. Eventually complete dehumanization prevails, compounded by the formidable influence the tormentors have on the victim, making the victim commit deeds against her will, and—this is the distinctive feature here—often without the victim's conscious self knowing what she has done.

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Section III: Getting Personal

Marzillier, John Aeon Books ePub

SECTION III

GETTING PERSONAL

Some years ago one of my daughters gave me a book called Shrink Rap featuring jokey cartoons about psychologists and psychotherapists. A recurring cartoon was of a defenceless patient lying on a couch being listened to (or not) by a small, bearded, middle-aged man who, if there was dialogue, is shown speaking with a heavy Viennese accent. This popular image of psychotherapy is one of the many legacies that Freud has left us. Even today, some 70 years after Freud's death, most people see psychotherapy as Freudian psychoanalysis, the patient lying on a couch, the therapist a silent, inscrutable, European-looking, older man who seems excessively interested in his patient's early sex life.

Simple, stereotyped, negative, and highly distorted views can be remarkably persistent even among those who should know better. In the late 1980s the vast majority of academic psychologists, with a few rare exceptions, regarded psychoanalysis as at best an old-fashioned, outmoded therapy and at worst a form of deception. Their view was no different from that of the cartoonists: the sadly deluded patient lies on a couch, day in, day out, year after year, while the hidden analyst makes portentous, ridiculous interpretations about entirely hypothetical and unverifiable psychic processes. No benefit could come from this approach, it was believed. This view was bolstered by various critiques of psychoanalytical psychotherapy claiming to show it was no better than placebo. But for academic psychologists their major objection was theoretical. Freud's ideas about the workings of the mind were, in the dispassionate language of modern science, arrant nonsense. His “hydraulic model”, for example, in which unconscious sexual drives build up until they somehow overflowed into the psyche, causing neurotic symptoms, was pseudo-scientific, 19th century thinking at its worst. The division of the mind into the holy trinity of id, ego and superego could not be sustained given what we knew of the workings of the brain. The idea that there were stages of development, oral, anal, pre-genital and genital, and that adults can get neurotically fixated at a certain stage, did not fit with modern research into child development. The various psychic processes that Freud had elaborated—repression, resistance, denial, displacement, projection, introjection—were regarded as little better than mumbo jumbo. In other words, academic psychologists saw psychoanalysis as fundamentally unscientific. Its theoretical concepts did not meet the Popperian criterion of falsifiability, namely that scientific hypotheses should be capable of being disproved by evidence. Hypothetical mental processes that acted unconsciously on the person are difficult, many thought impossible, to put to experimental test. Take psychological defences. Freud had suggested that when a significant intrapsychic conflict is exposed, say, in a therapy session, the patient will unconsciously defend against acknowledging it because it is too frightening to do so. They may staunchly deny that they have any such feeling (anger, lust, jealousy, love, whatever it might be). This defence is known, appropriately enough, as denial. The analyst however knows better. But how then, the academic psychologist asked, can one test out the truth of the analyst's assertion? If the analyst's hypothesis is true about the unconscious feeling, the patient denies it. If it is false, it is also denied. Heads the analyst wins; tails the patient loses. The concept of denial, as with many other psychoanalytic concepts that are unconscious, is incapable of being scientifically disconfirmed for this reason.1

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